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Drosophila melanogaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643248/computational-prediction-of-crispr-cas9-target-sites-reveals-potential-off-target-risks-in-human-and-mouse
#2
Qingbo Wang, Kumiko Ui-Tei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system is a prominent genome engineering technology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas protein introduces a DNA double-stranded break at the genome position recognized by a guide RNA (gRNA) based on complementary base-pairing of about 20-nucleotides in length. The 8- or 12-mer gRNA sequence in the proximal region is especially important for target recognition, and the genes with sequence complementarity to such regions are often disrupted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642050/the-drosophila-thioester-containing-protein-4-participates-in-the-induction-of-the-cellular-immune-response-to-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#3
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The function of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the immune defense of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is yet mostly unexplored. Recently, we showed the involvement of TEP4 in the activation of humoral and phenoloxidase immune responses of Drosophila against the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Here, we investigated the participation of Tep4 in the cellular defense of Drosophila against the two pathogens. We report significantly lower numbers of live and dead plasmatocytes in the tep4 mutants compared to control flies in response to Photorhabdus infection...
June 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641508/is-longevity-a-heritable-trait-evidence-for-non-genomic-influence-from-an-extended-longevity-phenotype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
S Deepashree, Thimmappa Shivanandappa, Saraf R Ramesh
BACKGROUND: Although genetic variations are heritable, some quantitative traits like longevity may have non-genomic influence in heritability. Laboratory-selected inbred strains of extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila offer an opportunity to study the inheritance of longevity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the heritability of longevity in an extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster using reciprocal cross effects in F1 and F2 generations. METHODS: Lifespan variations of virgin and mated flies in parent, F1 and F2 generations were investigated using reciprocal crosses between normal and long lifespan lines of inbred population of D...
June 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640457/primordial-like-enzymes-from-bacteria-with-reduced-genomes
#5
Matteo P Ferla, Jodi L Brewster, Kelsi R Hall, Gary B Evans, Wayne M Patrick
The first cells probably possessed rudimentary metabolic networks, built using a handful of multifunctional enzymes. The promiscuous activities of modern enzymes are often assumed to be relics of this primordial era; however, by definition these activities are no longer physiological. There are many fewer examples of enzymes using a single active site to catalyze multiple physiologically-relevant reactions. Previously, we characterized the promiscuous alanine racemase (ALR) activity of Escherichia coli cystathionine β-lyase (CBL)...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637711/the-exon-junction-complex-and-srp54-contribute-to-drosophila-hedgehog-signaling-via-ci-rna-splicing
#6
Elisa Garcia Garcia, Jamie C Little, Daniel Kalderon
Hedgehog (Hh) regulates the Cubitus interruptus (Ci) transcription factor in Drosophila melanogaster by activating full-length Ci-155 and blocking processing to Ci-75 repressor. However, the interplay between regulation of Ci-155 levels and activity, as well as processing-independent mechanisms that affect Ci-155 levels have not been explored extensively. Here we identified Mago Nashi (Mago) and Y14 core Exon Junction Complex (EJC) proteins, as well as the Srp54 splicing factor as modifiers of Hh pathway activity under sensitized conditions...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#8
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634860/molecular-chaperone-hsp70-and-its-constitutively-active-form-hsc70-play-an-indispensable-role-during-eye-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Ajay Kumar, Anand K Tiwari
In the present study, we demonstrate that molecular chaperone Hsp70 and Hsc70 is essential for normal organization and development of ommatidial cells in Drosophila melanogaster eye. An exogenously expressed dominant negative mutant of Hsp70 (K71E) and Hsc70.4 (K71S and D206S) in an eye-specific manner resulted in eye degeneration that includes loss of eye pigment, disorganized ommatidia, abnormality in bristle cell arrangement and reduction in the eye size. The developmental organization of ommatidial cells (cone, photoreceptor, pigment, and bristle cell complex) was disturbed in Hsp70 and Hsc70 mutants...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634244/simple-expression-domains-are-regulated-by-discrete-crms-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#10
Nicole T Revaitis, Robert A Marmion, Maira Farhat, Vesile Ekiz, Wei Wang, Nir Yakoby
Eggshell patterning has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster However, the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), which control spatiotemporal expression of these patterns, are vastly unexplored. The FlyLight collection contains over 7,000 intergenic and intronic DNA fragments that, if containing CRMs, can drive the transcription factor GAL4. We cross-listed the 84 genes known to be expressed during D. melanogaster oogenesis with the ~1200 listed genes of the FlyLight collection, and found 22 common genes that are represented by 281 FlyLight fly lines...
June 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634210/the-glycosylation-pathway-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-slit-and-for-the-maintenance-of-the-slit-receptor-robo-on-axons
#11
Mary Ann Manavalan, Vatsala Ruvini Jayasinghe, Rickinder Grewal, Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Slit proteins act as repulsive axon guidance cues by activating receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family. During early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, Slit prevents the growth cones of longitudinal tract neurons from inappropriately crossing the midline, thus restricting these cells to trajectories parallel to the midline. Slit is expressed in midline glial cells, and Robo is present in longitudinal axon tracts and growth cones. We showed that the enzyme Mummy (Mmy) controlled Slit-Robo signaling through mechanisms that affected both the ligand and the receptor...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#12
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631995/monitoring-the-effect-of-pathogenic-nematodes-on-locomotion-of-drosophila-larvae
#13
Martin Kunc, Badrul Arefin, Pavel Hyrsl, Ulrich Theopold
One of the key factors that determine the interaction between hosts and their parasites is the frequency of their interactions, which depends on the locomotory behavior of both parts. To address host behavior we used natural infections involving insect pathogenic nematodes and Drosophila melanogaster larvae as hosts. Using a modified version of a recently described method (FIMTrack) to assess several parameters in larger sets of animals, we initially detected specific differences in larval food searching when comparing Drosophila strains...
February 21, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630470/overcoming-evolved-resistance-to-population-suppressing-homing-based-gene-drives
#14
John M Marshall, Anna Buchman, Héctor M Sánchez C, Omar S Akbari
The recent development of a CRISPR-Cas9-based homing system for the suppression of Anopheles gambiae is encouraging; however, with current designs, the slow emergence of homing-resistant alleles is expected to result in suppressed populations rapidly rebounding, as homing-resistant alleles have a significant fitness advantage over functional, population-suppressing homing alleles. To explore this concern, we develop a mathematical model to estimate tolerable rates of homing-resistant allele generation to suppress a wild population of a given size...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630287/correction-for-mattei-et-al-integrated-3d-view-of-postmating-responses-by-the-drosophila-melanogaster-female-reproductive-tract-obtained-by-micro-computed-tomography-scanning
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630113/complex-coding-and-regulatory-polymorphisms-in-a-restriction-factor-determine-the-susceptibility-of-drosophila-to-viral-infection
#16
Chuan Cao, Rodrigo Cogni, Vincent Barbier, Francis M Jiggins
It is common to find that major-effect genes are an important cause of variation in susceptibility to infection. Here we have characterised natural variation in a gene called pastrel that explains over half of the genetic variance in susceptibility to the virus DCV in populations of Drosophila melanogaster We found extensive allelic heterogeneity, with a sample of seven alleles of pastrel from around the world conferring four phenotypically distinct levels of resistance. By modifying candidate SNPs in transgenic flies, we show that the largest effect is caused by an amino acid polymorphism that arose when an ancestral threonine was mutated to alanine, greatly increasing resistance to DCV...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628606/splicing-stimulates-sirna-formation-at-drosophila-dna-double-strand-breaks
#17
Karin Merk, Marco Breinig, Romy Böttcher, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Michael Boutros, Klaus Förstemann
DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627812/genetics-of-alcohol-consumption-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Sophia Fochler, Tatiana V Morozova, Morgan R Davis, Alexander W Gearhart, Wen Huang, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Individual variation in alcohol consumption in human populations is determined by genetic, environmental, social and cultural factors. In contrast to humans, genetic contributions to complex behavioral phenotypes can be readily dissected in Drosophila, where both the genetic background and environment can be controlled and behaviors quantified through simple high-throughput assays. Here, we measured voluntary consumption of ethanol in ~3,000 individuals of each sex from an advanced intercross population derived from 37 lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel...
June 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627073/determination-of-radical-radical-distances-in-light-active-proteins-and-their-implication-for-biological-magnetoreception
#19
Daniel Nohr, Bernd Paulus, Ryan Rodriguez, Asako Okafuji, Robert Bittl, Erik Schleicher, Stefan Weber
Light-generated short-lived radial pairs have been suggested to play pivotal roles in cryptochromes and photolyases. Chryptochromes are very probably involved in magnetic compass sensing in migratory birds and the magnetic-field-dependent behavior of insects. We examined photo-generated transient states in the cryptochrome of Drosophila melanogaster and in the structurally related DNA-repair enzyme Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. Using pulsed EPR spectroscopy, the exchange and dipolar contributions to the electron spin-spin interaction were determined in a straightforward and direct way...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625786/drug-induces-depression-like-phenotypes-and-alters-gene-expression-profiles-in-drosophila
#20
Ming-Di Jiang, Ya Zheng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomarkers, including significantly decreased food intake, mating frequency, serotonin (5-HT) concentration, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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