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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228533/fragile-phagocytes-fmrp-positively-regulates-engulfment-activity
#1
Mary A Logan
Defective immune system function is implicated in autism spectrum disorders, including Fragile X syndrome. In this issue, O'Connor et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607093) demonstrate that phagocytic activity of systemic immune cells is compromised in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Fragile X, highlighting intriguing new mechanistic connections between FMRP, innate immunity, and abnormal development.
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225068/relish2-mediates-bursicon-homodimer-induced-prophylactic-immunity-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#2
Hongwei Zhang, Shengzhang Dong, Xi Chen, David Stanley, Brenda Beerntsen, Qili Feng, Qisheng Song
Bursicon is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs α and burs β), responsible for cuticle tanning and other developmental processes in insects. Recent studies show that each bursicon subunit forms homodimers that induce prophylactic immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that bursicon homodimers act in prophylactic immunity in insects, and possibly arthropods, generally, using the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. We found that burs α and burs β are expressed in larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223318/a-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-exhibits-defects-in-phagocytosis-by-innate-immune-cells
#3
Reed M O'Connor, Elizabeth F Stone, Charlotte R Wayne, Emily V Marcinkevicius, Matt Ulgherait, Rebecca Delventhal, Meghan M Pantalia, Vanessa M Hill, Clarice G Zhou, Sophie McAllister, Anna Chen, Jennifer S Ziegenfuss, Wesley B Grueber, Julie C Canman, Mimi M Shirasu-Hiza
Fragile X syndrome, the most common known monogenic cause of autism, results from the loss of FMR1, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Recent evidence suggests that Fragile X syndrome and other types of autism are associated with immune system defects. We found that Drosophila melanogaster Fmr1 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to bacterial infection and decreased phagocytosis of bacteria by systemic immune cells. Using tissue-specific RNAi-mediated knockdown, we showed that Fmr1 plays a cell-autonomous role in the phagocytosis of bacteria...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214598/three-stats-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-the-triangle-sail-mussel-hyriopsis-cumingii
#4
Yun-Jia Dai, Kai-Min Hui, Ying-Hao Zhang, Yan Liu, Yu-Qing Wang, Li-Juan Zhao, Li Lin, Lian-Qin Chai, Shun Wei, Jiang-Feng Lan
Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is associated in antiviral and antibacterial immune response. Previous studies primarily investigated the function of STATs in mammals. For most invertebrates, only one STAT was found in each species, such as STAT92E was found in Drosophila melanogaster. The studies, which focus on the functional difference between various STATs in the same species of invertebrate, are limited. In the present study, three STATs (HcSTAT1, HcSTAT2 and HcSTAT3) were identified in triangle shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii...
February 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181526/no-effect-of-mitochondrial-genotype-on-reproductive-plasticity-following-exposure-to-a-non-infectious-pathogen-challenge-in-female-or-male-drosophila
#6
M Nystrand, E J Cassidy, D K Dowling
Mitochondrial genetic variation shapes the expression of life-history traits associated with reproduction, development and survival, and has also been associated with the prevalence and progression of infectious bacteria and viruses in humans. The breadth of these effects on multifaceted components of health, and their link to disease susceptibility, led us to test whether variation across mitochondrial haplotypes affected reproductive success following an immune challenge in the form of a non-infectious pathogen...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131984/crispr-cas-induced-mutants-identify-a-requirement-for-dstim-in-larval-dopaminergic-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Trayambak Pathak, Deepti Trivedi, Gaiti Hasan
Molecular components of store-operated calcium entry have been identified in the recent past and consist of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-resident calcium sensor STIM and the plasma membrane-localized calcium channel Orai. The physiological function of STIM and Orai is best defined in vertebrate immune cells. However, genetic studies with RNAi strains in Drosophila suggest a role in neuronal development and function. We generated a CRISPR-Cas-mediated deletion for the gene encoding STIM in Drosophila (dSTIM), which we demonstrate is larval lethal...
March 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102430/innate-and-intrinsic-antiviral-immunity-in-drosophila
#8
REVIEW
Assel Mussabekova, Laurent Daeffler, Jean-Luc Imler
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a valuable model to investigate the genetic mechanisms of innate immunity. Initially focused on the resistance to bacteria and fungi, these studies have been extended to include antiviral immunity over the last decade. Like all living organisms, insects are continually exposed to viruses and have developed efficient defense mechanisms. We review here our current understanding on antiviral host defense in fruit flies. A major antiviral defense in Drosophila is RNA interference, in particular the small interfering (si) RNA pathway...
January 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102122/advances-in-myeloid-like-cell-origins-and-functions-in-the-model-organism-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Laure El Chamy, Nicolas Matt, Jean-Marc Reichhart
Drosophila has long served as a valuable model for deciphering many biological processes, including immune responses. Indeed, the genetic tractability of this organism is particularly suited for large-scale analyses. Studies performed during the last 3 decades have proven that the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response are conserved between Drosophila and mammals. This review summarizes the recent advances on Drosophila hematopoiesis and immune cellular responses, with a particular emphasis on phagocytosis...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099780/the-genetic-architecture-of-defence-as-resistance-to-and-tolerance-of-bacterial-infection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Virginia M Howick, Brian P Lazzaro
Defence against pathogenic infection can take two forms: resistance and tolerance. Resistance is the ability of the host to limit a pathogen burden, whereas tolerance is the ability to limit the negative consequences of infection at a given level of infection intensity. Evolutionarily, a tolerance strategy that is independent of resistance could allow the host to avoid mounting a costly immune response and, theoretically, to avoid a co-evolutionary arms race between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Biomedically, understanding the mechanisms of tolerance and how they relate to resistance could potentially yield treatment strategies that focus on health improvement instead of pathogen elimination...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086750/a-genome-wide-scan-for-genes-under-balancing-selection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Myriam Croze, Andreas Wollstein, Vedran Božičević, Daniel Živković, Wolfgang Stephan, Stephan Hutter
BACKGROUND: In the history of population genetics balancing selection has been considered as an important evolutionary force, yet until today little is known about its abundance and its effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Several well-known examples of balancing selection have been reported from humans, mice, plants, and parasites. However, only very few systematic studies have been carried out to detect genes under balancing selection. We performed a genome scan in Drosophila melanogaster to find signatures of balancing selection in a derived (European) and an ancestral (African) population...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077262/virus-innexins-induce-alterations-in-insect-cell-and-tissue-function
#12
Daniel K Hasegawa, Stephanie L Erickson, Bradley M Hersh, Matthew W Turnbull
Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host homologues if present. For example, the polydnavirus vinnexin gene family encodes homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) that are expressed in host immune cells (hemocytes). While the roles of Innexin proteins and gap junctions in insect immunity are largely unclear, we previously demonstrated that Vinnexins form functional gap junctions and alter the junctional characteristics of a host Innexin when co-expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009836/metabolomics-with-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-surviving-sepsis
#13
Veli Bakalov, Roland Amathieu, Mohamed N Triba, Marie-Jeanne Clément, Laura Reyes Uribe, Laurence Le Moyec, Ata Murat Kaynar
Patients surviving sepsis demonstrate sustained inflammation, which has been associated with long-term complications. One of the main mechanisms behind sustained inflammation is a metabolic switch in parenchymal and immune cells, thus understanding metabolic alterations after sepsis may provide important insights to the pathophysiology of sepsis recovery. In this study, we explored metabolomics in a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of surviving sepsis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), to determine metabolite profiles...
December 21, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974438/transcriptome-analysis-of-drosophila-melanogaster-third-instar-larval-ring-glands-points-to-novel-functions-and-uncovers-a-cytochrome-p450-required-for-development
#14
Danielle Christesen, Ying Ting Yang, Jason Somers, Charles Robin, Tamar Sztal, Phillip Batterham, Trent Perry
In Drosophila melanogaster larvae the ring gland is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the ring gland's broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval ring glands has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signalling in this organ...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974298/mir-958-inhibits-toll-signaling-and-drosomycin-expression-via-direct-targeting-of-toll-and-dif-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Shengjie Li, Yao Li, Li Shen, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well studied, the precise mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study, we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80(ts)-Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila We report that overexpression of miR-958 significantly reduces the expression of Drosomycin, a key antimicrobial peptide involved in Toll signaling and the innate immune response...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916526/the-mitochondrial-lon-protease-is-required-for-age-specific-and-sex-specific-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#17
Laura C D Pomatto, Caroline Carney, Brenda Shen, Sarah Wong, Kelly Halaszynski, Matthew P Salomon, Kelvin J A Davies, John Tower
Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894253/latitudinal-clines-in-gene-expression-and-cis-regulatory-element-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Punita Juneja, Andrew Quinn, Francis M Jiggins
BACKGROUND: Organisms can rapidly adapt to their environment when colonizing a new habitat, and this could occur by changing protein sequences or by altering patterns of gene expression. The importance of gene expression in driving local adaptation is increasingly being appreciated, and cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which control and modify the expression of the nearby genes, are predicted to play an important role. Here we investigate genetic variation in gene expression in immune-challenged Drosophila melanogaster from temperate and tropical or sub-tropical populations in Australia and United States...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878268/crocus-sativus-l-protects-against-sds%C3%A2-induced-intestinal-damage-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Zonglin Liu, Yuchen Chen, Hong Zhang, Li Hua Jin
Medicinal plants are important sources of potentially therapeutic biochemical drugs. Crocus sativus L. has been used to treat various diseases in China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The present study investigated the protective effect of C. sativus L. extract in Drosophila melanogaster intestinal immunity. Wild‑type flies were fed standard cornmeal‑yeast medium and used as controls, and flies supplemented with 1% C. sativus L. aqueous extract in standard medium were used as the experimental group...
December 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#20
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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