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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to unravel the genetic basis of adaptation. This issue has been gaining momentum in recent years with the accelerated development of novel genetic and genomic techniques and resources. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cogni et al. (2016) address the genetic basis of resistance to two viruses in Drosophila melanogaster using a panel of recombinant inbred lines with unprecedented resolution allowing detection of rare alleles and/or alleles of small effect...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Punyatirtha Dey, Kanika Mendiratta, Joy Bose, Amitabh Joshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Ravikumar Hosamani, Ryan Leib, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Christopher M Adams, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity conditions, such as experienced by organisms during spaceflight, are known to cause transcriptomic and proteomic changes. We describe the proteomic changes in whole adult Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) but focus specifically on the localized changes in the adult head in response to chronic hypergravity (3 g) treatment. Canton S adult female flies (2 to 3 days old) were exposed to chronic hypergravity for 9 days and compared with 1 g controls. After hypergravity treatment, either whole flies (body + head) or fly-head-only samples were isolated and evaluated for quantitative comparison of the two gravity conditions using an isobaric tagging liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Shannon Hateley, Ravikumar Hosamani, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Lior Pachter, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways...
September 10, 2016: Genomics
Linnea Sandin, Liza Bergkvist, Sangeeta Nath, Claudia Kielkopf, Camilla Janefjord, Linda Helmfors, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Hongyun Li, Camilla Nilsberth, Brett Garner, Ann-Christin Brorsson, Katarina Kågedal
Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD...
October 2016: FEBS Journal
Lauren Forbes-Beadle, Tova Crossman, Travis K Johnson, Richard Burke, Coral G Warr, James C Whisstock
Pore-forming members of the membrane attack complex/perforin-like (MACPF) protein superfamily perform well-characterized roles as mammalian immune effectors. For example, complement component 9 and perforin function to directly form pores in the membrane of Gram-negative pathogens or virally infected/transformed cells, respectively. In contrast, the only known MACPF protein in Drosophila melanogaster, Torso-like, plays crucial roles during development in embryo patterning and larval growth. Here, we report that in addition to these functions, Torso-like plays an important role in Drosophila immunity...
October 2016: Genetics
Kenneth M Fedorka, Ian C Kutch, Louisa Collins, Edward Musto
Altering one's temperature preference (e.g. behavioral fever or behavioral chill) is a common immune defense among ectotherms that is likely to be evolutionarily conserved. However, the temperature chosen by an infected host may not be optimal for pathogen defense, causing preference to be inefficient. Here we examined the efficiency of temperature preference in Drosophila melanogaster infected with an LD50 of the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To this end, we estimated the host's uninfected and infected temperature preferences as well as their optimal survival temperature...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Amanda Lee, Abraham Lin, Kajol Shah, Harpreet Singh, Vandana Miller, Shubha Gururaja Rao
Non-thermal plasma is increasingly being recognized for a wide range of medical and biological applications. However, the effect of non-thermal plasma on physiological functions is not well characterized in in vivo model systems. Here we use a genetically amenable, widely used model system, Drosophila melanogaster, to develop an in vivo system, and investigate the role of non-thermal plasma in blood cell differentiation. Although the blood system in Drosophila is primitive, it is an efficient system with three types of hemocytes, functioning during different developmental stages and environmental stimuli...
2016: PloS One
Kristina Petkau, David Fast, Aashna Duggal, Edan Foley
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to explore the molecular exchanges that occur between an animal intestine and associated microbes. Previous studies in Drosophila uncovered a sophisticated web of host responses to intestinal bacteria. The outcomes of these responses define critical events in the host, such as the establishment of immune responses, access to nutrients, and the rate of larval development. Despite our steady march towards illuminating the host machinery that responds to bacterial presence in the gut, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the microbial products that influence bacterial association with a fly host...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
Karan Singh, Mohammad Zulkifli, N G Prasad
Drosophila melanogaster is an emerging model system for the study of evolutionary ecology of immunity. However, a large number of studies have used non natural pathogens as very few natural pathogens have been isolated and identified. Our aim was to isolate and characterise natural pathogen/s of D. melanogaster. A bacterial pathogen was isolated from wild caught Drosophila spp., identified as a new strain of Staphylococcus succinus subsp. succinus and named PK-1. PK-1 strain induced substantial mortality (36-62%) in adults of several laboratory populations of D...
August 1, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Ioannis Eleftherianos, Julio Cesar Castillo, Jelena Patrnogic
Over the past decade important advances have been made in the field of innate immunity; however, our appreciation of the signaling pathways and molecules that participate in host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbial challenges. Here we have examined the regulation and immune activity of Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in the model host Drosophila melanogaster upon infection with the nematode parasites Heterorhabditis gerrardi and H. bacteriophora containing their mutualistic bacteria Photorhabdus...
July 25, 2016: Immunobiology
Kathryn A Hjerrild, Jing Jin, Katherine E Wright, Rebecca E Brown, Jennifer M Marshall, Geneviève M Labbé, Sarah E Silk, Catherine J Cherry, Stine B Clemmensen, Thomas Jørgensen, Joseph J Illingworth, Daniel G W Alanine, Kathryn H Milne, Rebecca Ashfield, Willem A de Jongh, Alexander D Douglas, Matthew K Higgins, Simon J Draper
The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) has recently emerged as a leading candidate antigen against the blood-stage human malaria parasite. However it has proved challenging to identify a heterologous expression platform that can produce a soluble protein-based vaccine in a manner compliant with current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). Here we report the production of full-length PfRH5 protein using a cGMP-compliant platform called ExpreS(2), based on a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) stable cell line system...
2016: Scientific Reports
Manon Letourneau, Francois Lapraz, Anurag Sharma, Nathalie Vanzo, Lucas Waltzer, Michèle Crozatier
The emergence of hematopoietic progenitors and their differentiation into various highly specialized blood cell types constitute a finely tuned process. Unveiling the genetic cascades that control blood cell progenitor fate and understanding how they are modulated in response to environmental changes are two major challenges in the field of hematopoiesis. In the last twenty years, many studies have established important functional analogies between blood cell development in vertebrates and in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
July 25, 2016: FEBS Letters
P A Makhnovskii, I V Kuzmin, L N Nefedova, A I Kima
Drosophila melanogaster is the only invertebrate that contains endogenous retroviruses, which are called errantiviruses. Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D. melanogaster genome. The functions performed by the genes in Drosophila are still unclear. To identify the functions of domesticated gag and env in the D. melanogaster genome, expression of Iris and Grp was studied in strains differing by the presence or absence of the functional gypsy errantivirus...
May 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Ines Anderl, Laura Vesala, Teemu O Ihalainen, Leena-Maija Vanha-Aho, István Andó, Mika Rämet, Dan Hultmark
Cellular immune responses require the generation and recruitment of diverse blood cell types that recognize and kill pathogens. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, immune-inducible lamellocytes participate in recognizing and killing parasitoid wasp eggs. However, the sequence of events required for lamellocyte generation remains controversial. To study the cellular immune system, we developed a flow cytometry approach using in vivo reporters for lamellocytes as well as for plasmatocytes, the main hemocyte type in healthy larvae...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Juan C Paredes, Jeremy K Herren, Fanny Schüpfer, Bruno Lemaitre
UNLABELLED: Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii Our results indicate that S...
2016: MBio
Megan A M Kutzer, Sophie A O Armitage
Mounting and maintaining an effective immune response in the face of infection can be costly. The outcome of infection depends on two host immune strategies: resistance and tolerance. Resistance limits pathogen load, while tolerance reduces the fitness impact of an infection. While resistance strategies are well studied, tolerance has received less attention, but is now considered to play a vital role in host-pathogen interactions in animals. A major challenge in ecoimmunology is to understand how some hosts maintain their fitness when infected while others succumb to infection, as well as how extrinsic, environmental factors, such as diet, affect defense...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Claire L Webster, Ben Longdon, Samuel H Lewis, Darren J Obbard
Drosophila melanogaster is an important laboratory model for studies of antiviral immunity in invertebrates, and Drosophila species provide a valuable system to study virus host range and host switching. Here, we use metagenomic RNA sequencing of about 1600 adult flies to discover 25 new RNA viruses associated with six different drosophilid hosts in the wild. We also provide a comprehensive listing of viruses previously reported from the Drosophilidae. The new viruses include Iflaviruses, Rhabdoviruses, Nodaviruses, and Reoviruses, and members of unclassified lineages distantly related to Negeviruses, Sobemoviruses, Poleroviruses, Flaviviridae, and Tombusviridae...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Stephane Baringou, Jacques-Deric Rouault, Marcel Koken, Yann Hardivillier, Luis Hurtado, Vincent Leignel
The 70kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) are considered the most conserved members of the HSP family. These proteins are primordial to the cell, because of their implications in many cellular pathways (e. g., development, immunity) and also because they minimize the effects of multiple stresses (e. g., temperature, pollutants, salinity, radiations). In the cytosol, two ubiquitous HSP70s with either a constitutive (HSC70) or an inducible (HSP70) expression pattern are found in all metazoan species, encoded by 5 or 6 genes (Drosophila melanogaster or yeast and human respectively)...
October 10, 2016: Gene
Shubha R Shanbhag, Abraham T Vazhappilly, Abhay Sane, Natalie M D'Silva, Subrata Tripathi
Microbiota colonizing exposed epithelial surfaces are vital for sustenance of metazoan life, but communication between microbiota, epithelial cells and the host immune system is only beginning to be understood. We address this issue in the posterior midgut epithelium of Drosophila larvae where nutrient transport and immune functions are exclusively transcellular. We showed that larvae emerging into a sterile post-embryonic environment have symmetrical apical and basal membranes. In contrast, larvae emerging into non-sterile media, the source of microbiota, have markedly asymmetric membranes, with apical membrane conductance more than five-fold higher than the basal membranes...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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