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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086750/a-genome-wide-scan-for-genes-under-balancing-selection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Myriam Croze, Andreas Wollstein, Vedran Božičević, Daniel Živković, Wolfgang Stephan, Stephan Hutter
BACKGROUND: In the history of population genetics balancing selection has been considered as an important evolutionary force, yet until today little is known about its abundance and its effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Several well-known examples of balancing selection have been reported from humans, mice, plants, and parasites. However, only very few systematic studies have been carried out to detect genes under balancing selection. We performed a genome scan in Drosophila melanogaster to find signatures of balancing selection in a derived (European) and an ancestral (African) population...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077262/virus-innexins-induce-alterations-in-insect-cell-and-tissue-function
#2
Daniel K Hasegawa, Stephanie L Erickson, Bradley M Hersh, Matthew W Turnbull
Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host homologues if present. For example, the polydnavirus vinnexin gene family encodes homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) that are expressed in host immune cells (hemocytes). While the roles of Innexin proteins and gap junctions in insect immunity are largely unclear, we previously demonstrated that Vinnexins form functional gap junctions and alter the junctional characteristics of a host Innexin when co-expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009836/metabolomics-with-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-surviving-sepsis
#3
Veli Bakalov, Roland Amathieu, Mohamed N Triba, Marie-Jeanne Clément, Laura Reyes Uribe, Laurence Le Moyec, Ata Murat Kaynar
Patients surviving sepsis demonstrate sustained inflammation, which has been associated with long-term complications. One of the main mechanisms behind sustained inflammation is a metabolic switch in parenchymal and immune cells, thus understanding metabolic alterations after sepsis may provide important insights to the pathophysiology of sepsis recovery. In this study, we explored metabolomics in a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of surviving sepsis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), to determine metabolite profiles...
December 21, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974438/transcriptome-analysis-of-drosophila-melanogaster-third-instar-larval-ring-glands-points-to-novel-functions-and-uncovers-a-cytochrome-p450-required-for-development
#4
Danielle Christesen, Ying Ting Yang, Jason Somers, Charles Robin, Tamar Sztal, Phillip Batterham, Trent Perry
In Drosophila melanogaster larvae the ring gland is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the ring gland's broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval ring glands has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signalling in this organ...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974298/mir-958-inhibits-toll-signaling-and-drosomycin-expression-via-directly-targeting-toll-and-dif-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Shengjie Li, Yao Li, Li Shen, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well-studied, the precise mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80(ts)-Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916526/the-mitochondrial-lon-protease-is-required-for-age-specific-and-sex-specific-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#7
Laura C D Pomatto, Caroline Carney, Brenda Shen, Sarah Wong, Kelly Halaszynski, Matthew P Salomon, Kelvin J A Davies, John Tower
Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894253/latitudinal-clines-in-gene-expression-and-cis-regulatory-element-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Punita Juneja, Andrew Quinn, Francis M Jiggins
BACKGROUND: Organisms can rapidly adapt to their environment when colonizing a new habitat, and this could occur by changing protein sequences or by altering patterns of gene expression. The importance of gene expression in driving local adaptation is increasingly being appreciated, and cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which control and modify the expression of the nearby genes, are predicted to play an important role. Here we investigate genetic variation in gene expression in immune-challenged Drosophila melanogaster from temperate and tropical or sub-tropical populations in Australia and United States...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878268/crocus-sativus-l-protects-against-sds%C3%A2-induced-intestinal-damage-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Zonglin Liu, Yuchen Chen, Hong Zhang, Li Hua Jin
Medicinal plants are important sources of potentially therapeutic biochemical drugs. Crocus sativus L. has been used to treat various diseases in China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The present study investigated the protective effect of C. sativus L. extract in Drosophila melanogaster intestinal immunity. Wild‑type flies were fed standard cornmeal‑yeast medium and used as controls, and flies supplemented with 1% C. sativus L. aqueous extract in standard medium were used as the experimental group...
December 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#10
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871813/gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster-interacts-with-wolbachia-but-does-not-contribute-to-wolbachia-mediated-antiviral-protection
#11
Yixin H Ye, Andrei Seleznev, Heather A Flores, Megan Woolfit, Elizabeth A McGraw
Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871362/actin-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-that-signals-tissue-injury-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Naren Srinivasan, Oliver Gordon, Susan Ahrens, Anna Franz, Safia Deddouche, Probir Chakravarty, David Phillips, Ali A Yunus, Michael K Rosen, Rita S Valente, Luis Teixeira, Barry Thompson, Marc S Dionne, Will Wood, Caetano Reis e Sousa
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules released by dead cells that trigger sterile inflammation and, in vertebrates, adaptive immunity. Actin is a DAMP detected in mammals by the receptor, DNGR-1, expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). DNGR-1 is phosphorylated by Src-family kinases and recruits the tyrosine kinase Syk to promote DC cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens. Here we report that actin is also a DAMP in invertebrates that lack DCs and adaptive immunity. Administration of actin to Drosophila melanogaster triggers a response characterised by selective induction of STAT target genes in the fat body through the cytokine Upd3 and its JAK/STAT-coupled receptor, Domeless...
22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856350/achilles-is-a-circadian-clock-controlled-gene-that-regulates-immune-function-in-drosophila
#13
Jiajia Li, Erin E Terry, Edith Fejer, Diana Gamba, Natalie Hartmann, Joseph Logsdon, Daniel Michalski, Lisa E Rois, Maria J Scuderi, Michael Kunst, Michael E Hughes
The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of antimicrobial peptides in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844061/lithium-responsive-seizure-like-hyperexcitability-is-caused-by-a-mutation-in-the-drosophila-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-paralytic
#14
Garrett A Kaas, Junko Kasuya, Patrick Lansdon, Atsushi Ueda, Atulya Iyengar, Chun-Fang Wu, Toshihiro Kitamoto
Shudderer (Shu) is an X-linked dominant mutation in Drosophila melanogaster identified more than 40 years ago. A previous study showed that Shu caused spontaneous tremors and defects in reactive climbing behavior, and that these phenotypes were significantly suppressed when mutants were fed food containing lithium, a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Williamson, 1982). This unique observation suggested that the Shu mutation affects genes involved in lithium-responsive neurobiological processes...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815361/survey-of-global-genetic-diversity-within-the-drosophila-immune-system
#15
Angela M Early, J Roman Arguello, Margarida Cardoso-Moreira, Srikanth Gottipati, Jennifer K Grenier, Andrew G Clark
Numerous studies across a wide range of taxa have demonstrated that immune genes are routinely among the most rapidly evolving genes in the genome. This observation, however, does not address what proportion of immune genes undergo strong selection during adaptation to novel environments. Here, we determine the extent of very recent divergence in genes with immune function across five populations of Drosophila melanogaster and find that immune genes do not show an overall trend of recent rapid adaptation. Our population-based approach uses a set of carefully matched control genes to account for the effects of demography and local recombination rate, allowing us to identify whether specific immune functions are putative targets of strong selection...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811341/the-insect-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-metchnikowin-targets-fusarium-graminearum-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanosyltransferase-gel1-which-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity
#16
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the insect innate immune system. Their diversity provides protection against a broad spectrum of microbes and they have several distinct modes of action. Insect-derived AMPs are currently being developed for both medical and agricultural applications, and their expression in transgenic crops confers resistance against numerous plant pathogens. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk), which was originally discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, is of particular interest because it has potent activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, such as Fusarium graminearum, but it does not harm beneficial fungi such as the mycorrhizal basidiomycete Piriformospora indica...
December 21, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789295/effect-of-stress-on-heat-shock-protein-levels-immune-response-and-survival-to-fungal-infection-of-mamestra-brassicae-larvae
#17
E H Richards, M P Dani, Y Lu, T Butt, R J Weaver
Although the utilisation of fungal biological control agents to kill insect pests is desirable, it is known that the outcome of infection may be influenced by a number of criteria, including whether or not the target insect is stressed. In the current work, topical treatment of larvae of the lepidopteran pest, Mamestra brassicae, with conidia of Beauveria bassiana, followed by a heat stress (HS; 37°C for 1h) 48h later, resulted in a similar level of larval survival to that occurring for no heat stress (No-HS), fungus-treated larvae...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776480/immune-genes-and-divergent-antimicrobial-peptides-in-flies-of-the-subgenus-drosophila
#18
Mark A Hanson, Phineas T Hamilton, Steve J Perlman
BACKGROUND: Drosophila is an important model for studying the evolution of animal immunity, due to the powerful genetic tools developed for D. melanogaster. However, Drosophila is an incredibly speciose lineage with a wide range of ecologies, natural histories, and diverse natural enemies. Surprisingly little functional work has been done on immune systems of species other than D. melanogaster. In this study, we examine the evolution of immune genes in the speciose subgenus Drosophila, which diverged from the subgenus Sophophora (that includes D...
October 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771727/thioester-containing-protein-4-regulates-the-drosophila-immune-signaling-and-function-against-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#19
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Despite important progress in identifying the molecules that participate in the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to microbial infections, the involvement of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the antibacterial immunity of the fly is not fully clarified. Previous studies mostly focused on identifying the function of TEP2, TEP3 and TEP6 molecules in the D. melanogaster immune system. Here, we investigated the role of TEP4 in the regulation and function of D. melanogaster host defense against 2 virulent pathogens from the genus Photorhabdus, i...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765624/does-cold-activate-the-drosophila-melanogaster-immune-system
#20
Golnaz Salehipour-Shirazi, Laura V Ferguson, Brent J Sinclair
Cold exposure appears to activate aspects of the insect immune system; however, the functional significance of the relationship between cold and immunity is unclear. Insect success at low temperatures is shaped in part by interactions with biotic stressors, such as pathogens, thus it is important to understand how and why immunity might be activated by cold. Here we explore which components of the immune system are activated, and whether those components differ among different kinds of cold exposure. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to both acute (2h, -2°C) and sustained (10h, -0...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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