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Drosophila melanogaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692083/-the-role-of-white-gene-and-its-mechanism-during-the-formation-of-curly-wing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Cheng Li Wu, Xin da Lin, Yan Yun Jiang, Shuai Shuai Meng
Curly wing is one of the most frequently used genetic markers in Drosophila melanogaster, but its molecular mechanism is remained unclear. Previous results have showed that physicochemical stimulation would affect the formation of the cruly wing. Our recent study found that H2 O2 could not only affect the eclosion rate of D. melanogaster, but also induce the formation of curly wing. Here, we aimed to uncover the specific factors influencing the formation of curly wing in D. melanogaster via changing the concentration of H2 O2 and the temperature as well as the time of H2 O2 treatment...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691331/gabaergic-local-interneurons-shape-female-fruit-fly-response-to-mating-songs
#2
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688104/two-novel-forms-of-erg-oscillation-in-drosophila-age-and-activity-dependence
#3
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686091/one-prophage-wo-gene-rescues-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
J Dylan Shropshire, Jungmin On, Emily M Layton, Helen Zhou, Seth R Bordenstein
Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular bacteria at the forefront of vector control efforts to curb arbovirus transmission. In international field trials, the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) drive system of w Mel Wolbachia is deployed to replace target vector populations, whereby a Wolbachia -induced modification of the sperm genome kills embryos. However, Wolbachia in the embryo rescue the sperm genome impairment, and therefore CI results in a strong fitness advantage for infected females that transmit the bacteria to offspring...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685999/biosynthesis-and-assembly-of-the-collagen-iv-like-protein-pericardin-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Ariane C Wilmes, Nora Klinke, Barbara Rotstein, Heiko Meyer, Achim Paululat
In Drosophila , formation of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) starts during embryogenesis. Assembly and incorporation of structural proteins such as Collagen IV, Pericardin, and Laminin A, B1, and B2 into the cardiac ECM is critical to the maintenance of heart integrity and functionality and, therefore, to longevity of the animal. The cardiac ECM connects the heart tube with the alary muscles; thus, the ECM contributes to a flexible positioning of the heart within the animal's body. Moreover, the cardiac ECM holds the larval pericardial nephrocytes in close proximity to the heart tube and the inflow tract, which is assumed to be critical to efficient haemolymph clearance...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684406/conservation-of-cardiac-l-type-ca-2-channels-and-their-regulation-in-drosophila-a-novel-genetically-pliable-channelopathic-model
#6
Worawan B Limpitikul, Meera C Viswanathan, Brian O'Rourke, David T Yue, Anthony Cammarato
Dysregulation of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) underlies numerous cardiac pathologies. Understanding their modulation with high fidelity relies on investigating LTCCs in their native environment with intact interacting proteins. Such studies benefit from genetic manipulation of endogenous channels in cardiomyocytes, which often proves cumbersome in mammalian models. Drosophila melanogaster, however, offers a potentially efficient alternative as it possesses a relatively simple heart, is genetically pliable, and expresses well-conserved genes...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684010/a-machine-learning-based-framework-to-identify-and-classify-long-terminal-repeat-retrotransposons
#7
Leander Schietgat, Celine Vens, Ricardo Cerri, Carlos N Fischer, Eduardo Costa, Jan Ramon, Claudia M A Carareto, Hendrik Blockeel
Transposable elements (TEs) are repetitive nucleotide sequences that make up a large portion of eukaryotic genomes. They can move and duplicate within a genome, increasing genome size and contributing to genetic diversity within and across species. Accurate identification and classification of TEs present in a genome is an important step towards understanding their effects on genes and their role in genome evolution. We introduce TE-Learner, a framework based on machine learning that automatically identifies TEs in a given genome and assigns a classification to them...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683457/measurement-of-mitochondrial-oxygen-consumption-in-permeabilized-fibers-of-drosophila-using-minimal-amounts-of-tissue
#8
Chloé J Simard, Guillaume Pelletier, Luc H Boudreau, Etienne Hebert-Chatelain, Nicolas Pichaud
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, represents an emerging model for the study of metabolism. Indeed, drosophila have structures homologous to human organs, possess highly conserved metabolic pathways and have a relatively short lifespan that allows the study of different fundamental mechanisms in a short period of time. It is, however, surprising that one of the mechanisms essential for cellular metabolism, the mitochondrial respiration, has not been thoroughly investigated in this model. It is likely because the measure of the mitochondrial respiration in Drosophila usually requires a very large number of individuals and the results obtained are not highly reproducible...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682673/sociability-in-fruit-flies-genetic-variation-heritability-and-plasticity
#9
Andrew M Scott, Ian Dworkin, Reuven Dukas
Sociability, defined as individuals' propensity to participate in non-aggressive activities with conspecifics, is a fundamental feature of behavior in many animals including humans. However, we still have a limited knowledge of the mechanisms and evolutionary biology of sociability. To enhance our understanding, we developed a new protocol to quantify sociability in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). In a series of experiments with 59 F1 hybrids derived from inbred lines, we documented, first, significant genetic variation in sociability in both males and females, with broad-sense heritabilities of 0...
April 23, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679661/evolutionary-compromises-to-metabolic-toxins-ammonia-and-urea-tolerance-in-drosophila-suzukii-and-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase
The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii has evolved morphological and behavioural adaptations to lay eggs under the skin of fresh fruits. This results in severe damage to a wide range of small fruits. Drosophila suzukii females typically lay few eggs per fruit, preferring healthy fruits. Hence, larvae are exposed to a reduced amount of nitrogenous waste. Differently, the innocuous Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs on fermented fruits already infested by conspecifics, with larvae developing in a crowded environment with the accumulation of nitrogenous waste such as ammonia and urea...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678920/imidacloprid-decreases-honey-bee-survival-but-does-not-affect-the-gut-microbiome
#11
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678692/nucpospred-predicting-species-specific-genomic-nucleosome-positionin-g-via-four-different-modes-of-general-pseknc
#12
Cangzhi Jia, Qing Yang, Quan Zou
The nucleosome is the basic structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells, with essential roles in the regulation of many biological processes, such as DNA transcription, replication and repair, and RNA splicing. Because of the importance of nucleosomes, the factors that determine their positioning within genomes should be investigated. High-resolution nucleosome-positioning maps are now available for organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, enabling the identification of nucleosome positioning by application of computational tools...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676775/cross-sex-genetic-correlations-and-the-evolution-of-sex-specific-local-adaptation-insights-from-classical-trait-clines-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Clémentine Lasne, Sandra B Hangartner, Tim Connallon, Carla M Sgrò
Natural selection varies widely among locations of a species' range, favouring population divergence and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Selection also differs between females and males, favouring the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Both forms of within-species evolutionary diversification are widely studied, though largely in isolation, and it remains unclear whether environmental variability typically generates similar or distinct patterns of selection on each sex. Studies of sex-specific local adaptation are also challenging because they must account for genetic correlations between female and male traits, which may lead to correlated patterns of trait divergence between sexes, whether or not local selection patterns are aligned or differ between the sexes...
April 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676724/wolbachia-mediated-protection-of-drosophila-melanogaster-against-systemic-infection-with-its-natural-viral-pathogen-drosophila-c-virus-does-not-involve-changes-in-levels-of-highly-abundant-mirnas
#14
Verna Monsanto-Hearne, Karyn N Johnson
The presence of Wolbachia confers virus protection to insects. The molecular mechanism underlying Wolbachia-mediated protection in this tripartite host-endosymbiont-virus interaction is not yet fully understood. In the bipartite association between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV), changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. Here we examined whether changes in miRNA expression are similarly involved in the Drosophila-Wolbachia-DCV association...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675803/drosophila-s2-cell-culture-in-a-wave-bioreactor-potential-for-scaling-up-the-production-of-the-recombinant-rabies-virus-glycoprotein
#15
Monize Caiado Decarli, Diogo Peres Dos Santos, Renato Mancini Astray, Daniella Cristina Ventini-Monteiro, Soraia Attie Calil Jorge, Daniela Matilde Correia, Juliana de Sá da Silva, Mayra Pereira Rocca, Hélio Langoni, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Carlos Augusto Pereira, Claudio Alberto Torres Suazo
The transmembrane rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) is the main antigen of vaccine formulations used around the world to prevent rabies, the most lethal preventable infectious disease known. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of a bioreactor using wave-induced agitation in the initial steps of scaling up the rRVGP production process by a Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell line to produce rRVGP in sufficient quantities for immunization and characterization studies. Taking advantage of some remarkable features recognized in Drosophila S2 cells for scaling the culture process, a robust recombinant lineage (S2MtRVGPH-His) engineered by our group for the expression of rRVGP using a copper-inducible promoter was used in the bioreactor cultures...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673388/neural-circuits-driving-larval-locomotion-in-drosophila
#16
REVIEW
Matthew Q Clark, Aref Arzan Zarin, Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Chris Q Doe
More than 30 years of studies into Drosophila melanogaster neurogenesis have revealed fundamental insights into our understanding of axon guidance mechanisms, neural differentiation, and early cell fate decisions. What is less understood is how a group of neurons from disparate anterior-posterior axial positions, lineages and developmental periods of neurogenesis coalesce to form a functional circuit. Using neurogenetic techniques developed in Drosophila it is now possible to study the neural substrates of behavior at single cell resolution...
April 19, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670218/the-impact-of-genome-variation-and-diet-on-the-metabolic-phenotype-and-microbiome-composition-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Lisa Jehrke, Fiona A Stewart, Andrea Droste, Mathias Beller
The metabolic phenotype of an organism depends on a complex regulatory network, which integrates the plethora of intrinsic and external information and prioritizes the flow of nutrients accordingly. Given the rise of metabolic disorders including obesity, a detailed understanding of this regulatory network is in urgent need. Yet, our level of understanding is far from completeness and complicated by the discovery of additional layers in metabolic regulation, such as the impact of the microbial community present in the gut on the hosts' energy storage levels...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667381/galleria-mellonella-l-as-model-organism-used-in-biomedical-and-other-studies
#18
Ewa Mikulak, Aleksandra Gliniewicz, Marta Przygodzka, Jolanta Solecka
Comparative of studies of genomes of invertebrates and humans shows that in invertebrates including insects there are numerous homologues of human’s genes coding proteins involved in recognition pathogens or transduction of the expression signal. Thanks this features, insects such as Drosophila melanogaster M., Blattella germanica L., Culex quinquefasciatus S., Bombyx mori L. and Galleria mellonella L. are used in studies on virulence, host resistance or in assessing the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics, fungicides and other biologically active substances...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667128/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-protects-and-prevents-paraquat-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration-in-knockdown-dj-1-%C3%AE-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Daniel A Martinez-Perez, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyhydroxyphenol constituent of green tea (e.g., Camellia sinensis) with known antioxidant properties. Due to these properties, others have proposed it as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that EGCG prolonged the lifespan and locomotor activity in wild-type Canton-S flies exposed to the neurotoxicant paraquat (PQ), suggesting neuroprotective properties. Both gene mutations and environmental neurotoxicants (e...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666231/next-generation-crispr-cas9-transcriptional-activation-in-drosophila-using-flysam
#20
Yu Jia, Rong-Gang Xu, Xingjie Ren, Ben Ewen-Campen, Rajendhran Rajakumar, Jonathan Zirin, Donghui Yang-Zhou, Ruibao Zhu, Fang Wang, Decai Mao, Ping Peng, Huan-Huan Qiao, Xia Wang, Lu-Ping Liu, Bowen Xu, Jun-Yuan Ji, Qingfei Liu, Jin Sun, Norbert Perrimon, Jian-Quan Ni
CRISPR/Cas9-based transcriptional activation (CRISPRa) has recently emerged as a powerful and scalable technique for systematic overexpression genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster We present flySAM, a potent tool for in vivo CRISPRa, which offers major improvements over existing strategies in terms of effectiveness, scalability, and ease of use. flySAM outperforms existing in vivo CRISPRa strategies and approximates phenotypes obtained using traditional Gal4-UAS overexpression. Moreover, because flySAM typically requires only a single sgRNA, it dramatically improves scalability...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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