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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328397/age-dependent-diastolic-heart-failure-in-an-in-vivo-drosophila-model
#1
Matthew P Klassen, Christian J Peters, Shiwei Zhou, Hannah H Williams, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh Nung Jan
While the signals and complexes that coordinate the heartbeat are well established, how the heart maintains its electromechanical rhythm over a lifetime remains an open question with significant implications to human health. Reasoning that this homeostatic challenge confronts all pulsatile organs, we developed a high resolution imaging and analysis toolset for measuring cardiac function in intact, unanesthetized Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that, as in humans, normal aging primarily manifests as defects in relaxation (diastole) while preserving contractile performance...
March 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326770/creating-a-homeodomain-with-high-stability-and-dna-binding-affinity-by-sequence-averaging
#2
Katherine W Tripp, Matt Sternke, Ananya Majumdar, Doug Barrick
There is considerable interest in generating proteins with both high stability and high activity for biomedical and industrial purposes. One approach that has been used successfully to increase the stability of linear repeat proteins is consensus design. It is unclear the extent over which the consensus design approach can be used to produce folded and hyperstable proteins, and importantly, whether such stabilized proteins would retain function. Here we extend the consensus strategy to design a globular protein...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324607/sted-imaging-in-drosophila-brain-slices
#3
Sandra Fendl, Jesús Pujol-Martí, Joel Ryan, Alexander Borst, Robert Kasper
Super-resolution microscopy is a very powerful tool to investigate fine cellular structures and molecular arrangements in biological systems. For instance, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy has been successfully used in recent years to investigate the arrangement and colocalization of different protein species in cells in culture and on the surface of specimens. However, because of its extreme sensitivity to light scattering, super-resolution imaging deep inside tissues remains a challenge. Here, we describe the preparation of thin slices from the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) brain, subsequent immunolabeling and imaging with STED microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323896/biological-phosphorylation-of-an-unnatural-base-pair-ubp-using-a-drosophila-melanogaster-deoxynucleoside-kinase-dmdnk-mutant
#4
Fei Chen, Yuan Zhang, Ashley B Daugherty, Zunyi Yang, Ryan Shaw, Mengxing Dong, Stefan Lutz, Steven A Benner
One research goal for unnatural base pair (UBP) is to replicate, transcribe and translate them in vivo. Accordingly, the corresponding unnatural nucleoside triphosphates must be available at sufficient concentrations within the cell. To achieve this goal, the unnatural nucleoside analogues must be phosphorylated to the corresponding nucleoside triphosphates by a cascade of three kinases. The first step is the monophosphorylation of unnatural deoxynucleoside catalyzed by deoxynucleoside kinases (dNK), which is generally considered the rate limiting step because of the high specificity of dNKs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322435/genomic-changes-following-the-reversal-of-a-y-chromosome-to-an-autosome-in-drosophila-pseudoobscura
#5
Ching-Ho Chang, Amanda M Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10-15 Mya...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320100/drosophila-melanogaster-a-potential-model-organism-for-identification-of-pharmacological-properties-of-plants-plant-derived-components
#6
REVIEW
Komal Panchal, Anand K Tiwari
Plants/plant-derived components have been used from ancient times to treat/cure several human diseases. Plants and their parts possess several chemical components that play the vital role in the improvement of human health and their life expectancy. Allopathic medicines have been playing a key role in the treatment of several diseases. Though allopathic medicines provide fast relief, long time consumption cause serious health concerns such as hyperallergic reactions, liver damage, etc. So, the study of medicinal plants which rarely cause any side effect is very important to mankind...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315996/olfactory-preferences-of-the-parasitic-nematode-howardula-aoronymphium-and-its-insect-host-drosophila-falleni
#7
James A Cevallos, Ryo P Okubo, Steve J Perlman, Elissa A Hallem
Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective stage that searches for hosts. Olfaction plays an important role in this process, with nematodes navigating their environment using host-emitted and environmental olfactory cues. The interactions between parasitic nematodes and their hosts are also influenced by the olfactory behaviors of the host, since host olfactory preferences drive behaviors that may facilitate or impede parasitic infection. However, how olfaction shapes parasite-host interactions is poorly understood...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315837/a-search-for-genes-mediating-the-growth-promoting-function-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-disc
#8
Covadonga F Hevia, Ana López-Varea, Nuria Esteban, Jose F de Celis
TGFβ signalling has a complex influence in cell proliferation, acting to stop cell division in differentiating cells, but also promoting cell division in immature cells. The activity of the pathway in Drosophila is mostly required to stimulate the proliferation of neural and epithelial tissues. Most interestingly, this function is not absolutely required for cell division, but it is needed for these tissues to reach their correct size. It is not known how TGFβ signalling promotes cell division in imaginal discs, or what are the interactions between TGFβ activity and other signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315830/paternal-induction-of-hybrid-dysgenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-weakly-correlated-with-both-p-element-and-hobo-element-dosage
#9
Satyam P Srivastav, Erin S Kelleher
Transposable elements (TEs) are virtually ubiquitous components of genomes, yet they often impose significant fitness consequences on their hosts. In addition to producing specific deleterious mutations by insertional inactivation, TEs also impose general fitness costs by inducing DNA damage and participating in ectopic recombination. These latter fitness costs are often assumed to be dosage-dependent, with stronger effects occurring in the presence of higher TE copy numbers. We test this assumption in Drosophila melanogaster by considering the relationship between the copy number of two active DNA transposons, P-element and hobo element, and the incidence of hybrid dysgenesis, a sterility syndrome associated with transposon activity in the germline...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304334/kdm2-family-members-are-regulated-by-hif-1-in-hypoxia
#10
Michael Batie, Jimena Druker, Laura D'Ignazio, Sonia Rocha
Hypoxia is not only a developmental cue but also a stress and pathological stimulus in many human diseases. The response to hypoxia at the cellular level relies on the activity of the transcription factor family, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF-1 is responsible for the acute response and transactivates a variety of genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell death, and cell growth. Here, we show that hypoxia results in increased mRNA levels for human lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2 (KDM2) family members, KDM2A and KDM2B, and also for Drosophila melanogaster KDM2, a histone and protein demethylase...
March 17, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304234/antimutagenic-evaluation-of-traditional-medicinal-plants-from-south-america-peumus-boldus-and-cryptocarya-alba-using-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Erico R Carmona, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Jorge Parodi, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau
Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304136/zebrafish-models-of-non-canonical-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signalling-fishing-for-valuable-insight-into-vertebrate-polarized-cell-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Maria Jussila, Brian Ciruna
Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the uniform orientation, structure and movement of cells within the plane of a tissue or organ system. It is beautifully illustrated in the polarized arrangement of bristles and hairs that project from specialized cell surfaces of the insect abdomen and wings, and pioneering genetic studies using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have defined a core signalling network underlying PCP. This core PCP/non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is evolutionarily conserved, and studies in zebrafish have helped transform our understanding of PCP from a peculiarity of polarized epithelia to a more universal cellular property that orchestrates a diverse suite of polarized cell behaviors that are required for normal vertebrate development...
March 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303588/dietary-consumption-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-induces-adaptive-response-and-reduction-in-the-life-span-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Amos O Abolaji, Charles O Olaiya, Oluwagbenga J Oluwadahunsi, Ebenezer O Farombi
Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime...
March 16, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300473/cells-on-the-move-modulation-of-guidance-cues-during-germ-cell-migration
#14
Girish Deshpande, Justinn Barr, Offer Gerlitz, Lyubov Lebedeva, Yulii Shidlovskii, Paul Schedl
In Drosophila melanogaster the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are formed on the outside surface of the early embryo, while the somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) are specified during mid-embryogenesis. To form the primitive embryonic gonad, the PGCs travel from outside of the embryo, across the mid-gut and then migrate through the mesoderm to the SGPs. The migratory path of PGCs is dictated by a series of attractive and repulsive cues. Studies in our lab have shown that one of the key chemoattractants is the Hedgehog (Hh) ligand...
March 16, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299188/genome-wide-measurement-of-spatial-expression-in-patterning-mutants-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Peter A Combs, Michael B Eisen
Patterning in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo is affected by multiple maternal factors, but the effect of these factors on spatial gene expression has not been systematically analyzed. Here we characterize the effect of the maternal factors Zelda, Hunchback and Bicoid by cryosectioning wildtype and mutant blastoderm stage embryos and sequencing mRNA from each slice. The resulting atlas of spatial gene expression highlights the intersecting roles of these factors in regulating spatial patterns, and serves as a resource for researchers studying spatial patterning in the early embryo...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298431/canu-scalable-and-accurate-long-read-assembly-via-adaptive-k-mer-weighting-and-repeat-separation
#16
Sergey Koren, Brian P Walenz, Konstantin Berlin, Jason R Miller, Nicholas H Bergman, Adam M Phillippy
Long-read single-molecule sequencing has revolutionized de novo genome assembly and enabled the automated reconstruction of reference-quality genomes. However, given the relatively high error rates of such technologies, efficient and accurate assembly of large repeats and closely related haplotypes remains challenging. We address these issues with Canu, a successor of Celera Assembler that is specifically designed for noisy single-molecule sequences. Canu introduces support for nanopore sequencing, halves depth-of-coverage requirements, and improves assembly continuity while simultaneously reducing runtime by an order of magnitude on large genomes versus Celera Assembler 8...
March 15, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298319/analysis-of-axonal-trafficking-via-a-novel-live-imaging-technique-reveals-distinct-hedgehog-transport-kinetics
#17
Joseph R Daniele, Rehan M Baqri, Samuel Kunes
The Drosophila melanogaster (Dmel) eye is an ideal model to study development, intracellular signaling, behavior, and neurodegenerative disease. Interestingly, dynamic data is not commonly employed to investigate eye-specific disease models. Using axonal transport of the morphogen Hedgehog (Hh), which is integral to Dmel eye-brain development and implicated in stem cell maintenance and neoplastic disease, we demonstrate the ability to comprehensively quantify and characterize its trafficking in various neuron types and a neurodegeneration model in live early 3(rd) instar larval Drosophila We find that neuronal Hh, whose kinetics have not been reported previously, favors fast anterograde transport and varies in speed and flux with respect to axonal position...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298310/atypical-centrioles-are-present-in-tribolium-sperm
#18
E L Fishman, Kyoung Jo, Andrew Ha, Rachel Royfman, Ashtyn Zinn, Malathi Krishnamurthy, Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster, we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298298/non-reciprocal-homeostatic-compensation-in-drosophila-potassium-channel-mutants
#19
Eugene Z Kim, Julie Vienne, Michael Rosbash, Leslie C Griffith
Homeostatic control of intrinsic excitability is important for long-term regulation of neuronal activity. In conjunction with many other forms of plasticity, intrinsic homeostasis helps neurons maintain stable activity regimes in the face of external input variability and destabilizing genetic mutations. In this study, we report a mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster larval motor neurons stabilize hyperactivity induced by the loss of the delayed rectifying K(+) channel Shaker Cognate B (Shab), by upregulating the Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel encoded by the slowpoke (slo) gene...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296892/blue-light-induced-accumulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-is-a-consequence-of-the-drosophila-cryptochrome-photocycle
#20
Louis-David Arthaut, Nathalie Jourdan, Ali Mteyrek, Maria Procopio, Mohamed El-Esawi, Alain d'Harlingue, Pierre-Etienne Bouchet, Jacques Witczak, Thorsten Ritz, André Klarsfeld, Serge Birman, Robert J Usselman, Ute Hoecker, Carlos F Martino, Margaret Ahmad
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily conserved blue-light absorbing flavoproteins which participate in many important cellular processes including in entrainment of the circadian clock in plants, Drosophila and humans. Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome (DmCry) absorbs light through a flavin (FAD) cofactor that undergoes photoreduction to the anionic radical (FAD•-) redox state both in vitro and in vivo. However, recent efforts to link this photoconversion to the initiation of a biological response have remained controversial...
2017: PloS One
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