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Drosophila melanogaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108836/smad-dependent-signaling-plays-a-detrimental-role-in-a-fly-model-of-smarcb1-deficiency-and-the-biology-of-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#1
Astrid Jeibmann, Jacqueline Schulz, Kristin Eikmeier, Pascal D Johann, Katharina Thiel, Isabel Tegeder, Oliver Ambrée, Michael C Frühwald, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool, Werner Paulus, Martin Hasselblatt
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are highly malignant brain tumors arising in young children. The majority of ATRT is characterized by inactivation of the chromatin remodeling complex member SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5). Little is known, however, on downstream pathways involved in the detrimental effects of SMARCB1 deficiency which might also represent targets for treatment. Using Drosophila melanogaster and the Gal4-UAS system, modifier screens were performed in order to identify the role of SMAD dependent signaling in the lethal phenotype associated with knockdown of snr1, the fly homolog of SMARCB1...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108477/quantitative-microscopy-uncovers-ploidy-changes-during-mitosis-in-live-drosophila-embryos-and-their-effect-on-nuclear-size
#2
Wee Choo Puah, Rambabu Chinta, Martin Wasser
Time-lapse microscopy is a powerful tool to investigate cellular and developmental dynamics. In Drosophila melanogaster, it can be used to study division cycles in embryogenesis. To obtain quantitative information from 3D time-lapse data and track proliferating nuclei from the syncytial stage until gastrulation, we developed an image analysis pipeline consisting of nuclear segmentation, tracking, annotation and quantification. Image analysis of maternal-haploid (mh) embryos revealed that a fraction of haploid syncytial nuclei fused to give rise to nuclei of higher ploidy (2n, 3n, 4n)...
January 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108070/corrigendum-to-regulation-of-polycomb-group-genes-psc-and-su-z-2-in-drosophila-melanogaster-mech-dev-128-2012-536-547
#3
Sung Yeon Park, Yuri B Schwartz, Tatyana G Kahn, Dalal Asker, Vincenzo Pirrotta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107672/a-computational-model-of-conditioning-inspired-by-drosophila-olfactory-system
#4
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ralf Heinrich, Florentin Wörgötter
Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning...
November 23, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107480/drosophila-vps13-is-required-for-protein-homeostasis-in-the-brain
#5
Jan J Vonk, Wondwossen M Yeshaw, Francesco Pinto, Anita I E Faber, Liza L Lahaye, Bart Kanon, Marianne van der Zwaag, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Raimundo Freire, Sven C van IJzendoorn, Nicola A Grzeschik, Ody C M Sibon
Chorea-Acanthocytosis is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of locomotor and cognitive function. It is caused by loss of function mutations in the Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13A (VPS13A) gene, which is conserved from yeast to human. The consequences of VPS13A dysfunction in the nervous system are still largely unspecified. In order to study the consequences of VPS13A protein dysfunction in the ageing central nervous system we characterized a Drosophila melanogaster Vps13 mutant line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104798/central-metabolic-sensing-remotely-controls-nutrient-sensitive-endocrine-response-in-drosophila-via-sir2-sirt1-upd2-iis-axis
#6
Kushal K Banerjee, Rujuta S Deshpande, Pranavi Koppula, Champakali Ayyub, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
Endocrine signaling is central in coupling organismal nutrient status with maintenance of systemic metabolic homeostasis. While local nutrient sensing within the insulinogenic tissue is well-studied, distant mechanisms that relay organismal nutrient status in controlling metabolic-endocrine signaling are less understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism underlying the distant regulation of metabolic endocrine response in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the communication between fat-body and insulin producing cells (IPCs), important for the secretion of dILPs, is regulated by the master metabolic sensor Sir2/Sirt1...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104747/the-goddard-and-saturn-genes-are-essential-for-drosophila-male-fertility-and-may-have-arisen-de-novo
#7
Anna M Gubala, Jonathan F Schmitz, Michael J Kearns, Tery T Vinh, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Mariana F Wolfner, Geoffrey D Findlay
New genes arise through a variety of mechanisms, including the duplication of existing genes and the de novo birth of genes from non-coding DNA sequences. While there are numerous examples of duplicated genes with important functional roles, the functions of de novo genes remain largely unexplored. Many newly evolved genes are expressed in the male reproductive tract, suggesting that these evolutionary innovations may provide advantages to males experiencing sexual selection. Using testis-specific RNA interference, we screened 11 putative de novo genes in Drosophila melanogaster for effects on male fertility and identified two, goddard and saturn, that are essential for spermatogenesis and sperm function...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104670/mutants-for-drosophila-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-3b-are-defective-in-mitochondrial-function-and-larval-cell-death
#8
Dianne M Duncan, Paula Kiefel, Ian Duncan
The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three "type" alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death...
January 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103682/mapping-the-phosphorylation-pattern-of-drosophila-melanogaster-rna-polymerase-ii-carboxyl-terminal-domain-using-ultraviolet-photodissociation-mass-spectrometry
#9
Joshua E Mayfield, Michelle R Robinson, Victoria C Cotham, Seema Irani, Wendy L Matthews, Anjana Ram, David S Gilmour, Joe R Cannon, Yan Jessie Zhang, Jennifer S Brodbelt
Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD) plays an essential role in eukaryotic transcription by recruiting transcriptional regulatory factors to the active polymerase. However, the scarcity of basic residues and repetitive nature of the CTD sequence impose a huge challenge for site-specific characterization of phosphorylation, hindering our understanding of this crucial biological process. Herein, we apply LC-UVPD-MS methods to analyze post-translational modification along native sequence CTDs...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103492/a-novel-type-of-gene-interaction-in-d-melanogaster
#10
B F Chadov, E V Chadova, N B Fedorova
The genes interact according to classical mechanisms, namely, complementation, modification, polymery, and epistasis, in the cells and organisms carrying these genes. Here we describe a novel type of gene interaction when the interacting genes reside in parents, whereas the interaction event takes place in their progenies lacking these genes. The conditional mutations in the D. melanogaster male X chromosome caused the "prohibition on producing daughters" in its offspring. The chromosomal rearrangements in chromosomes 2 and 3 of its female partner removed the prohibition...
January 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102430/innate-and-intrinsic-antiviral-immunity-in-drosophila
#11
REVIEW
Assel Mussabekova, Laurent Daeffler, Jean-Luc Imler
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a valuable model to investigate the genetic mechanisms of innate immunity. Initially focused on the resistance to bacteria and fungi, these studies have been extended to include antiviral immunity over the last decade. Like all living organisms, insects are continually exposed to viruses and have developed efficient defense mechanisms. We review here our current understanding on antiviral host defense in fruit flies. A major antiviral defense in Drosophila is RNA interference, in particular the small interfering (si) RNA pathway...
January 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102336/differential-effects-of-phytotherapic-preparations-in-the-hsod1-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-als
#12
Francescaelena De Rose, Roberto Marotta, Giuseppe Talani, Tiziano Catelani, Paolo Solari, Simone Poddighe, Giuseppe Borghero, Francesco Marrosu, Enrico Sanna, Sanjay Kasture, Elio Acquas, Anna Liscia
The present study was aimed at characterizing the effects of Withania somnifera (Wse) and Mucuna pruriens (Mpe) on a Drosophila melanogaster model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In particular, the effects of Wse and Mpe were assessed following feeding the flies selectively overexpressing the wild human copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-gain-of-function) in Drosophila motoneurons. Although ALS-hSOD1 mutants showed no impairment in life span, with respect to GAL4 controls, the results revealed impairment of climbing behaviour, muscle electrophysiological parameters (latency and amplitude of ePSPs) as well as thoracic ganglia mitochondrial functions...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102122/advances-in-myeloid-like-cell-origins-and-functions-in-the-model-organism-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Laure El Chamy, Nicolas Matt, Jean-Marc Reichhart
Drosophila has long served as a valuable model for deciphering many biological processes, including immune responses. Indeed, the genetic tractability of this organism is particularly suited for large-scale analyses. Studies performed during the last 3 decades have proven that the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response are conserved between Drosophila and mammals. This review summarizes the recent advances on Drosophila hematopoiesis and immune cellular responses, with a particular emphasis on phagocytosis...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100664/rab1-interacts-with-golph3-and-controls-golgi-structure-and-contractile-ring-constriction-during-cytokinesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Stefano Sechi, Anna Frappaolo, Roberta Fraschini, Luisa Capalbo, Marco Gottardo, Giorgio Belloni, David M Glover, Alan Wainman, Maria Grazia Giansanti
Cytokinesis requires a tight coordination between actomyosin ring constriction and new membrane addition along the ingressing cleavage furrow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle trafficking to the equatorial site and how this process is coupled with the dynamics of the contractile apparatus are poorly defined. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rab1 during cleavage furrow ingression in cytokinesis. We demonstrate that the gene omelette (omt) encodes the Drosophila orthologue of human Rab1 and is required for successful cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic dividing cells of Drosophila melanogaster We show that Rab1 protein colocalizes with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex Cog7 subunit and the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate effector GOLPH3 at the Golgi stacks...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100586/axon-termination-pruning-and-synaptogenesis-in-the-giant-fiber-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-promoted-by-highwire
#15
Melissa Borgen, Kimberly Rowland, Jana Boerner, Brandon Lloyd, Aruna Khan, Rod Murphey
The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100025/sex-biased-transcriptome-divergence-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#16
Scott L Allen, Russell Bonduriansky, Carla Sgro, Stephen F Chenoweth
Although not all sex-dependent gene expression is adaptive, it is likely an important genomic mechanism that allows each sex to independently adapt to environmental changes. Among Drosophila species, sex-biased genes display remarkably consistent evolutionary patterns; male-biased genes evolve faster than unbiased genes in both coding sequence and expression level, suggesting sex-differences in selection through time. However, comparatively little is known of the evolutionary process shaping sex-biased expression within species...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099780/the-genetic-architecture-of-defense-as-resistance-to-and-tolerance-of-bacterial-infection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Virginia M Howick, Brian P Lazzaro
Defense against pathogenic infection can take two forms: resistance and tolerance. Resistance is the ability of the host to limit a pathogen burden, whereas tolerance is the ability to limit the negative consequences of infection at a given level of infection intensity. Evolutionarily, a tolerance strategy that is independent of resistance could allow the host to avoid mounting a costly immune response and, theoretically, to avoid a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Biomedically, understanding the mechanisms of tolerance and how they relate to resistance could potentially yield treatment strategies that focus on health improvement instead of pathogen elimination...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098183/seasonal-and-regional-presence-of-hymenopteran-parasitoids-of-drosophila-in-switzerland-and-their-ability-to-parasitize-the-invasive-drosophila-suzukii
#18
Valery Knoll, Thomas Ellenbroek, Jörg Romeis, Jana Collatz
Since its introduction into Europe the invasive Drosophila suzukii has established and spread widely, thereby entering habitats populated by native Drosophila species and their natural enemies. The highly prolific D. suzukii will likely interact with these species as a competitor, host or prey. To investigate potential interactions of D. suzukii with parasitoids, a field survey was conducted across several fruit-growing regions in Switzerland in two consecutive years. Eight species of hymenopteran parasitoids were collected using D...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096360/measurement-of-cortical-elasticity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-embryos-using-ferrofluids
#19
Konstantin Doubrovinski, Michael Swan, Oleg Polyakov, Eric F Wieschaus
Many models of morphogenesis are forced to assume specific mechanical properties of cells, because the actual mechanical properties of living tissues are largely unknown. Here, we measure the rheology of epithelial cells in the cellularizing Drosophila embryo by injecting magnetic particles and studying their response to external actuation. We establish that, on timescales relevant to epithelial morphogenesis, the cytoplasm is predominantly viscous, whereas the cellular cortex is elastic. The timescale of elastic stress relaxation has a lower bound of 4 min, which is comparable to the time required for internalization of the ventral furrow during gastrulation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095502/drosophila-genotype-influences-commensal-bacterial-levels
#20
Angela M Early, Niroshan Shanmugarajah, Nicolas Buchon, Andrew G Clark
Host genotype can influence the composition of the commensal bacterial community in some organisms. Composition, however, is only one parameter describing a microbial community. Here, we test whether a second parameter-abundance of bacteria-is a heritable trait by quantifying the presence of four commensal bacterial strains within 36 gnotobiotic inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that D. melanogaster genotype exerts a significant effect on microbial levels within the fly. When introduced as monocultures into axenic flies, three of the four bacterial strains were reliably detected within the fly...
2017: PloS One
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