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Drosophila melanogaster immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706002/micrornas-that-contribute-to-coordinating-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Magda L Atilano, Marcus Glittenberg, Annabel Monteiro, Richard Copley, Petros Ligoxygakis
Small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression related to host defences. Here, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to explore the contribution of individual or clusters of miRNAs in countering systemic C. albicans infection. From a total of 72 tested, we identify six miRNAs allelic mutant backgrounds that modulate the survival response to infection and ability to control pathogen number. These mutants also exhibit dysregulation of the Toll pathway target transcripts Drosomycin (Drs) and Immune-Induced Molecule 1 (IM1)...
July 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705811/proprotein-convertase-furin1-expression-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-is-essential-for-a-normal-antimicrobial-peptide-response-and-bacterial-host-defense
#3
Saara Aittomäki, Susanna Valanne, Tapio Lehtinen, Sampsa Matikainen, Tuula A Nyman, Mika Rämet, Marko Pesu
Invading pathogens provoke robust innate immune responses in Dipteran insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster In a systemic bacterial infection, a humoral response is induced in the fat body. Gram-positive bacteria trigger the Toll signaling pathway, whereas gram-negative bacterial infections are signaled via the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. We show here that the RNA interference-mediated silencing of Furin1-a member of the proprotein convertase enzyme family-specifically in the fat body, results in a reduction in the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700947/acute-dietary-restriction-acts-via-tor-pp2a-and-myc-signaling-to-boost-innate-immunity-in-drosophila
#4
Jung-Eun Lee, Morsi Rayyan, Allison Liao, Isaac Edery, Scott D Pletcher
Dietary restriction promotes health and longevity across taxa through mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we show that acute yeast restriction significantly improves the ability of adult female Drosophila melanogaster to resist pathogenic bacterial infections through an immune pathway involving downregulation of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling, which stabilizes the transcription factor Myc by increasing the steady-state level of its phosphorylated forms through decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2A...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700600/ethanol-confers-differential-protection-against-generalist-and-specialist-parasitoids-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Zachary R Lynch, Todd A Schlenke, Levi T Morran, Jacobus C de Roode
As parasites coevolve with their hosts, they can evolve counter-defenses that render host immune responses ineffective. These counter-defenses are more likely to evolve in specialist parasites than generalist parasites; the latter face variable selection pressures between the different hosts they infect. Natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly threatened by endoparasitoid wasps in the genus Leptopilina, including the specialist L. boulardi and the generalist L. heterotoma, and both wasp species can incapacitate the cellular immune response of D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669782/the-drosophila-melanogaster-tribbles-pseudokinase-is-necessary-for-proper-memory-formation
#6
Holly LaFerriere, Troy Zars
The tribbles (trbl) pseudokinases play important roles in signaling and physiology in multiple contexts, ranging from innate immunity to cancer, suggesting fundamental cellular functions for the trbls' gene products. Despite expression of the trbl pseudokinases in the nervous systems of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, and evidence that they have a function within mouse and human dopamine neurons, there is no clear case for a function of a Trbl protein that influences behavior. Indeed, the first and only evidence for this type of function comes from Drosophila melanogaster, where a mutation of the single trbl gene was identified in a genetic screen for short-term memory mutant flies...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668769/microbial-influence-on-drosophila-biology
#7
REVIEW
M E Martino, D Ma, F Leulier
Commensal bacteria profoundly affect the biology of their animal partners. Drosophila melanogaster has been broadly used to study microbiota effects on invertebrates, whose findings are frequently applicable to translational studies. The beneficial role of commensal microbes on Drosophila biology is extensively described, ranging from growth to metabolism, immunity and even behaviour. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Studies continue to discover new layers of complexity in the host-bacteria partnership that constantly changes depending on a plethora of different variables...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656506/comparing-naturally-occurring-glycosylated-forms-of-proline-rich-antibacterial-peptide-drosocin
#8
Deepti S Lele, Gagandeep Kaur, Menithalaxmi Thiruvikraman, Kanwal J Kaur
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key players of innate immunity. Amongst various classes of AMPs, proline rich AMPs from insects enjoy special attention with few members of this class bearing O-glycosylation as post-translational modification. Drosocin, a 19 amino acid glycosylated AMP is a member of proline rich class, synthesized in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster upon bacterial challenge. We report herein the chemical synthesis of drosocin carrying disaccharide (β-Gal(1 → 3)α-GalNAc) and comparison of its structural and functional properties with another naturally occurring monoglycosylated form of drosocin i...
June 27, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649857/effect-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-sipunculus-nudus-snp-on-the-lifespan-and-immune-damage-repair-of-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-cd-vi
#9
Jie Su, Linlin Jiang, Jingna Wu, Zhiyu Liu, Yuping Wu
The water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus (SNP) was investigated on the lifespan and immune damage repair of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to Cd (VI). SNP increased superoxyde dismutase (SOD), nitrogen monoxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC), with decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) on D. melanogaster demonstrated that SNP could attenuate oxidative damage of D. melanogaster Exposed to Cd (VI). Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that SNP enhanced the gene expression of Diptericin, Drosomycin, Defensin, PGRP-LC and the protein level of Toll, p-JNK and Relish, that suggested the promoting effect of SNP on the immune damage repair of D...
June 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649249/dscam1-in-pancrustacean-immunity-current-status-and-a-look-to-the-future
#10
Sophie A O Armitage, Joachim Kurtz, Daniela Brites, Yuemei Dong, Louis Du Pasquier, Han-Ching Wang
The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) gene is an extraordinary example of diversity: by combining alternatively spliced exons, thousands of isoforms can be produced from just one gene. So far, such diversity in this gene has only been found in insects and crustaceans, and its essential part in neural wiring has been well-characterized for Drosophila melanogaster. Ten years ago evidence from D. melanogaster showed that the Dscam1 gene is involved in insect immune defense and work on Anopheles gambiae indicated that it is a hypervariable immune receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648883/molecular-cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-traf6-in-crossastrea-gigas
#11
Fan Mao, Jun Li, Yuehuan Zhang, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Ziniu Yu
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has been demonstrated to be a key signaling molecule involved in adaptive and innate immunity. In this study, we obtained the full length CgTRAF6 cDNA and analyzed the characteristics of the ORF and the peptide sequence in Crassostrea gigas. The deduced protein sequence of CgTRAF6 includes a conserved C-terminal TRAF domain following the RING and the zinc finger domain. The TRAF domain is composed of coiled-coil TRAF-N and MATH (meprin and TRAF-C homology) subdomains...
June 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642050/the-drosophila-thioester-containing-protein-4-participates-in-the-induction-of-the-cellular-immune-response-to-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#12
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The function of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the immune defense of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is yet mostly unexplored. Recently, we showed the involvement of TEP4 in the activation of humoral and phenoloxidase immune responses of Drosophila against the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Here, we investigated the participation of Tep4 in the cellular defense of Drosophila against the two pathogens. We report significantly lower numbers of live and dead plasmatocytes in the tep4 mutants compared to control flies in response to Photorhabdus infection...
June 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#13
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#14
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621308/inhalation-toxicity-of-indoor-air-pollutants-in-drosophila-melanogaster-using-integrated-transcriptomics-and-computational-behavior-analyses
#15
Hyun-Jeong Eom, Yuedan Liu, Gyu-Suk Kwak, Muyoung Heo, Kyung Seuk Song, Yun Doo Chung, Tae-Soo Chon, Jinhee Choi
We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586288/genomic-signatures-of-local-adaptation-in-the-drosophila-immune-response
#16
Angela M Early, Andrew G Clark
As environments and pathogen landscapes shift, host defenses must evolve to remain effective. Due to this selection pressure, among-species comparisons of genetic sequence data often find immune genes to be among the fastest evolving genes across the genome. The full extent and nature of these immune adaptations, however, remain largely unexplored. In a recent study, we analyzed patterns of selection within distinct components of the Drosophila melanogaster immune pathway. While we found evidence of positive selection within some immune processes, immune genes were not universally characterized by signatures of strong selection...
June 6, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578396/neonicotinoid-induced-pathogen-susceptibility-is-mitigated-by-lactobacillus-plantarum-immune-stimulation-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#17
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Hylke Welle, Josh S Dube, Sohrab N Ali, Hon S Leong, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Pesticides are used extensively in food production to maximize crop yields. However, neonicotinoid insecticides exert unintentional toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) that may partially be associated with massive population declines referred to as colony collapse disorder. We hypothesized that imidacloprid (common neonicotinoid; IMI) exposure would make Drosophila melanogaster (an insect model for the honey bee) more susceptible to bacterial pathogens, heat stress, and intestinal dysbiosis. Our results suggested that the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway is necessary for D...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541576/rapidly-evolving-toll-3-4-genes-encode-male-specific-toll-like-receptors-in-drosophila
#18
Tera C Levin, Harmit S Malik
Animal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have evolved through a pattern of duplication and divergence. Whereas mammalian TLRs directly recognize microbial ligands, Drosophila Tolls bind endogenous ligands downstream of both developmental and immune signaling cascades. Here, we find that most Toll genes in Drosophila evolve slowly with little gene turnover (gains/losses), consistent with their important roles in development and indirect roles in microbial recognition. In contrast, we find that the Toll-3/4 genes have experienced an unusually rapid rate of gene gains and losses, resulting in lineage-specific Toll-3/4s and vastly different gene repertoires among Drosophila species, from zero copies (e...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#19
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
I C Kutch, K M Fedorka
Y- and W-chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defence by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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