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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

Juan A Mondotte, Maria-Carla Saleh
The use of Drosophila as a model organism has made an important contribution to our understanding of the function and regulation of innate immunity in insects. Indeed, insects can discriminate between different types of pathogens and mount specific and effective responses. Strikingly, the same pathogen can trigger a different immune response in the same organism, depending solely on the route of infection by which the pathogen is delivered. In this review, we recapitulate what is known about antiviral responses in Drosophila, and how they are triggered depending on the route and the mode used for the virus to infect its host...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Samantha Haller, Adrien Franchet, Abdul Hakkim, Jing Chen, Eliana Drenkard, Shen Yu, Stefanie Schirmeier, Zi Li, Nelson Martins, Frederick M Ausubel, Samuel Liégeois, Dominique Ferrandon
When Drosophila melanogaster feeds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa , some bacteria cross the intestinal barrier and eventually proliferate in the hemocoel. This process is limited by hemocytes through phagocytosis. P. aeruginosa requires the quorum-sensing regulator RhlR to elude the cellular immune response of the fly. RhlI synthesizes the autoinducer signal that activates RhlR. Here, we show that rhlI mutants are unexpectedly more virulent than rhlR mutants, both in fly and in nematode intestinal infection models, suggesting that RhlR has RhlI-independent functions...
March 9, 2018: EMBO Reports
William H Palmer, Finny S Varghese, Ronald P van Rij
The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus-host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. Here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex ...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Yu Liu, Peng Zhang, Weilin Wang, Miren Dong, Min Wang, Changhao Gong, Zhihao Jia, Zhaoqun Liu, Anguo Zhang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
DM9 is a novel protein domain with unknown function originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Recently, a protein harboring DM9 repeats was identified as mannose-specific lectin (CgCGL1, renamed as CgDM9CP-1) from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In the present study, another DM9 containing protein was identified from oyster C. gigas (designated as CgDM9CP-2). The open reading frame of CgDM9CP-2 gene was of 432 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids with two tandem DM9 repeats. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgDM9CP-2 shared 60...
March 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Alexey Moskalev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Nadezhda Zemskaya, Alexey Belyi, Eugenia Dobrovolskaya, Anna Patova, Zulfiya Guvatova, Elena Lukyanova, Anastasiya Snezhkina, Anna Kudryavtseva
BACKGROUND: We have previously showed that the carotenoid fucoxanthin can increase the lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the geroprotective effect of fucoxanthin have not been studied so far. RESULTS: Here, we studied the effects of fucoxanthin on the Drosophila aging process at the molecular and the whole organism levels. At the organismal level, fucoxanthin increased the median lifespan and had a positive effect on fecundity, fertility, intestinal barrier function, and nighttime sleep...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Amy J Osborne, Peter K Dearden
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis predicts that early-life environmental exposures can be detrimental to later-life health and that mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment may contribute to the growing non-communicable disease epidemic. Within this is an increasingly recognized role for epigenetic mechanisms; for example, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by nutrition and can alter gene expression in mothers and offspring. Currently, there are few whole-genome transcriptional studies of response to nutritional alteration...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Laura Palanker Musselman, Jill L Fink, Ezekiel J Maier, Jared A Gatto, Michael R Brent, Thomas J Baranski
Insulin resistance is associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. These complications are exacerbated by a high-calorie diet, which we used to model type 2 diabetes in Drosophila melanogaster Our studies focused on the fat body, an adipose- and liver-like tissue that stores fat and maintains circulating glucose. A gene regulatory network was constructed to predict potential regulators of insulin signaling in this tissue. Genomic characterization of fat bodies suggested a central role for the transcription factor Seven-up (Svp)...
February 27, 2018: Genetics
Shruti Yadav, Joanna Frazer, Ashima Banga, Katherine Pruitt, Sneh Harsh, John Jaenike, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively)...
2018: PloS One
Upasana Shokal, Hannah Kopydlowski, Sneh Harsh, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model for studying host anti-pathogen defense. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding how metabolism and immunity are interrelated in flies, little information has been obtained on the molecular players that regulate metabolism and inflammation in Drosophila during pathogenic infection. Recently we have reported that inactivation of Thioester containing proteins 2 and 4 ( Tep2 and Tep4 ) promotes survival and decreases the bacterial burden in flies upon infection with the virulent pathogens Photorhabdus luminescens and P...
February 20, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Shruti Yadav, Sonali Gupta, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to dissect the molecular components and pathways of the innate anti-pathogen immune response. The nematode parasite Steinernema carpocapsae and its mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila form a complex that is highly pathogenic to insects, including D. melanogaster. We have used symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila) and axenic (lacking X. nematophila) nematodes to probe the regulation of genes belonging to different immune signaling pathways in D. melanogaster larvae and assess the survival response of certain mutants to these pathogens...
February 8, 2018: Insects
Javier Serrato-Salas, Javier Izquierdo-Sánchez, Martha Argüello, Renáud Conde, Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
Priming is the conceptual term defining memory phenomenon in innate immune response. Numerous examples of enhanced secondary immune response have been described in diverse taxa of invertebrates; which naturally lacks memory response. In mosquitoes, a previous non-lethal challenge with some specific pathogens modify their immune response against the same microorganism; developing an improved antimicrobial reaction. In this work, we explore the ability of Aedes aegypti to mount a higher antiviral response upon a second oral DENV challenge...
February 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Katia Troha, Joo Hyun Im, Jonathan Revah, Brian P Lazzaro, Nicolas Buchon
Host responses to infection encompass many processes in addition to activation of the immune system, including metabolic adaptations, stress responses, tissue repair, and other reactions. The response to bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster has been classically described in studies that focused on the immune response elicited by a small set of largely avirulent microbes. Thus, we have surprisingly limited knowledge of responses to infection that are outside the canonical immune response, of how the response to pathogenic infection differs from that to avirulent bacteria, or even of how generic the response to various microbes is and what regulates that core response...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Albert To, Liana O Medina, Kenji O Mfuh, Michael M Lieberman, Teri Ann S Wong, Madhuri Namekar, Eileen Nakano, Chih-Yun Lai, Mukesh Kumar, Vivek R Nerurkar, Axel T Lehrer
Following the 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in the South Pacific, Caribbean, and Americas, ZIKV has emerged as a serious threat due to its association with infantile microcephaly and other neurologic disorders. Despite an international effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine to combat congenital Zika syndrome and ZIKV infection, only DNA and mRNA vaccines encoding the precursor membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins, an inactivated-ZIKV vaccine, and a measles virus-based ZIKV vaccine are currently in phase I or II (prM/E DNA) clinical trials...
January 2018: MSphere
Stacey A Rimkus, David A Wassarman
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. ATM encodes a protein kinase that is activated by DNA damage and phosphorylates many proteins, including those involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Characteristic biological and molecular functions of ATM observed in mammals are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. As an example, conditional loss-of-function ATM alleles in flies cause progressive neurodegeneration through activation of the innate immune response...
2018: PloS One
Chris R Smith, Claire Morandin, Moataz Noureddine, Swati Pant
Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been molded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Emily L Behrman, Virginia M Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri A Petrov, Brian P Lazzaro, Paul S Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Providencia rettgeri to measure post-infection survival and bacterial load of wild D...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Attila Gyoergy, Marko Roblek, Aparna Ratheesh, Katarina Valoskova, Vera Belyaeva, Stephanie Wachner, Yutaka Matsubayashi, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Brian Stramer, Daria E Siekhaus
Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid in fully understanding these processes, but are lacking...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Junhan Lin, Xiaofeng Xia, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jinhong Shen, Yong Li, Hailan Lin, Shanshan Tang, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches...
January 3, 2018: Gene
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Huan Zhang, Xiudan Wang, Zhao Lv, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Clip-domain serine proteinase is an important serine proteinase family involved in many biological processes, which is only found in invertebrates. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of a clip domain serine proteinase (designed as EsCDSP) gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. It was of 1488 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1134 bp encoding a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. There were a signal peptide, a clip domain, and a Tryp_SPc domain in the deduced amino acid sequences of EsCDSP...
January 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Suthinee Soponpong, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a receptor belonging to the DExD family, has recently been identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in vertebrates. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of PmDDX41, the first cytosolic DNA sensor in shrimp. By searching a Penaeus monodon expressed sequence tag (EST) database (, three cDNA fragments exhibiting similarity to DDX41 in various species were identified and assembled, resulting in a complete open reading frame of PmDDX41 that contains 1868-bp and encodes a putative protein of 620 amino acids...
December 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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