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Drosophila melanogaster

Nikita Deshpande, Victoria H Meller
Many heterogametic organisms adjust sex chromosome expression to accommodate differences in gene dosage. This requires selective recruitment of regulatory factors to the modulated chromosome. How these factors are localized to a chromosome with requisite accuracy is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster males increase expression from their single X chromosome. Identification of this chromosome involves cooperation between different classes of X-identity elements. The Chromatin Entry Sites (CES) recruit a chromatin-modifying complex that spreads into nearby genes and increases expression...
June 19, 2018: Genetics
Kazuki Shibuya, Shun Onodera, Masatoshi Hori
Short-wavelength visible light (blue light: 400-500 nm) has lethal effects on various insects, such as fruit flies, mosquitoes, and flour beetles. However, the most toxic wavelengths of blue light might differ across developmental stages. Here, we investigate how the toxicity of blue light changes with the developmental stages of an insect by irradiating Drosophila melanogaster with different wavelengths of blue light. Specifically, the lethal effect on eggs increased at shorter light wavelengths (i.e., toward 405 nm)...
2018: PloS One
Jelena Patrnogic, Christa Heryanto, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to analyze the regulation of conserved signaling pathways. In this study, we examined whether signaling components in the Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway are involved in the response to wounding caused by either sterile injury or infection by parasitic nematodes in D. melanogaster adult flies. We found that following sterile injury, the BMP pathway Type I receptor sax and intracellular transcription factor Mad were substantially upregulated...
June 16, 2018: Gene
Shaodong Guo, Volker Herzig, Glenn F King
The growing world population is placing an increasing demand on food production. In addition, abuse and misuse of chemical insecticides has led to the evolution of resistance in insect pests as well as environmental damage. Together, these developments have created a demand for new insecticidal compounds to facilitate global food production. Arachnid venom peptides provide an environmentally-friendly alternative as potential bioinsecticides given their advantages of being fully biodegradable, highly potent, and phyletically selective...
June 16, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jun Young Sonn, Jongbin Lee, Min Kyung Sung, Hwajung Ri, Jung Kyoon Choi, Chunghun Lim, Joonho Choe
Sleep and metabolism are physiologically and behaviorally intertwined; however, the molecular basis for their interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a serine metabolic pathway as a key mediator for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Transcriptome analyses revealed that enzymes involved in serine biosynthesis were induced upon starvation in Drosophila melanogaster brains. Genetic mutants of astray ( aay ), a fly homolog of the rate-limiting phosphoserine phosphatase in serine biosynthesis, displayed reduced starvation-induced sleep suppression...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David Fast, Benjamin Kostiuk, Edan Foley, Stefan Pukatzki
While the structure and regulatory networks that govern type-six secretion system (T6SS) activity of Vibrio cholerae are becoming increasingly clear, we know less about the role of T6SS in disease. Under laboratory conditions, V. cholerae uses T6SS to outcompete many Gram-negative species, including other V. cholerae strains and human commensal bacteria. However, the role of these interactions has not been resolved in an in vivo setting. We used the Drosophila melanogaster model of cholera to define the contribution of T6SS to V...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ameya Sanjay Kasture, Thomas Hummel, Sonja Sucic, Michael Freissmuth
The brain of Drosophila melanogaster is comprised of some 100,000 neurons, 127 and 80 of which are dopaminergic and serotonergic, respectively. Their activity regulates behavioral functions equivalent to those in mammals, e.g., motor activity, reward and aversion, memory formation, feeding, sexual appetite, etc. Mammalian dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons are known to be heterogeneous. They differ in their projections and in their gene expression profile. A sophisticated genetic tool box is available, which allows for targeting virtually any gene with amazing precision in Drosophila melanogaster ...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Max Franz, Harold Rodriguez, Christian Lopes, Khalid Zuberi, Jason Montojo, Gary D Bader, Quaid Morris
GeneMANIA ( is a flexible user-friendly web site for generating hypotheses about gene function, analyzing gene lists and prioritizing genes for functional assays. Given a query gene list, GeneMANIA finds functionally similar genes using a wealth of genomics and proteomics data. In this mode, it weights each functional genomic dataset according to its predictive value for the query. Another use of GeneMANIA is gene function prediction. Given a single query gene, GeneMANIA finds genes likely to share function with it based on their interactions with it...
June 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroko Sano
Organ-to-organ communication by endocrine signaling, for example, from the periphery to the brain, is essential for maintaining homeostasis. As a model animal for endocrine research, Drosophila melanogaster, which has sophisticated genetic tools and genome information, is being increasingly used. This article describes a method for the calcium imaging of Drosophila brain explants. This method enables the detection of the direct signaling of a hormone to the brain. It is well known that many peptide hormones act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose activation causes an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jonathon A Siva-Jothy, Arun Prakash, Radhakrishnan B Vasanthakrishnan, Katy M Monteith, Pedro F Vale
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the best developed model systems of infection and innate immunity. While most work has focused on systemic infections, there has been a recent increase of interest in the mechanisms of gut immunocompetence to pathogens, which require methods to orally infect flies. Here we present a protocol to orally expose individual flies to an opportunistic bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a natural bacterial pathogen of D. melanogaster (Pseudomonas entomophila)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nicholas P Boyer, Caroline Monkiewicz, Shalini Menon, Sheryl S Moy, Stephanie L Gupton
Class I members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases evolutionarily appeared just prior to the advent of neuronal like cells and have been implicated in neuronal development from invertebrates to mammals. The single Class I TRIM in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans and the mammalian Class I TRIM9 regulate axon branching and guidance in response to the guidance cue netrin, whereas mammalian TRIM46 establishes the axon initial segment. In humans, mutations in TRIM1 and TRIM18 are implicated in Opitz Syndrome, characterized by midline defects and often intellectual disability...
May 2018: ENeuro
Kristofer Davie, Jasper Janssens, Duygu Koldere, Maxime De Waegeneer, Uli Pech, Łukasz Kreft, Sara Aibar, Samira Makhzami, Valerie Christiaens, Carmen Bravo González-Blas, Suresh Poovathingal, Gert Hulselmans, Katina I Spanier, Thomas Moerman, Bram Vanspauwen, Sarah Geurs, Thierry Voet, Jeroen Lammertyn, Bernard Thienpont, Sha Liu, Nikos Konstantinides, Mark Fiers, Patrik Verstreken, Stein Aerts
The diversity of cell types and regulatory states in the brain, and how these change during aging, remains largely unknown. We present a single-cell transcriptome atlas of the entire adult Drosophila melanogaster brain sampled across its lifespan. Cell clustering identified 87 initial cell clusters that are further subclustered and validated by targeted cell-sorting. Our data show high granularity and identify a wide range of cell types. Gene network analyses using SCENIC revealed regulatory heterogeneity linked to energy consumption...
June 9, 2018: Cell
Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Sierra Lavoy, Vinita G Chittoor-Vinod, Clement Y Chow, Ian Martin
Disease phenotypes can be highly variable among individuals with the same pathogenic mutation. There is increasing evidence that background genetic variation is a strong driver of disease variability in addition to the influence of environment. To understand the genotype-phenotype relationship that determines the expressivity of a pathogenic mutation, a large number of backgrounds must be studied. This can be efficiently achieved using model organism collections such as the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP)...
June 15, 2018: Genetics
Anton Strunov, Lidiya V Boldyreva, Evgeniya N Andreyeva, Gera A Pavlova, Julia V Popova, Alena V Razuvaeva, Alina F Anders, Fioranna Renda, Alexey V Pindyurin, Maurizio Gatti, Elena Kiseleva
BACKGROUND: S2 cells are one of the most widely used Drosophila melanogaster cell lines. A series of studies has shown that they are particularly suitable for RNAi-based screens aimed at the dissection of cellular pathways, including those controlling cell shape and motility, cell metabolism, and host-pathogen interactions. In addition, RNAi in S2 cells has been successfully used to identify many new mitotic genes that are conserved in the higher eukaryotes, and for the analysis of several aspects of the mitotic process...
June 15, 2018: BMC Biology
Freja Scheys, Els Jm Van Damme, Kristof De Schutter, An Staes, Kris Gevaert, Guy Smagghe
N-glycosylation is one of the most abundant and conserved protein modifications in eukaryotes. The attachment of N-glycans to proteins can modulate their properties and influences numerous important biological processes, such as protein folding and cellular attachment. Recently, it has been shown that protein N-glycosylation plays a vital role in insect development and survival, which makes the glycans an interesting target for pest control. Despite the importance of protein N-glycosylation in insects, knowledge about insect N-glycoproteomes is scarce...
June 12, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ganesh M Mohite, Saumya Dwivedi, Subhadeep Das, Rakesh Kumar, Sravya Paluri, Surabhi Mehra, Neha Ruhela, Arunima S, Narendra Nath Jha, Samir K Maji
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation and amyloid formation are associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, familial mutations in α-Syn are shown to be one of the definite causes of PD. Here we have extensively studied familial PD associated α-Syn G51D, H50Q and E46K mutations using Drosophila model system. Our data showed that flies expressing α-Syn familial mutants have a shorter lifespan and exhibit more climbing defects compared to wild-type (WT) flies in an age-dependent manner...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt, Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ayla Karatas, Emel Ozgumus Demir
Due to the increased interest shown in kefir, the present study examined its effects on some developmental characteristics in Drosophila. To compare the results related to kefir, another fermented product, i.e., yogurt, and the raw material of kefir, i.e., milk, were included in the experiment. All three foods were fed to Drosophila by addition to the medium. The results showed that the three foods delayed development in generations F1 and F2. In both generations, the number of adults was lower than that of the control group, but the comparison of the foods among themselves showed no significant difference...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yiqun Sun, Haiyang Jiang, Ming Gu, Xinyu Zheng
Keloid scarring is a type of fibroproliferative disease with a high recurrence rate. However, no effective treatment is currently available. Combined therapy with recombinant lentivirus‑mediated Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm‑dNK) and prodrug has been widely studied and used for cancer treatment. Due to the similarities between keloid scars and tumors, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a Dm‑dNK/nucleoside analog system for the treatment of keloid scars...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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