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Drosophila melanogaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727785/novel-crispr-cas9-gene-drive-constructs-reveal-insights-into-mechanisms-of-resistance-allele-formation-and-drive-efficiency-in-genetically-diverse-populations
#1
Jackson Champer, Riona Reeves, Suh Yeon Oh, Chen Liu, Jingxian Liu, Andrew G Clark, Philipp W Messer
A functioning gene drive system could fundamentally change our strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases by facilitating rapid dissemination of transgenes that prevent pathogen transmission or reduce vector capacity. CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive promises such a mechanism, which works by converting cells that are heterozygous for the drive construct into homozygotes, thereby enabling super-Mendelian inheritance. Although CRISPR gene drive activity has already been demonstrated, a key obstacle for current systems is their propensity to generate resistance alleles, which cannot be converted to drive alleles...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727495/localization-of-pp2a-b56-to-centromeres-in-drosophila
#2
Emil Peter Thrane Hertz, Jakob Nilsson
Protection of chromosome cohesion through Shugoshin-dependent recruitment of the PP2A-B56 phosphatase to the pericentromeric region has become a cornerstone of the chromosome segregation model in eukaryotes. Shugoshin is essential for meiotic chromosome segregation in all tested eukaryotes but only found to be essential for mitotic chromosome segregation in vertebrates. Nishiyama and colleagues have now found that the protein Dalmatian, an ortholog of the vertebrate cohesion regulator Sororin, performs the function of Shugoshin in Drosophila melanogaster by recruiting PP2A-B56 to the pericentromeric region supporting an unified model of mitotic chromosome segregation in the animal kingdom...
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727418/combining-tof-sims-imaging-mass-spectrometry-and-cars-microspectroscopy-reveals-lipid-patterns-reminiscent-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-wing-imaginal-disc-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Florian Marty, Gianluca Rago, Donald F Smith, Xiaoli Gao, Gert B Eijkel, Luke MacAleese, Mischa Bonn, Erich Brunner, Konrad Basler, Ron M A Heeren
Using label-free ToF-SIMS imaging mass spectrometry, we generated a map of small molecules differentially expressed in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. The distributions of these moieties were in line with gene expression patterns observed during wing imaginal disc development. Combining ToF-SIMS imaging and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) microspectroscopy allowed us to locally identify acylglycerols as the main constituents of the pattern differentiating the future body wall tissue from the wing blade tissue...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726107/studying-a-novel-ecdysone-dependent-enhancer
#4
J V Nikolenko, A N Krasnov, M Y Mazina, S G Georgieva, N E Vorobyeva
Earlier [4], we developed a two-stage scheme of the activation of expression of the ecdysone cascade gene ftz-f1 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. In the first intron of the ftz-f1 gene, we found a binding site for the transcription activator DHR3. In this work, we studied the properties of this genomic element: the change in the histone modification level at different stages of transcription activation were analyzed, and data indicating the interaction of the intron element with the promoter were obtained...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724687/direct-and-trans-generational-effects-of-male-and-female-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Juliano Morimoto, Stephen J Simpson, Fleur Ponton
There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP-infected males...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720579/recruitment-of-histone-modifications-to-assist-mrna-dosage-maintenance-after-degeneration-of-cytosine-dna-methylation-during-animal-evolution
#6
Andrew Yf Chang, Ben-Yang Liao
Following gene duplication, mRNA expression of the duplicated gene is reduced to maintain mRNA dosage. In mammals, this process is achieved with increased cytosine DNA methylation of the promoters of duplicated genes to suppress transcriptional initiation. However, not all animal species possess a full apparatus for cytosine DNA methylation. For such species such as roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans, "worm" hereafter) or fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster, "fly" hereafter), it is unclear how reduced expression of duplicated genes has been achieved evolutionarily...
July 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717187/the-inducible-blockage-of-rnai-reveals-a-role-for-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-regulation-of-dsrna-endocytic-capacity-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#7
Xiaolong Dong, Xiaoxue Li, Qiujia Li, Hongmei Jia, Hongyu Zhang
Exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can trigger gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Our previous research established that Bactrocera dorsalis can block RNAi after an initial priming of exposure to dsRNA. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways play important roles in the blockage of RNAi induced by dsRNA priming. The ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) was significantly increased in the hemolymph of B...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716930/conserved-gene-regulatory-module-specifies-lateral-neural-borders-across-bilaterians
#8
Yongbin Li, Di Zhao, Takeo Horie, Geng Chen, Hongcun Bao, Siyu Chen, Weihong Liu, Ryoko Horie, Tao Liang, Biyu Dong, Qianqian Feng, Qinghua Tao, Xiao Liu
The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716842/outer-nuclear-membrane-protein-kuduk-modulates-the-linc-complex-and-nuclear-envelope-architecture
#9
Zhao-Ying Ding, Ying-Hsuan Wang, Yu-Cheng Huang, Myong-Chol Lee, Min-Jen Tseng, Ya-Hui Chi, Min-Lang Huang
Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes spanning the nuclear envelope (NE) contribute to nucleocytoskeletal force transduction. A few NE proteins have been found to regulate the LINC complex. In this study, we identify one, Kuduk (Kud), which can reside at the outer nuclear membrane and is required for the development of Drosophila melanogaster ovarian follicles and NE morphology of myonuclei. Kud associates with LINC complex components in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Loss of Kud increases the level but impairs functioning of the LINC complex...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#10
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714258/renal-neuroendocrine-control-of-desiccation-and-cold-tolerance-by-drosophila-suzukii
#11
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph G C Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological, and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in D. suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with D. melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capa, Leucokinin, DH44 and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrate a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711868/human-ttbk1-ttbk2-and-mark1-kinase-toxicity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-exacerbated-by-co-expression-of-human-tau
#12
Josefin Fernius, Annika Starkenberg, Malgorzata Pokrzywa, Stefan Thor
Tau protein is involved in numerous human neurodegenerative diseases, and Tau hyper-phosphorylation has been linked to Tau aggregation and toxicity. Previous studies have addressed toxicity and phospho-biology of human Tau (hTau) in Drosophila melanogaster However, hTau transgenes have most often been randomly inserted in the genome, thus making it difficult to compare between different hTau isoforms and phospho-mutants. In addition, many studies have expressed hTau also in mitotic cells, causing non-physiological toxic effects...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710767/rapid-detection-of-%C3%AE-h2av-foci-in-ex-vivo-mms-treated-drosophila-imaginal-discs
#13
Varandt Y Khodaverdian, Mitch McVey
In Drosophila melanogaster, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) created by exposure to gamma or X-ray radiation can be quantified by immunofluorescent detection of phosphorylated histone H2Av (γ-H2Av) foci in imaginal disc tissues. This technique has been less useful for studying DSBs in imaginal discs exposed to DSB-inducing chemicals, since standard protocols require raising larvae in food treated with liquid chemical suspensions. These protocols typically take 3-4 days to complete and result in heterogeneous responses that do not provide information about the kinetics of DSB formation and repair...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710457/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-proteins-inhibit-interspecies-courtship-and-promote-aggression-in-drosophila
#14
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jonathan C Andrews, Edmond R Brewer, Sarah J Certel
Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709004/mapping-the-neural-substrates-of-behavior
#15
Alice A Robie, Jonathan Hirokawa, Austin W Edwards, Lowell A Umayam, Allen Lee, Mary L Phillips, Gwyneth M Card, Wyatt Korff, Gerald M Rubin, Julie H Simpson, Michael B Reiser, Kristin Branson
Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707656/-regulation-of-heat-shock-gene-expression-in-response-to-stress
#16
D G Garbuz
Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#17
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706002/micrornas-that-contribute-to-coordinating-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Magda L Atilano, Marcus Glittenberg, Annabel Monteiro, Richard Copley, Petros Ligoxygakis
Small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression related to host defences. Here, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to explore the contribution of individual or clusters of miRNAs in countering systemic C. albicans infection. From a total of 72 tested, we identify six miRNAs allelic mutant backgrounds that modulate the survival response to infection and ability to control pathogen number. These mutants also exhibit dysregulation of the Toll pathway target transcripts Drosomycin (Drs) and Immune-Induced Molecule 1 (IM1)...
July 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705828/crispr-induced-null-alleles-show-that-frost-protects-drosophila-melanogaster-reproduction-after-cold-exposure
#19
Claire E Newman, Jantina Toxopeus, Hiroko Udaka, Soohyun Ahn, David M Martynowicz, Steffen P Graether, Brent J Sinclair, Anthony Percival-Smith
The ability to survive and reproduce after cold exposure is important in all kingdoms of life. However, even in a sophisticated genetic model system like Drosophila melanogaster, few genes have been identified as functioning in cold tolerance. The accumulation of the Frost (Fst) gene transcript increases after cold exposure, making it a good candidate for a gene that has a role in cold tolerance. However, despite extensive RNAi knockdown analysis, no role in cold tolerance has been assigned to Fst CRISPR is an effective technique for completely knocking down genes, and less likely to produce off-target effects than GAL4-UAS RNAi systems...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705811/proprotein-convertase-furin1-expression-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-is-essential-for-a-normal-antimicrobial-peptide-response-and-bacterial-host-defense
#20
Saara Aittomäki, Susanna Valanne, Tapio Lehtinen, Sampsa Matikainen, Tuula A Nyman, Mika Rämet, Marko Pesu
Invading pathogens provoke robust innate immune responses in Dipteran insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster In a systemic bacterial infection, a humoral response is induced in the fat body. Gram-positive bacteria trigger the Toll signaling pathway, whereas gram-negative bacterial infections are signaled via the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. We show here that the RNA interference-mediated silencing of Furin1-a member of the proprotein convertase enzyme family-specifically in the fat body, results in a reduction in the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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