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Drosophila melanogaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454066/walking-behavior-in-a-circular-arena-modified-by-pulsed-light-stimulation-in-drosophila-melanogaster-w-1118-line
#1
Shuang Qiu, Chengfeng Xiao
The Drosophila melanogaster white-eyed w 1118 line serves as a parental stock, allowing genetic recombination of any gene of interest along with a readily recognizable marker. w 1118 flies display behavioral susceptibility to environmental stimulation such as light. It is of great importance to characterize the behavioral performance of w 1118 flies because this would provide a baseline from which the effect of the gene of interest could be differentiated. Little work has been performed to characterize the walking behavior in adult w 1118 flies...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451884/a-damped-oscillator-imposes-temporal-order-on-posterior-gap-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#2
Berta Verd, Erik Clark, Karl R Wotton, Hilde Janssens, Eva Jiménez-Guri, Anton Crombach, Johannes Jaeger
Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450902/identification-and-expression-profiles-of-novel-odorant-binding-proteins-and-functional-analysis-of-obp99a-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#3
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449456/place-learning-overrides-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#4
Vincent Baggett, Aditi Mishra, Abigail L Kehrer, Abbey O Robinson, Paul Shaw, Troy Zars
Animals in a natural environment confront many sensory cues. Some of these cues bias behavioral decisions independent of experience, and action selection can reveal a stimulus-response (S-R) connection. However, in a changing environment it would be a benefit for an animal to update behavioral action selection based on experience, and learning might modify even strong S-R relationships. How animals use learning to modify S-R relationships is a largely open question. Three sensory stimuli, air, light, and gravity sources were presented to individual Drosophila melanogaster in both naïve and place conditioning situations...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448071/activating-embryonic-development-in-drosophila
#5
REVIEW
Emir E Avilés-Pagán, Terry L Orr-Weaver
The transition from oocyte to embryo marks the onset of development. This process requires complex regulation to link developmental signals with profound changes in mRNA translation, cell cycle control, and metabolism. This control is beginning to be understood for most organisms, and research in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has generated new insights. Recent findings have increased our understanding of the roles played by hormone and Ca 2+ signaling events as well as metabolic remodeling crucial for this transition...
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446094/experimental-evidence-that-density-mediates-negative-frequency-dependent-selection-on-aggression
#6
R J Kilgour, A G McAdam, G S Betini, D R Norris
1.Aggression can be beneficial in competitive environments if aggressive individuals are more likely to access resources than non-aggressive individuals. However, variation in aggressive behaviour persists within populations, suggesting that high levels of aggression might not always be favoured. 2.The goal of this study was to experimentally assess the effects of population density and phenotypic frequency on selection on aggression in a competitive environment. 3.We compared survival of two strains of Drosophila melanogaster that differ in aggression across three density treatments and five frequency treatments (single strain groups, equal numbers of each strain, and strains mixed at 3:1 and 1:3 ratios) during a period of limited resources...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443051/detecting-anastasis-in-vivo-by-caspasetracker-biosensor
#7
Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, Ho Lam Tang
Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437539/genotoxicity-of-turnera-subulata-and-spondias-mombin%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-spondias-tuberosa-extracts-from-brazilian-caatinga-biome
#8
Tiago Felipe Senes-Lopes, Jorge Alberto López, Viviane Souza do Amaral, José Brandão-Neto, Adriana Augusto de Rezende, Jefferson Romáryo Duarte da Luz, Zaira da Rosa Guterres, Maria das Graças Almeida
Medicinal plants have been used in primary healthcare since the earliest days of humankind. Turnera subulata and Spondias mombin × Spondias tuberosa are widely used in the Brazilian Northeast to treat several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the leaf extracts of these species by the somatic mutation and recombination test in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster wings. The experiments were performed using standard and high-bioactivation cross and three concentrations of the test substance [aqueous extract (AET and AES) at 5...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#9
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435406/the-stl-repressor-from-staphylococcus-aureus-is-an-efficient-inhibitor-of-the-eukaryotic-fruitfly-dutpase
#10
András Benedek, István Pölöskei, Olivér Ozohanics, Károly Vékey, Beáta G Vértessy
DNA metabolism and repair is vital for the maintenance of genome integrity. Specific proteinaceous inhibitors of key factors in this process have high potential for deciphering pathways of DNA metabolism and repair. The dUTPase enzyme family is responsible for guarding against erroneous uracil incorporation into DNA. Here, we investigate whether the staphylococcal Stl repressor may interact with not only bacterial but also eukaryotic dUTPase. We provide experimental evidence for the formation of a strong complex between Stl and Drosophila melanogaster dUTPase...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432976/epigenomic-and-genomic-landscape-of-drosophila-melanogaster-heterochromatic-genes
#11
Parna Saha, Divya Tej Sowpati, Rakesh K Mishra
Heterochromatin is associated with transcriptional repression. In contrast, several genes in the pericentromeric regions of Drosophila melanogaster are dependent on this heterochromatic environment for their expression. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the epigenetic landscape of heterochromatic genes across all the developmental stages of Drosophila using the available histone modification and expression data from modENCODE. We find that heterochromatic genes exhibit combinations of active and inactive histone marks that correspond to their level of expression during development...
February 9, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432582/structural-rearrangements-in-the-mitochondrial-genome-of-drosophila-melanogaster-induced-by-elevated-levels-of-the-replicative-dna-helicase
#12
Grzegorz L Ciesielski, Cristina A Nadalutti, Marcos T Oliveira, Howard T Jacobs, Jack D Griffith, Laurie S Kaguni
Pathological conditions impairing functions of mitochondria often lead to compensatory upregulation of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replisome machinery, and the replicative DNA helicase appears to be a key factor in regulating mtDNA copy number. Moreover, mtDNA helicase mutations have been associated with structural rearrangements of the mitochondrial genome. To evaluate the effects of elevated levels of the mtDNA helicase on the integrity and replication of the mitochondrial genome, we overexpressed the helicase in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider cells and analyzed the mtDNA by two-dimensional neutral agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy...
February 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432454/history-dependence-in-insect-flight-decisions-during-odor-tracking
#13
Rich Pang, Floris van Breugel, Michael Dickinson, Jeffrey A Riffell, Adrienne Fairhall
Natural decision-making often involves extended decision sequences in response to variable stimuli with complex structure. As an example, many animals follow odor plumes to locate food sources or mates, but turbulence breaks up the advected odor signal into intermittent filaments and puffs. This scenario provides an opportunity to ask how animals use sparse, instantaneous, and stochastic signal encounters to generate goal-oriented behavioral sequences. Here we examined the trajectories of flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) navigating in controlled plumes of attractive odorants...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430636/sex-differences-in-life-span-females-homozygous-for-the-x-chromosome-do-not-suffer-the-shorter-life-span-predicted-by-the-unguarded-x-hypothesis
#14
Martin Brengdahl, Christopher M Kimber, Jack Maguire-Baxter, Urban Friberg
Life span differs between the sexes in many species. Three hypotheses to explain this interesting pattern have been proposed, involving different drivers: sexual selection, asymmetrical inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes, and hemizygosity of the X(Z) chromosome (the unguarded X hypothesis). Of these, the unguarded X has received the least experimental attention. This hypothesis suggests that the heterogametic sex suffers a shortened life span because recessive deleterious alleles on its single X(Z) chromosome are expressed unconditionally...
February 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429938/signaling-mode-of-the-broad-spectrum-conserved-co2-receptor-is-one-of-the-important-determinants-of-odor-valence-in-drosophila
#15
Dyan MacWilliam, Joel Kowalewski, Arun Kumar, Crystal Pontrello, Anandasankar Ray
Odor detection involves hundreds of olfactory receptors from diverse families, making modeling of hedonic valence of an odorant difficult, even in Drosophila melanogaster where most receptors have been deorphanised. We demonstrate that a broadly tuned heteromeric receptor that detects CO2 (Gr21a, Gr63a) and other odorants is a key determinant of valence along with a few members of the Odorant receptor family in a T-maze, but not in a trap assay. Gr21a and Gr63a have atypically high amino acid conservation in Dipteran insects, and they use both inhibition and activation to convey positive or negative valence for numerous odorants...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429791/corrigendum-to-accumulation-elimination-sequestration-and-genetic-variation-of-lead-pb2-loads-within-and-between-generations-of-drosophila-melanogaster-chemosphere-181-2017-368-375
#16
Elizabeth K Peterson, Diane T Wilson, Bernard Possidente, Phillip McDaniel, Eric J Morley, Debra Possidente, Kurt T Hollocher, Douglas M Ruden, Helmut V B Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429152/mass-spectrometry-based-screening-platform-reveals-orco-interactome-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Kate E Yu, Do-Hyoung Kim, Yong-In Kim, Walton D Jones, J Eugene Lee
Animals use their odorant receptors to receive chemical information from the environment. Insect odorant receptors differ from the G protein-coupled odorant receptors in vertebrates and nematodes, and very little is known about their protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce a mass spectrometric platform designed for the large-scale analysis of insect odorant receptor protein-protein interactions. Using this platform, we obtained the first Orco interactome from Drosophila melanogaster. From a total of 1,186 identified proteins, we narrowed the interaction candidates to 226, of which only two-thirds have been named...
February 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427506/anatomical-characterization-of-pdf-tri-neurons-and-peptidergic-neurons-associated-with-eclosion-behavior-in-drosophila
#18
Mareike Selcho, Barbara Mühlbauer, Ronja Hensgen, Sakiko Shiga, Christian Wegener, Kouji Yasuyama
The peptidergic PDF-Tri neurons are a group of non-clock neurons that appear transiently around the time of adult ecdysis (=eclosion) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This specific developmental pattern points to a function of these neurons in eclosion or other processes that are active around pupal-adult transition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426878/effect-of-genetic-architecture-on-the-prediction-accuracy-of-quantitative-traits-in-samples-of-unrelated-individuals
#19
Fabio Morgante, Wen Huang, Christian Maltecca, Trudy F C Mackay
Predicting complex phenotypes from genomic data is a fundamental aim of animal and plant breeding, where we wish to predict genetic merits of selection candidates; and of human genetics, where we wish to predict disease risk. While genomic prediction models work well with populations of related individuals and high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (e.g., livestock), comparable models perform poorly for populations of unrelated individuals and low LD (e.g., humans). We hypothesized that low prediction accuracies in the latter situation may occur when the genetics architecture of the trait departs from the infinitesimal and additive architecture assumed by most prediction models...
February 10, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425337/self-assembly-of-fus-through-its-low-complexity-domain-contributes-to-neurodegeneration
#20
Taisei Matsumoto, Koji Matsukawa, Naruaki Watanabe, Yuya Kishino, Hayato Kunugi, Ryoko Ihara, Tomoko Wakabayashi, Tadafumi Hashimoto, Takeshi Iwatsubo
Aggregation of fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein, and mutations in FUS gene, are causative to a range of neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. To gain insights into the molecular mechanism whereby FUS causes neurodegeneration, we generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster overexpressing human FUS in the photoreceptor neurons, which exhibited mild retinal degeneration. Expression of familial ALS-mutant FUS aggravated the degeneration, which was associated with an increase in cytoplasmic localization of FUS...
February 7, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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