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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338042/a-pharmacological-screen-for-compounds-that-rescue-the-developmental-lethality-of-a-drosophila-atm-mutant
#1
Stacey A Rimkus, David A Wassarman
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. ATM encodes a protein kinase that is activated by DNA damage and phosphorylates many proteins, including those involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Characteristic biological and molecular functions of ATM observed in mammals are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. As an example, conditional loss-of-function ATM alleles in flies cause progressive neurodegeneration through activation of the innate immune response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322640/conserved-roles-of-osiris-genes-in-insect-development-polymorphism-and-protection
#2
Chris R Smith, Claire Morandin, Moataz Noureddine, Swati Pant
Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been molded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321302/rapid-seasonal-evolution-in-innate-immunity-of-wild-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Emily L Behrman, Virginia M Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri A Petrov, Brian P Lazzaro, Paul S Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Providencia rettgeri to measure post-infection survival and bacterial load of wild D...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321168/tools-allowing-independent-visualization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-drosophilamelanogaster-macrophages-and-surrounding-tissues
#4
Attila Gyoergy, Marko Roblek, Aparna Ratheesh, Katarina Valoskova, Vera Belyaeva, Stephanie Wachner, Yutaka Matsubayashi, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Brian Stramer, Daria E Siekhaus
Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid in fully understanding these processes, but are lacking...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305978/gene-expression-profiling-provides-insights-into-the-immune-mechanism-of-plutella-xylostella-midgut-to-microbial-infection
#5
Junhan Lin, Xiaofeng Xia, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jinhong Shen, Yong Li, Hailan Lin, Shanshan Tang, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches...
January 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305333/identification-of-a-clip-domain-serine-proteinase-involved-in-immune-defense-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#6
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Huan Zhang, Xiudan Wang, Zhao Lv, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Clip-domain serine proteinase is an important serine proteinase family involved in many biological processes, which is only found in invertebrates. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of a clip domain serine proteinase (designed as EsCDSP) gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. It was of 1488 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1134 bp encoding a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. There were a signal peptide, a clip domain, and a Tryp_SPc domain in the deduced amino acid sequences of EsCDSP...
January 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248385/a-cytosolic-sensor-pmddx41-mediates-antiviral-immune-response-in-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#7
Suthinee Soponpong, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a receptor belonging to the DExD family, has recently been identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in vertebrates. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of PmDDX41, the first cytosolic DNA sensor in shrimp. By searching a Penaeus monodon expressed sequence tag (EST) database (http://pmonodon.biotec.or.th), three cDNA fragments exhibiting similarity to DDX41 in various species were identified and assembled, resulting in a complete open reading frame of PmDDX41 that contains 1868-bp and encodes a putative protein of 620 amino acids...
December 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234354/differential-microbial-diversity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-are-fruit-flies-potential-vectors-of-opportunistic-pathogens
#8
Luis A Ramírez-Camejo, Génesis Maldonado-Morales, Paul Bayman
Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193237/cloning-and-analysis-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-lc-and-immune-deficiency-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella
#9
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191166/the-insect-pathogenic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-innexi-has-attenuated-virulence-in-multiple-insect-model-hosts-yet-encodes-a-potent-mosquitocidal-toxin
#10
Il-Hwan Kim, Sudarshan K Aryal, Dariush T Aghai, Ángel M Casanova-Torres, Kai Hillman, Michael P Kozuch, Erin J Mans, Terra J Mauer, Jean-Claude Ogier, Jerald C Ensign, Sophie Gaudriault, Walter G Goodman, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Adler R Dillman
BACKGROUND: Xenorhabdus innexi is a bacterial symbiont of Steinernema scapterisci nematodes, which is a cricket-specialist parasite and together the nematode and bacteria infect and kill crickets. Curiously, X. innexi expresses a potent extracellular mosquitocidal toxin activity in culture supernatants. We sequenced a draft genome of X. innexi and compared it to the genomes of related pathogens to elucidate the nature of specialization. RESULTS: Using green fluorescent protein-expressing X...
December 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149207/evolution-of-the-metabolome-in-response-to-selection-for-increased-immunity-in-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Navdeep Gogna, Rakesh Sharma, Vanika Gupta, Kavita Dorai, N G Prasad
We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141990/rna-sequencing-of-drosophila-melanogaster-head-tissue-on-high-sugar-and-high-fat-diets
#12
Wayne Hemphill, Osvaldo Rivera, Matthew Talbert
Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#13
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128494/the-shrimp-hormone-receptor-acts-as-an-anti-apoptosis-and-anti-inflammatory-factor-in-innate-immunity
#14
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Previously, we found that the expression of several genes, including HR, varied in Drosophila melanogaster after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this present study, we further investigated the role of HR in Kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus and determined its anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation role in the innate immune system. We successfully identified a partial sequence (866 bp in length) of the M. japonicus hormone receptor ligand binding domain (mjHR_LBD/mjHR). The 5' end of mjHR was successfully obtained; the open reading frame (ORF) ran from 33 to 701 bp, and encoded a protein containing 222 amino acids...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074090/the-role-of-a-single-gene-encoding-the-single-von-willebrand-factor-c-domain-protein-svc-in-bumblebee-immunity-extends-beyond-antiviral-defense
#15
Haidong Wang, Guy Smagghe, Ivan Meeus
The Single von Willebrand factor C-domain proteins (SVCs) are a group of short proteins mainly found in arthropods. They are proposed to be responsive in relation to environmental challenges including the nutritional status, bacterial and viral infections. The SVC protein Vago acts as a cross-talk molecule between the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway and the Jak/STAT pathway upon viral infection in Drosophila melanogaster and Culex mosquito cells. Unlike flies and mosquitoes that possess diverse SVCs, most bee species only have one of which the function remains unclear...
October 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066397/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-pgrp-l1-and-imd-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#16
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan is one of the major components of bacterial cell wall. The innate immune system of insects utilizes a group of peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) for the recognition of specific peptidoglycans and activating immune signaling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are two important signaling molecules of the IMD pathway. Here we cloned and characterized PGRP-L1 and IMD from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (BmPGRP-L1 and BmIMD). BmPGRP-L1 gene consists of five exons that encodes a polypeptide of 304 amino acids with a transmembrane region and an extracellular PGRP domain...
October 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049362/parallel-and-costly-changes-to-cellular-immunity-underlie-the-evolution-of-parasitoid-resistance-in-three-drosophila-species
#17
John E McGonigle, Alexandre B Leitão, Sarah Ommeslag, Sophie Smith, Jonathan P Day, Francis M Jiggins
A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036644/roles-of-female-and-male-genotype-in-post-mating-responses-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Sofie Y N Delbare, Clement Y Chow, Mariana F Wolfner, Andrew G Clark, Melissa Wilson Sayres
Mating induces a multitude of changes in female behavior, physiology, and gene expression. Interactions between female and male genotype lead to variation in post-mating phenotypes and reproductive success. So far, few female molecules responsible for these interactions have been identified. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster from 5 geographically dispersed populations to investigate such female × male genotypic interactions at the female transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Females from each line were singly-mated to males from the same 5 lines, for a total of 25 combinations...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033939/induction-of-apoptosis-and-subsequent-phagocytosis-of-virus-infected-cells-as-an-antiviral-mechanism
#19
REVIEW
Firzan Nainu, Akiko Shiratsuchi, Yoshinobu Nakanishi
Viruses are infectious entities that hijack host replication machineries to produce their progeny, resulting, in most cases, in disease and, sometimes, in death in infected host organisms. Hosts are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms that span from innate to adaptive as well as from humoral to cellular immune responses. We previously demonstrated that mouse cells underwent apoptosis in response to influenza virus infection. These apoptotic, virus-infected cells were then targeted for engulfment by macrophages and neutrophils...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024778/direct-comparison-between-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-microsized-particle-phagocytosis-assays-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
K Adolfsson, L Abariute, A P Dabkowska, M Schneider, U Häcker, C N Prinz
The effects of micro and nanoparticles on the innate immune system have been widely investigated and a general lack of agreement between in vivo and in vitro assays has been observed. In order to determine the origin of these discrepancies, there is a need for comparing the results of in vivo and in vitro phagocytosis assays obtained using the same particles and same immune cells. Here, we establish an in vivo polystyrene microsized particle phagocytosis assay in Drosophila melanogaster and compare it with an in vitro assay consisting of exposing the same immune cells in culture to the same particles...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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