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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916526/the-mitochondrial-lon-protease-is-required-for-age-specific-and-sex-specific-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#1
Laura C D Pomatto, Caroline Carney, Brenda Shen, Sarah Wong, Kelly Halaszynski, Matthew P Salomon, Kelvin J A Davies, John Tower
Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity...
November 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894253/latitudinal-clines-in-gene-expression-and-cis-regulatory-element-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Punita Juneja, Andrew Quinn, Francis M Jiggins
BACKGROUND: Organisms can rapidly adapt to their environment when colonizing a new habitat, and this could occur by changing protein sequences or by altering patterns of gene expression. The importance of gene expression in driving local adaptation is increasingly being appreciated, and cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which control and modify the expression of the nearby genes, are predicted to play an important role. Here we investigate genetic variation in gene expression in immune-challenged Drosophila melanogaster from temperate and tropical or sub-tropical populations in Australia and United States...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878268/crocus-sativus-l-protects-against-sds%C3%A2-induced-intestinal-damage-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Zonglin Liu, Yuchen Chen, Hong Zhang, Li Hua Jin
Medicinal plants are important sources of potentially therapeutic biochemical drugs. Crocus sativus L. has been used to treat various diseases in China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The present study investigated the protective effect of C. sativus L. extract in Drosophila melanogaster intestinal immunity. Wild‑type flies were fed standard cornmeal‑yeast medium and used as controls, and flies supplemented with 1% C. sativus L. aqueous extract in standard medium were used as the experimental group...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#4
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871813/gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster-interacts-with-wolbachia-but-does-not-contribute-to-wolbachia-mediated-antiviral-protection
#5
Yixin H Ye, Andrei Seleznev, Heather A Flores, Megan Woolfit, Elizabeth A McGraw
Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871362/actin-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-that-signals-tissue-injury-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Naren Srinivasan, Oliver Gordon, Susan Ahrens, Anna Franz, Safia Deddouche, Probir Chakravarty, David Phillips, Ali A Yunus, Michael K Rosen, Rita S Valente, Luis Teixeira, Barry Thompson, Marc S Dionne, Will Wood, Caetano Reis E Sousa
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules released by dead cells that trigger sterile inflammation and, in vertebrates, adaptive immunity. Actin is a DAMP detected in mammals by the receptor, DNGR-1, expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). DNGR-1 is phosphorylated by Src-family kinases and recruits the tyrosine kinase Syk to promote DC cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens. Here we report that actin is also a DAMP in invertebrates that lack DCs and adaptive immunity. Administration of actin to Drosophila melanogaster triggers a response characterised by selective induction of STAT target genes in the fat body through the cytokine Upd3 and its JAK/STAT-coupled receptor, Domeless...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856350/achilles-is-a-circadian-clock-controlled-gene-that-regulates-immune-function-in-drosophila
#7
Jiajia Li, Erin E Terry, Edith Fejer, Diana Gamba, Natalie Hartmann, Joseph Logsdon, Daniel Michalski, Lisa E Rois, Maria J Scuderi, Michael Kunst, Michael E Hughes
The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of anti-microbial peptides in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844061/lithium-responsive-seizure-like-hyperexcitability-is-caused-by-a-mutation-in-the-drosophila-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-paralytic
#8
Garrett A Kaas, Junko Kasuya, Patrick Lansdon, Atsushi Ueda, Atulya Iyengar, Chun-Fang Wu, Toshihiro Kitamoto
Shudderer (Shu) is an X-linked dominant mutation in Drosophila melanogaster identified more than 40 years ago. A previous study showed that Shu caused spontaneous tremors and defects in reactive climbing behavior, and that these phenotypes were significantly suppressed when mutants were fed food containing lithium, a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Williamson, 1982). This unique observation suggested that the Shu mutation affects genes involved in lithium-responsive neurobiological processes...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815361/survey-of-global-genetic-diversity-within-the-drosophila-immune-system
#9
Angela M Early, J Roman Arguello, Margarida Cardoso-Moreira, Srikanth Gottipati, Jennifer K Grenier, Andrew G Clark
Numerous studies across a wide range of taxa have demonstrated that immune genes are routinely among the most rapidly evolving genes in the genome. This observation, however, does not address what proportion of immune genes undergo strong selection during adaptation to novel environments. Here, we determine the extent of very recent divergence in genes with immune function across five populations of Drosophila melanogaster and find that immune genes do not show an overall trend of recent rapid adaptation. Our population-based approach uses a set of carefully matched control genes to account for the effects of demography and local recombination rate, allowing us to identify whether specific immune functions are putative targets of strong selection...
November 4, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811341/the-insect-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-metchnikowin-targets-fusarium-graminearum-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanosyltransferase-gel1-which-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity
#10
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the insect innate immune system. Their diversity provides protection against a broad spectrum of microbes and they have several distinct modes of action. Insect-derived AMPs are currently being developed for both medical and agricultural applications, and their expression in transgenic crops confers resistance against numerous plant pathogens. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk), which was originally discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, is of particular interest because it has potent activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, such as Fusarium graminearum, but it does not harm beneficial fungi such as the mycorrhizal basidiomycete Piriformospora indica...
November 3, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789295/effect-of-stress-on-heat-shock-protein-levels-immune-response-and-survival-to-fungal-infection-of-mamestra-brassicae-larvae
#11
E H Richards, M P Dani, Y Lu, T Butt, R J Weaver
Although the utilisation of fungal biological control agents to kill insect pests is desirable, it is known that the outcome of infection may be influenced by a number of criteria, including whether or not the target insect is stressed. In the current work, topical treatment of larvae of the lepidopteran pest, Mamestra brassicae, with conidia of Beauveria bassiana, followed by a heat stress (HS; 37°C for 1h) 48h later, resulted in a similar level of larval survival to that occurring for no heat stress (No-HS), fungus-treated larvae...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776480/immune-genes-and-divergent-antimicrobial-peptides-in-flies-of-the-subgenus-drosophila
#12
Mark A Hanson, Phineas T Hamilton, Steve J Perlman
BACKGROUND: Drosophila is an important model for studying the evolution of animal immunity, due to the powerful genetic tools developed for D. melanogaster. However, Drosophila is an incredibly speciose lineage with a wide range of ecologies, natural histories, and diverse natural enemies. Surprisingly little functional work has been done on immune systems of species other than D. melanogaster. In this study, we examine the evolution of immune genes in the speciose subgenus Drosophila, which diverged from the subgenus Sophophora (that includes D...
October 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771727/thioester-containing-protein-4-regulates-the-drosophila-immune-signaling-and-function-against-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#13
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Despite important progress in identifying the molecules that participate in the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to microbial infections, the involvement of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the antibacterial immunity of the fly is not fully clarified. Previous studies mostly focused on identifying the function of TEP2, TEP3 and TEP6 molecules in the D. melanogaster immune system. Here, we investigated the role of TEP4 in the regulation and function of D. melanogaster host defense against 2 virulent pathogens from the genus Photorhabdus, i...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765624/does-cold-activate-the-drosophila-melanogaster-immune-system
#14
Golnaz Salehipour-Shirazi, Laura V Ferguson, Brent J Sinclair
Cold exposure appears to activate aspects of the insect immune system; however, the functional significance of the relationship between cold and immunity is unclear. Insect success at low temperatures is shaped in part by interactions with biotic stressors, such as pathogens, thus it is important to understand how and why immunity might be activated by cold. Here we explore which components of the immune system are activated, and whether those components differ among different kinds of cold exposure. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to both acute (2h, -2°C) and sustained (10h, -0...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754853/age-and-diet-affect-genetically-separable-secondary-injuries-that-cause-acute-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-drosophila
#15
Rebeccah J Katzenberger, Barry Ganetzky, David A Wassarman
Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing percent mortality within 24 hours of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries...
October 17, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714976/genetics-of-host-parasite-interactions-towards-a-comprehensive-dissection-of-drosophila-resistance-to-viral-infection
#16
Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to unravel the genetic basis of adaptation. This issue has been gaining momentum in recent years with the accelerated development of novel genetic and genomic techniques and resources. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cogni et al. (2016) address the genetic basis of resistance to two viruses in Drosophila melanogaster using a panel of recombinant inbred lines with unprecedented resolution allowing detection of rare alleles and/or alleles of small effect...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659343/enhancement-of-larval-immune-system-traits-as-a-correlated-response-to-selection-for-rapid-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Punyatirtha Dey, Kanika Mendiratta, Joy Bose, Amitabh Joshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648494/elucidating-the-gravome-quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-the-response-to-chronic-hypergravity-in-drosophila
#18
Ravikumar Hosamani, Ryan Leib, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Christopher M Adams, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity conditions, such as experienced by organisms during spaceflight, are known to cause transcriptomic and proteomic changes. We describe the proteomic changes in whole adult Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) but focus specifically on the localized changes in the adult head in response to chronic hypergravity (3 g) treatment. Canton S adult female flies (2 to 3 days old) were exposed to chronic hypergravity for 9 days and compared with 1 g controls. After hypergravity treatment, either whole flies (body + head) or fly-head-only samples were isolated and evaluated for quantitative comparison of the two gravity conditions using an isobaric tagging liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621057/transcriptomic-response-of-drosophila-melanogaster-pupae-developed-in-hypergravity
#19
Shannon Hateley, Ravikumar Hosamani, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Lior Pachter, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways...
September 10, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562772/beneficial-effects-of-increased-lysozyme-levels-in-alzheimer-s-disease-modelled-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
EDITORIAL
Linnea Sandin, Liza Bergkvist, Sangeeta Nath, Claudia Kielkopf, Camilla Janefjord, Linda Helmfors, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Hongyun Li, Camilla Nilsberth, Brett Garner, Ann-Christin Brorsson, Katarina Kågedal
Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD...
October 2016: FEBS Journal
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