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Drosophila melanogaster insect innate immunity

William H Palmer, Darren J Obbard
RNA interference pathways mediate biological processes through Argonaute-family proteins, which bind small RNAs as guides to silence complementary target nucleic acids . In insects and crustaceans Argonaute-2 silences viral nucleic acids, and therefore acts as a primary effector of innate antiviral immunity. Although the function of the major Argonaute-2 domains, which are conserved across most Argonaute-family proteins, are known, many invertebrate Argonaute-2 homologs contain a glutamine-rich repeat (GRR) region of unknown function at the N-terminus ...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Xue Zhong, Xiang-Jun Rao, Hui-Yu Yi, Xin-Yu Lin, Xiao-Hong Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays an essential role in regulation of innate immunity. In mammals, NF-κB factors can form homodimers and heterodimers to activate gene expression. In insects, three NF-κB factors, Dorsal, Dif and Relish, have been identified to activate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether Dorsal (or Dif) and Relish can form heterodimers. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of a Dorsal homologue (MsDorsal) and two Relish short isoforms (MsRel2A and MsRel2B) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta...
2016: Scientific Reports
Iwona Wojda
Investigation of insect immune mechanisms provides important information concerning innate immunity, which in many aspects is conserved in animals. This is one of the reasons why insects serve as model organisms to study virulence mechanisms of human pathogens. From the evolutionary point of view, we also learn a lot about host-pathogen interaction and adaptation of organisms to conditions of life. Additionally, insect-derived antibacterial and antifungal peptides and proteins are considered for their potential to be applied as alternatives to antibiotics...
February 5, 2016: Insect Science
Hailan Lin, Xiaofeng Xia, Liying Yu, Liette Vasseur, Geoff M Gurr, Fengluan Yao, Guang Yang, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: Serine proteases (SPs) are crucial proteolytic enzymes responsible for digestion and other processes including signal transduction and immune responses in insects. Serine protease homologs (SPHs) lack catalytic activity but are involved in innate immunity. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of SPs and SPHs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally-distributed destructive pest of cruciferous crops. RESULTS: A total of 120 putative SPs and 101 putative SPHs were identified in the P...
2015: BMC Genomics
Firzan Nainu, Yumiko Tanaka, Akiko Shiratsuchi, Yoshinobu Nakanishi
We investigated whether phagocytosis participates in the protection of insects from viral infection using the natural host-virus interaction between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV). Drosophila S2 cells were induced to undergo apoptotic cell death upon DCV infection. However, UV-inactivated virus was unable to cause apoptosis, indicating the need for productive infection for apoptosis induction. S2 cells became susceptible to phagocytosis by hemocyte-derived l(2)mbn cells after viral infection, and the presence of phagocytes in S2 cell cultures reduced viral proliferation...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jan P Dudzic, Shu Kondo, Ryu Ueda, Casey M Bergman, Bruno Lemaitre
BACKGROUND: The diversification of immune systems during evolution involves the expansion of particular gene families in given phyla. A better understanding of the metazoan immune system requires an analysis of the logic underlying such immune gene amplification. This analysis is now within reach due to the ease with which we can generate multiple mutations in an organism. In this paper, we analyze the contribution of the three Drosophila prophenoloxidases (PPOs) to host defense by generating single, double and triple mutants...
2015: BMC Biology
Shishir K Gupta, Maria Kupper, Carolin Ratzka, Heike Feldhaar, Andreas Vilcinskas, Roy Gross, Thomas Dandekar, Frank Förster
BACKGROUND: Defence mechanisms of organisms are shaped by their lifestyle, environment and pathogen pressure. Carpenter ants are social insects which live in huge colonies comprising genetically closely related individuals in high densities within nests. This lifestyle potentially facilitates the rapid spread of pathogens between individuals. In concert with their innate immune system, social insects may apply external immune defences to manipulate the microbial community among individuals and within nests...
2015: BMC Genomics
Shaun C Earl, Miles T Rogers, Jennifer Keen, David M Bland, Andrew S Houppert, Caitlynn Miller, Ian Temple, Deborah M Anderson, Melanie M Marketon
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, is typically a zoonotic vector-borne disease of wild rodents. Bacterial biofilm formation in the proventriculus of the flea contributes to chronic infection of fleas and facilitates efficient disease transmission. However prior to biofilm formation, ingested bacteria must survive within the flea midgut, and yet little is known about vector-pathogen interactions that are required for flea gut colonization. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model system to gain insight into Y...
2015: PloS One
Sarah Khalil, Eliana Jacobson, Moria C Chambers, Brian P Lazzaro
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the premier model organisms for studying the function and evolution of immune defense. Many aspects of innate immunity are conserved between insects and mammals, and since Drosophila can readily be genetically and experimentally manipulated, they are powerful for studying immune system function and the physiological consequences of disease. The procedure demonstrated here allows infection of flies by introduction of bacteria directly into the body cavity, bypassing epithelial barriers and more passive forms of defense and allowing focus on systemic infection...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jae Ho Cho, Jeong Hyang Park, Chang Geon Chung, Hyun-Jung Shim, Keun Hye Jeon, Seong-Woon Yu, Sung Bae Lee
Parkin, an E3 ubuquitin ligase associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), has recently been implicated in mediating innate immunity. However, molecular details regarding parkin-mediated immune response remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified mitochondrial TSPO-VDAC complex to genetically interact with parkin in mediating responses against infection and wound in Drosophila. The loss-of-function mutation in parkin results in defective immune response against bacterial infection. Additionally, parkin mutant larvae showed hypersensitivity against wound regardless of bacterial infection...
July 17, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jie Yang, Xiaonan Wang, Shunming Tang, Zhongyuan Shen, Jinmei Wu
Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) binds specifically to peptidoglycan and plays an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of insects. The cDNA of a short-type PGRP, an open reading frame of 588 bp encoding a polypeptide of 196 amino acids, was cloned from Bombyx mori. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, and the results showed that BmPGRP-S2 was most similar to Drosophila melanogaster PGRP (DmPGRP-SA). The induced expression profile of BmPGRP-S2 in healthy Escherichia coli- and Bacillus subtilis-challenged B...
2015: Journal of Insect Science
Qi Zhang, Liqin Zhang, Xinlei Gao, Shuishui Qi, Zhaoxia Chang, Qingfa Wu
Disconnected Interacting Protein 1 (DIP1) is a dsRNA-binding protein that participates in a wide range of cellular processes. Whether DIP1 is involved in innate immunity remains unclear. Here, DIP1 was found to play an antiviral role in S2 cells. Its antiviral action is specific for DCV infection and not for DXV infection. dip1 mutant flies are hypersensitive to DCV infection. The increased mortality in dip1 mutant flies is associated with the accumulation of DCV positive-stranded RNAs in vivo. This study demonstrated that dip1 is a novel antiviral gene that restricts DCV replication in vitro and in vivo...
May 1, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Isabella Vlisidou, Will Wood
Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the humoral arm of innate immunity because of the developmental and functional parallels with mammalian innate immunity. However, the fly cellular response to infection is far less understood. Investigative work on Drosophila haemocytes, the immunosurveillance cells of the insect, has revealed that they fulfil roles similar to mammalian monocytes and macrophages. They respond to wound signals and orchestrate the coagulation response. In addition, they phagocytose and encapsulate invading pathogens, and clear up apoptotic bodies controlling inflammation...
April 2015: FEBS Journal
Rianna Vandergaast, Jonathan K Mitchell, Nathaniel M Byers, Paul D Friesen
UNLABELLED: Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins are key regulators of the innate antiviral response by virtue of their capacity to respond to signals affecting cell survival. In insects, wherein the host IAP provides a primary restriction to apoptosis, diverse viruses trigger rapid IAP depletion that initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis, thereby limiting virus multiplication. We report here that the N-terminal leader of two insect IAPs, Spodoptera frugiperda SfIAP and Drosophila melanogaster DIAP1, contain distinct instability motifs that regulate IAP turnover and apoptotic consequences...
April 2015: Journal of Virology
Álvaro Gil Ferreira, Huw Naylor, Sara Santana Esteves, Inês Silva Pais, Nelson Eduardo Martins, Luis Teixeira
Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus...
December 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Dick R Nässel
Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation...
2014: PloS One
Debasis Panda, Pau Pascual-Garcia, Margaret Dunagin, Matthew Tudor, Kaycie C Hopkins, Jie Xu, Beth Gold, Arjun Raj, Maya Capelson, Sara Cherry
In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are additional uncharacterized mechanisms at play. Our previous studies revealed that a rapidly-induced antiviral gene expression program is active against disparate human arthropod-borne viruses in Drosophila. Moreover, one-half of this program is regulated at the level of transcriptional pausing...
September 16, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Olivier Lamiable, Jean-Luc Imler
Immunity to viral infections in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster involves both RNA interference and additional induced responses. The latter include not only cellular mechanisms such as programmed cell death and autophagy, but also the induction of a large set of genes, some of which contribute to the control of viral replication and resistance to infection. This induced response to infection is complex and involves both virus-specific and cell-type specific mechanisms. We review here recent developments, from the sensing of viral infection to the induction of signaling pathways and production of antiviral effector molecules...
August 2014: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Olivier Binggeli, Claudine Neyen, Mickael Poidevin, Bruno Lemaitre
The melanization reaction is a major immune response in Arthropods and involves the rapid synthesis of melanin at the site of infection and injury. A key enzyme in the melanization process is phenoloxidase (PO), which catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinones, which subsequently polymerize into melanin. The Drosophila genome encodes three POs, which are primarily produced as zymogens or prophenoloxidases (PPO). Two of them, PPO1 and PPO2, are produced by crystal cells. Here we have generated flies carrying deletions in PPO1 and PPO2...
May 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Christoph Parthier, Marco Stelter, Christian Ursel, Uwe Fandrich, Hauke Lilie, Constanze Breithaupt, Milton T Stubbs
Drosophila Toll receptors are involved in embryonic development and the immune response of adult flies. In both processes, the only known Toll receptor ligand is the human nerve growth factor-like cystine knot protein Spätzle. Here we present the crystal structure of a 1:1 (nonsignaling) complex of the full-length Toll receptor ectodomain (ECD) with the Spätzle cystine knot domain dimer. The ECD is divided into two leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, each of which is capped by cysteine-rich domains. Spätzle binds to the concave surface of the membrane-distal LRR domain, in contrast to the flanking ligand interactions observed for mammalian Toll-like receptors, with asymmetric contributions from each Spätzle protomer...
April 29, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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