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Jian-Liang Zhao, Edward T Furlong, Heiko L Schoenfuss, Dana W Kolpin, Kyle L Bird, David J Feifarek, Eric A Schwab, Guang-Guo Ying
The increasing use of pharmaceuticals has led to their subsequent input into and release from wastewater treatment plants, with corresponding discharge into surface waters that may subsequently exert adverse effects upon aquatic organisms. Although the distribution of pharmaceuticals in surface water has been extensively studied, the details of uptake, internal distribution, and kinetic processing of pharmaceuticals in exposed fish have received less attention. For this research, we investigated the uptake, disposition, and toxicokinetics of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, methocarbamol, rosuvastatin, sulfamethoxazole, and temazepam) in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (1000-4000 ng L(-1)) in a flow-through exposure system...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Asad E Patanwala, Ohoud Aljuhani, Brian J Kopp, Brian L Erstad
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methocarbamol on hospital length of stay in patients with closed rib fracture injuries. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an academic medical center in the United States. Adult trauma patients, who sustained closed rib fractures, were included. Patients were categorized based on whether they received methocarbamol or not during admission. The primary outcome of interest was time to hospital discharge in days (i...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
Hugues Beaufrère, Delphine Laniesse, Paul Stickings, Robert Tierney, Thea Sesardic, Durda Slavic, Nicole Compo, Dale A Smith
A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
Asad Patanwala, Ohoud Aljuhani, Brian Kopp, Brian Erstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Dariush Minai-Tehrani, Sara Toofani, Fatemeh Yazdi, Arash Minai-Tehrani, Hamidreza Mollasalehi, Kourosh Bakhtiari Ziabari
After red blood cells lysis, hemoglobin is released to blood circulation. Hemoglobin is carried in blood by binding to haptoglobin. In normal individuals, no free hemoglobin is observed in the blood, because most of the hemoglobin is in the form of haptoglobin complex. In some diseases that are accompanied by hemolysis, the amount of released hemoglobin is higher than its complementary haptoglobin. As a result, free hemoglobin appears in the blood, which is a toxic compound for these patients and may cause renal failure, hypertensive response and risk of atherogenesis...
January 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
H K Knych, S D Stanley, K N Seminoff, D S McKemie, P H Kass
Methocarbamol (MCBL) is commonly used in performance horses for the treatment of skeletal muscle disorders. Current regulatory recommendations for show horses and racehorses are based on a single oral dose of 5 g, although doses in excess of this are often administered. The goal of the current study was to characterize the disposition of MCBL following higher dose administration and administration in combination with another commonly used drug in performance horses, phenylbutazone (PBZ). Exercised Thoroughbred horses were administered various doses of MCBL as a sole agent and MCBL in combination with PBZ...
October 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Manar M Tolba, Mohamed M Salim
In this study, two analytical approaches were exploited for the resolution of binary mixtures of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP) or norfloxacin (NOR) and phenazopyridine HCl (PHZ). In the first approach, the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra were measured at 267 or 287 nm for CIP and at 268 or 291 nm for NOR. PHZ could be directly determined in the presence of CIP or NOR at 405 nm. The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the ranges of 1.0-16.0 µg/mL for CIP or NOR and 1.0-10.0 µg/mL for PHZ...
May 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba, Alejandro Castro-Rodríguez, John Alexander Álzate-Piedrahita, Julián Andrés Hoyos-Pulgarín, Diego Alejandro Medina-Morales
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk and frequency of anticholinergic drug prescriptions in a population affiliated with the Colombian General System of Social Security in Health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Patients older than 65 years who received drugs with the potential to block cholinergic receptors, in accordance with an anticholinergic risk scale. MEASUREMENTS: The total anticholinergic load was determined by the sum of the risk of each prescribed drug...
March 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Heiko L Schoenfuss, Edward T Furlong, Pat J Phillips, Tia-Marie Scott, Dana W Kolpin, Marina Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Kelsey E Lesteberg, Daniel C Rearick
Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (<100 ng/L) in most municipal wastewater effluents but may be elevated locally because of factors such as input from pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds...
April 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ohoud Aljuhani, Brian J Kopp, Asad E Patanwala
There is interest in the use of methocarbamol as an adjunctive agent for pain control after traumatic injury. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of methocarbamol on pain measurements after acute injury. This was a retrospective, matched cohort study conducted at an academic medical center in the United States. Consecutive adult (age ≥18 years) patients who were admitted to the hospital between June 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013 because of a traumatic injury were evaluated. Patient cases receiving methocarbamol for at least 3 days were matched to controls that did not receive methocarbamol based on age, sex, and injury severity...
March 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
Oliver M D Emrich, Klaus A Milachowski, Martin Strohmeier
BACKGROUND: Muscle relaxants are widely used to treat low back pain (LBP), one of the most frequent health problems in industrialized countries. For this indication, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recently had imposed restrictions for some muscle relaxants, anti-inflammatories and analgesics; Tetrazepam even had to be withdrawn from the market. Therefore methocarbamol remains the only approved muscle relaxant. Methocarbamol is well-established for the treatment of LBP associated with myofascial components, although more recent clinical studies have not been published...
July 2015: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Luis-Miguel Gonzalez-Perez, Pedro Infante-Cossio, Mercedes Granados-Nunez, Francisco-Javier Urresti-Lopez, Ricardo Lopez-Martos, Pablo Ruiz-Canela-Mendez
BACKGROUND: To determine whether deep dry needling (DDN) of trigger points (TPs) in the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) would significantly reduce pain and improve function, compared with methocarbamol/paracetamol medication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients with chronic myofascial pain located in the LPM were selected and randomly assigned to one of two groups (DDN test group, n=24; drug-treated control group, n=24). The test group received three applications of needling of the LPM once per week for three weeks, while control group patients were given two tablets of a methocarbamol/paracetamol combination every six hours for three weeks...
May 1, 2015: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Hebatallah M Essam, Mohamed K Abd-El Rahman
Two smart, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for simultaneous determination of Methocarbamol (METH) and Paracetamol (PAR) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation without preliminary separation. Method A, is an extended ratio subtraction one (EXRSM) coupled with ratio subtraction method (RSM), which depends on subtraction of the plateau values from the ratio spectrum. Method B is a ratio difference spectrophotometric one (RDM) which measures the difference in amplitudes of ratio spectra between 278 and 286 nm for METH and 247 and 260 nm for PAR...
April 15, 2015: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mohammad Saraji, Taghi Khayamian, Zahra Hashemian
In this work, a polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite decorated with Fe3 O4 nanoparticles was chemically synthesized and applied as a novel adsorbent for the extraction of methocarbamol from human plasma. Electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry was used for the determination of the analyte. The properties of the magnetic-modified adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The effects of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of the sorbent were investigated...
December 2014: Journal of Separation Science
Won Suk Lee, Jang Young Lee, Won Young Sung, Sang Won Seo
The authors report a case of acute methemoglobinemia in a patient treated with naproxen for the common cold. A 42-year-old Asian woman began taking naproxen sodium and methocarbamol formylagia, chills, and coughing. On the day prior to her emergency department (ED) admission,the patient was taking lorazepam, trazodon, and paroxetine in addition to the naproxen and methocarbamol prescribed for the cold symptoms, and she also ingested approximately 300 mL of 20% alcohol. Upon awakening the next morning, the patient experienced dyspnea and dizziness...
November 2014: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ahmed M Mansour, Ola R Shehab
Structural properties of methocarbamol (Mcm) were extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically using FT IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., geometry optimization, Mulliken charge, and molecular electrostatic potential. Stability arises from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and H-bonding was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mcm was decomposed in ethanol/water mixture at 80°C to guaifenesin [(RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol] and carbamate ion [NH2COO(-)], where the degradation mechanism was explained by trapping the carbamate ion via the complexation with copper(II) ion...
July 15, 2014: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Bobby N Pruitt
Rhabdomyolysis in equines occurs in horses due to physical overexertion or underlying pathologic myopathy. Methocarbamol is a muscle relaxant that can be used in equines to treat symptoms associated with Rhabdomyolysis. Methocarbamol is available as a solution for injection but is not commercially available as an oral suspension. This article focuses on the treatment of Tying-up caused by overexertion, and details the treatment of Rhabdomyolysis with an oral suspension that was prepared for a veterinarian by a compounding pharmacist...
September 2013: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Whitney D DeGroot
A 2-year-old cat was presented with acute onset seizures, tremors, and hypersalivation. Permethrin toxicity was diagnosed based on a history of recent flea treatment. Measures were taken to minimize further absorption of permethrin, and methocarbamol and intravenous lipid emulsion were used to control tremors. The cat recovered and was discharged within 42 h.
January 2014: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
S A Helmy, H M El-Bedaiwy
BACKGROUND: A combination of methocarbamol (MET) and paracetamol (PAR) is a widely used treatment approach. It provides complementary modes of action for treatment of pain associated with muscle spasm. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a new sensitive and reproducible isocratic reversed phase HPLC-UV detection method for simultaneous determination of MET and PAR in human plasma for the routine use in a therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic laboratories. METHODS: A simple HPLC assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the above-mentioned drugs in small samples of human plasma (0...
July 2014: Drug Research
Mary Kay McLean, Safdar Khan
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is an avicide used in products that are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to control populations of various birds. Pharmaceutical 4-AP is also used in humans to treat neural and muscular dysfunctions associated with multiple sclerosis. Although strict restrictions for its use are in place, exposures to 4-AP bait by non-target species still occur. Twenty-nine exposures of 4-AP bait involving non-target species were identified and retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center medical record database...
December 2013: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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