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Drosophila melanogaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211509/climbing-favours-the-tripod-gait-over-alternative-faster-insect-gaits
#1
Pavan Ramdya, Robin Thandiackal, Raphael Cherney, Thibault Asselborn, Richard Benton, Auke Jan Ijspeert, Dario Floreano
To escape danger or catch prey, running vertebrates rely on dynamic gaits with minimal ground contact. By contrast, most insects use a tripod gait that maintains at least three legs on the ground at any given time. One prevailing hypothesis for this difference in fast locomotor strategies is that tripod locomotion allows insects to rapidly navigate three-dimensional terrain. To test this, we computationally discovered fast locomotor gaits for a model based on Drosophila melanogaster. Indeed, the tripod gait emerges to the exclusion of many other possible gaits when optimizing fast upward climbing with leg adhesion...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209644/mitochondrial-dysfunction-induces-dendritic-loss-via-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#2
Taiichi Tsuyama, Asako Tsubouchi, Tadao Usui, Hiromi Imamura, Tadashi Uemura
Mitochondria are key contributors to the etiology of diseases associated with neuromuscular defects or neurodegeneration. How changes in cellular metabolism specifically impact neuronal intracellular processes and cause neuropathological events is still unclear. We here dissect the molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Prel aberrant function mediates selective dendritic loss in Drosophila melanogaster class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Using in vivo ATP imaging, we found that neuronal cellular ATP levels during development are not correlated with the progression of dendritic loss...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209301/iswi-atp-dependent-remodeling-of-nucleoplasmic-%C3%AF-speckles-in-the-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Luca Lo Piccolo, Andrea Attardi, Rosa Bonaccorso, Lorenzo Li Greci, Giorgio Giurato, Antonia Maria Rita Ingrassia, Maria Cristina Onorati
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) belong to the RNA-binding proteins family. They are involved in processing heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) into mature mRNAs. These proteins participate in every step of mRNA cycle, such as mRNA export, localization, translation, stability and alternative splicing. At least 14 major hnRNPs, which have structural and functional homologues in mammals, are expressed in Drosophila melanogaster. Until now, six of these hnRNPs are known to be nucleus-localized and associated with the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) heat shock responsive ω (hsrω) in the omega speckle compartments (ω-speckles)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207793/the-drosophila-speciation-factor-hmr-localizes-to-genomic-insulator-sites
#4
Thomas Andreas Gerland, Bo Sun, Pawel Smialowski, Andrea Lukacs, Andreas Walter Thomae, Axel Imhof
Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207183/combining-the-auxin-inducible-degradation-system-with-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-for-the-conditional-depletion-of-endogenous-drosophila-melanogaster-proteins
#5
Melinda Bence, Ferenc Jankovics, Tamás Lukácsovich, Miklós Erdélyi
Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202465/metabolic-rate-and-hypoxia-tolerance-are-affected-by-group-interactions-and-sex-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster-new-data-and-a-literature-survey
#6
Warren Burggren, BriAnna M Souder, Dao H Ho
Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors) affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202360/lycopene-resveratrol-vitamin-c-and-feso4-increase-damage-produced-by-pro-oxidant-carcinogen-4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-in-drosophila-melanogaster-xenobiotic-metabolism-implications
#7
I E Dueñas-García, M E Heres-Pulido, M R Arellano-Llamas, J De la Cruz-Núñez, V Cisneros-Carrillo, C S Palacios-López, L Acosta-Anaya, L F Santos-Cruz, L Castañeda-Partida, A Durán-Díaz
4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) is a pro-oxidant carcinogen bioactivated by xenobiotic metabolism (XM). We investigated if antioxidants lycopene [0.45, 0.9, 1.8 μM], resveratrol [11, 43, 172 μM], and vitamin C [5.6 mM] added or not with FeSO4 [0.06 mM], modulate the genotoxicity of 4-NQO [2 mM] with the Drosophila wing spot test standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses, with inducible and high levels of cytochromes P450, respectively. The genotoxicity of 4-NQO was higher when dissolved in an ethanol - acetone mixture...
February 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199687/translational-compensation-of-gene-copy-number-alterations-by-aneuploidy-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Zhenguo Zhang, Daven C Presgraves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198506/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-1-in-drosophila-neurons
#9
P G M'Angale, B E Staveley
The mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) is a regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter that plays an important role in calcium sensing. It contains two EF-hand domains that are well conserved across diverse species from protozoa to plants and metazoans. The loss of MICU1 function in mammals is attributed to several neurological disorders that involve movement dysfunction. The CG4495 gene in Drosophila melanogaster was identified as a putative homolog of MICU1 in the HomoloGene database of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197917/sumo-in-drosophila-development
#10
Joseph Cao, Albert J Courey
The ubiquitin -like protein SUMO is conjugated covalently to hundreds of target proteins in organisms throughout the eukaryotic domain. Genetic and biochemical studies using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to reveal many essential functions for SUMO in cell biology and development. For example, SUMO regulates multiple signaling pathways such as the Ras/MAPK, Dpp, and JNK pathways. In addition, SUMO regulates transcription through conjugation to many transcriptional regulatory proteins, including Bicoid, Spalt , Scm, and Groucho...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196106/tor-signaling-pathway-and-autophagy-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-circadian-rhythms-in-behavior-and-plasticity-of-l2-interneurons-in-the-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Ewelina Kijak, Elżbieta Pyza
Drosophila melanogaster is a common model used to study circadian rhythms in behavior and circadian clocks. However, numerous circadian rhythms have also been detected in non-clock neurons, especially in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system. Such rhythms have been observed in the number of synapses and in the structure of interneurons, which exhibit changes in size and shape in a circadian manner. Although the patterns of these changes are known, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the TOR signaling pathway and autophagy in regulating circadian rhythms based on the behavior and structural plasticity of the lamina L2 monopolar cell dendritic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193725/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-the-reproductive-tract
#12
Diana Monsivais, Martin M Matzuk, Stephanie A Pangas
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family has a profound impact on the reproductive function of various organisms. In this review, we discuss how highly conserved members of the TGF-β family influence the reproductive function across several species. We briefly discuss how TGF-β-related proteins balance germ-cell proliferation and differentiation as well as dauer entry and exit in Caenorhabditis elegans. In Drosophila melanogaster, TGF-β-related proteins maintain germ stem-cell identity and eggshell patterning...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193148/external-calibration-with-drosophila-whole-cell-spike-ins-delivers-absolute-mrna-fold-changes-from-human-rna-seq-and-qpcr-data
#13
Franziska Taruttis, Maren Feist, Phillip Schwarzfischer, Wolfram Gronwald, Dieter Kube, Rainer Spang, Julia C Engelmann
Gene expression measurements are typically performed on a fixed-weight aliquot of RNA, which assumes that the total number of transcripts per cell stays nearly constant across all conditions. In cases where this assumption does not hold (e.g., when comparing cell types with different cell sizes) the expression data provide a distorted view of cellular events. Assuming constant numbers of total transcripts, increases in expression of some RNAs must be compensated for by decreases in expression of others. Therefore, we propose calibrating gene expression data to an external reference point, the number of cells in the sample, using whole-cell spike-ins...
February 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188816/a-chemical-genomics-approach-to-drug-reprofiling-in-oncology-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-as-a-potential-adenocarcinoma-treatment
#15
Suzanne J Dilly, Andrew J Clark, Andrew Marsh, Daniel A Mitchell, Ricky Cain, Colin W G Fishwick, Paul C Taylor
Drug reprofiling is emerging as an effective paradigm for discovery of cancer treatments. Herein, an antipsychotic drug is immobilised using the Magic Tag(®) chemical genomics tool and screened against a T7 bacteriophage displayed library of polypeptides from Drosophila melanogaster, as a whole genome model, to uncover an interaction with a section of 17-β-HSD10, a proposed prostate cancer target. A computational study and enzyme inhibition assay with full length human 17-β-HSD10 identifies risperidone as a drug reprofiling candidate...
February 8, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187833/effects-of-high-temperature-on-life-history-traits-and-heat-shock-protein-expression-in-chlorpyrifos-resistant-laodelphax-striatella
#16
Lihua Wang, Dan Shan, Yueliang Zhang, Xiangdong Liu, Yang Sun, Zhichun Zhang, Jichao Fang
The resistance of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatella, to insecticides has been widely found in China, and has posed serious problems to efforts to control the pest. To determine the costs and benefits of resistance, the life tables of chlorpyrifos-resistant and -susceptible strains were constructed at 24 and 30°C. The results showed the resistant SBPH (YN-CPF) had lower fitness at 24°C, but slightly higher fitness at 30°C compared to the susceptible SBPH. Transcriptomic analysis showed there are five heat shock protein genes changed their expression, and the up-regulated genes are LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187184/the-finr-regulated-essential-gene-fpra-encoding-ferredoxin-nadp-reductase-roles-in-superoxide-mediated-stress-protection-and-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Siriwan Boonma, Adisak Romsang, Jintana Duang-Nkern, Sopapan Atichartpongkul, Wachareeporn Trinachartvanit, Paiboon Vattanaviboon, Skorn Mongkolsuk
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two genes encoding ferredoxin NADP(+) reductases, denoted fprA and fprB. We show here that P. aeruginosa fprA is an essential gene. However, the ΔfprA mutant could only be successfully constructed in PAO1 strains containing an extra copy of fprA on a mini-Tn7 vector integrated into the chromosome or carrying it on a temperature-sensitive plasmid. The strain containing an extra copy of the ferredoxin gene (fdx1) could suppress the essentiality of FprA. Other ferredoxin genes could not suppress the requirement for FprA, suggesting that Fdx1 mediates the essentiality of FprA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183243/life-history-traits-of-an-extended-longevity-phenotype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
S Deepashree, Thimmappa Shivanandappa, Saraf R Ramesh
BACKGROUND: Aging or senescence is a complex biological phenomenon. Artificially selected Drosophila for extended longevity is one of the experimental models used to understand the mechanisms involved in aging and to test various theories. OBJECTIVE: To examine the life history traits and biochemical defenses in relation to aging in an extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster. METHODS: Life history traits viz., survivability, fecundity, development time, dry weight, wing size, lipid content, starvation, desiccation and cold resistances, locomotory ability, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen species level between control and selected lines of D...
February 9, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181526/no-effect-of-mitochondrial-genotype-on-reproductive-plasticity-following-exposure-to-a-non-infectious-pathogen-challenge-in-female-or-male-drosophila
#19
M Nystrand, E J Cassidy, D K Dowling
Mitochondrial genetic variation shapes the expression of life-history traits associated with reproduction, development and survival, and has also been associated with the prevalence and progression of infectious bacteria and viruses in humans. The breadth of these effects on multifaceted components of health, and their link to disease susceptibility, led us to test whether variation across mitochondrial haplotypes affected reproductive success following an immune challenge in the form of a non-infectious pathogen...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180997/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-disaccharide-transporter-in-lobster-hepatopancreas
#20
Olivia Scheffler, Gregory A Ahearn
In animals, the accepted model of carbohydrate digestion and absorption involves reduction of disaccharides into the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose followed by their individual transmembrane transport into cells. In 2011, a gene for a distinct disaccharide sucrose transporter (SCRT) was found in Drosophila melanogaster and characterized in a yeast expression system. The purpose of the present investigation was to functionally identify and characterize a putative disaccharide transporter analog in the hepatopancreas of the American lobster, Homarus americanus...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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