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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049691/the-advanced-lung-cancer-inflammation-index-is-an-independent-prognostic-factor-after-surgical-resection-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Masaki Tomita, Takanori Ayabe, Kunihide Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: The usefulness of a recently developed advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) has been reported in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer. However, no previous studies have examined the prognostic significance of ALI in patients with operable NSCLC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ALI and the prognosis of resected NSCLC. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-three patients with NSCLC who underwent surgery at our institution between 2008 and 2012 were included...
October 11, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037443/a-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-the-cams-knee-data-set
#2
William R Taylor, Pascal Schütz, Georg Bergmann, Renate List, Barbara Postolka, Marco Hitz, Jörn Dymke, Philipp Damm, Georg Duda, Hans Gerber, Verena Schwachmeyer, Seyyed Hamed Hosseini Nasab, Adam Trepczynski, Ines Kutzner
Combined knowledge of the functional kinematics and kinetics of the human body is critical for understanding a wide range of biomechanical processes including musculoskeletal adaptation, injury mechanics, and orthopaedic treatment outcome, but also for validation of musculoskeletal models. Until now, however, no datasets that include internal loading conditions (kinetics), synchronized with advanced kinematic analyses in multiple subjects have been available. Our goal was to provide such datasets and thereby foster a new understanding of how in vivo knee joint movement and contact forces are interlinked - and thereby impact biomechanical interpretation of any new knee replacement design...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036498/british-widows-of-the-south-african-war-and-the-origins-of-war-widows-pensions
#3
Eliza Riedi
The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support...
September 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030411/global-shortage-of-neonatal-and-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-rapid-review
#4
Georgina Thompson, Charlotte I Barker, Laura Folgori, Julia A Bielicki, John S Bradley, Irja Lutsar, Mike Sharland
OBJECTIVES: There have been few clinical trials (CTs) on antibiotics that inform neonatal and paediatric drug labelling. The rate of unlicensed and off-label prescribing in paediatrics remains high. It is unclear whether the current neonatal and paediatric antibiotic research pipeline is adequate to inform optimal drug dosing. Using the ClinicalTrials.gov registry, this review aims to establish the current global status of antibiotic CTs in children up to 18 years of age. METHODS: Studies were identified using key word searches of the ClinicalTrials...
October 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019112/methodology-in-aristotle-s-theory-of-spontaneous-generation
#5
Karen R Zwier
Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle's account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: (1) to give as charitable and full an account as possible of what Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation was, and to examine some of its consequences; and (2) to reflect on Aristotle as a scientist, and what his comments reveal about how he approached a difficult problem...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989167/a-defense-of-the-risks-of-daily-life
#6
Ariella Binik
Research examining the safe and effective treatment of diseases and disorders affecting children offers one of the best prospects for improving the medical treatment of children. But the inclusion of children in research raises difficult ethical questions, among them: To how much risk is it permissible to expose children in research? Various thresholds have been proposed to constrain research risks that do not offer children the prospect of direct medical benefit. These proposals include limiting research risks to (1) the risks of routine medical examinations, (2) the risks of participation in charitable activities, (3) the risks of family life, and (4) the risks-of-daily-life...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984408/cost-analysis-of-open-radical-cystectomy-versus-robot-assisted-radical-cystectomy
#7
S S Bansal, T Dogra, P Weston Smith, S Amran, I Auluck, M S Bhambra, M S Sura, E Rowe, A Koupparis
OBJECTIVES: To perform a cost analysis comparing the cost of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with open radical cystectomy (ORC) in a UK tertiary referral centre and to identify the key cost drivers. METHODS: Data on hospital stay, operative duration, transfusion rate and volume and complication rate were obtained from a prospectively updated institutional database for patients undergoing RARC or ORC. A cost decision tree model was created. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find key drivers of overall cost and to find breakeven points with ORC...
October 6, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971831/selfless-giving-in-medicine-a-study-of-altruistic-attitudes-among-medical-students
#8
S Sanjai, Vijayaprasad Gopichandran
INTRODUCTION: An important virtue in the medical profession is altruism, which makes a doctor serve without an excess of expectation of return. OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of altruism and factors influencing altruism among medical students at a medical college in Chennai. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 224 students from the first, third and fourth years. We prepared a questionnaire which contained questions from the previously validated Altruistic Personality Scale...
September 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955663/donor-retention-in-health-care-in-iran-a-factor-analysis
#9
Sara Aghababa, Amir Ashkan Nasiripour, Mohammadreza Maleki, Mahmoodreza Gohari
Background: Long-term financial support is essential for the survival of a charitable organization. Health charities need to identify the effective factors influencing donor retention. Methods: In the present study, the items of a questionnaire were derived from both literature review and semi-structured interviews related to donor retention. Using a purposive sampling, 300 academic and executive practitioners were selected. After the follow- up, a total of 243 usable questionnaires were prepared for factor analysis...
2017: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953824/charity-hospitality-and-the-human-person
#10
Mark Agius, Anna McKeever
We believe that in order to properly interpret all aspects of human scientific enquiry in terms of its impact on human beings it is necessary to have an adequate all encompassing model of the human person. We began this presentation by discussing the differences between the 'Cartesian' Dualistic model of the human Person and that of Aquinas and Augustine (which depend on Aristotle and Plato respectively). While the 'Cartesian' describes a completely separate 'soul' or 'mind' from the physical body, the Thomistic model of the Human Person is that of an Embodied Spirit, in which every aspect of the human spirit is reflected in an aspect or function of the physical body...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948218/dynamics-in-charity-donation-decisions-insights-from-a-large-longitudinal-data-set
#11
Marijke C Leliveld, Hans Risselada
Despite the vast body of research on charitable giving and its drivers, no research has investigated the longitudinal dynamics of individual donation decisions. We analyzed unique data with nearly 300,000 real donation decisions made by more than 20,000 individuals for a period of 10 months. Each decision entailed a choice of what to do with money received for completing a survey (on average, €0.67 per survey): keep it or donate to charity. We found that most of the participants (89%) always chose to keep the money...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945979/social-mobilization
#12
Todd Rogers, Noah J Goldstein, Craig R Fox
This article reviews research from several behavioral disciplines to derive strategies for prompting people to perform behaviors that are individually costly and provide negligible individual or social benefits but are meaningful when performed by a large number of individuals. Whereas the term social influence encompasses all the ways in which people influence other people, social mobilization refers specifically to principles that can be used to influence a large number of individuals to participate in an activity...
September 25, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945919/interventions-for-increasing-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-children-aged-five-years-and-under
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca K Hodder, Fiona G Stacey, Rebecca J Wyse, Kate M O'Brien, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Flora Tzelepis, Nicole K Nathan, Erica L James, Kate M Bartlem, Rachel Sutherland, Emma Robson, Sze Lin Yoong, Luke Wolfenden
BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase Classic and Embase to identify eligible trials on 30 September 2016...
September 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942301/the-journal-of-comparative-pathology-educational-trust-and-petplan-charitable-trust-joint-research-award-in-veterinary-pathology
#14
EDITORIAL
M J Day
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924472/the-effect-of-antibiotic-use-on-prevalence-of-nosocomial-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-an-ecologic-study
#15
Cornelius Remschmidt, Michael Behnke, Axel Kola, Luis A Peña Diaz, Anna M Rohde, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with healthcare-associated (HA) VRE rates in a university hospital setting in Berlin, Germany. METHODS: We conducted the study between January 2014 and December 2015 at the Charité-university hospital of Berlin, Germany...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923610/attitudes-of-the-third-year-nursing-students-toward-organ-donation-%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study
#16
B Akpınar Söylemez, Y S Ordin
BACKGROUND: Health professionals can affect attitudes toward organ donation in society; therefore, priority should be given to exploration of attitudes of nursing students as important prospective members of the health profession. The goal of this study was to assess nursing students' attitudes and volunteerism toward organ donation. METHODS: This descriptive study was performed on 240 third-year nursing students in Turkey between February 2016 and April 2016. Purposive sampling and a cross-sectional survey were used...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915337/the-cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-childhood-cancer-treatment-in-el-salvador-central-america-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-2030-network
#18
Soad Fuentes-Alabi, Nickhill Bhakta, Roberto Franklin Vasquez, Sumit Gupta, Susan E Horton
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit...
September 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910809/ingeborg-syllm-rapoport-1912-2017-an-exemplary-life-for-children-and-paediatrics
#19
Hannes Sallmon, Roland R Wauer, Charles Christoph Roehr
Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport, the first Chair in neonatology in Europe, passed away on March 23. Her biography illustrates how medical and scientific work has been influenced by social, ideological, and economic frames and boundaries in the 20th century. Regarded as a "Half-Jew" by the Nazi racist laws, she was denied her medical doctorate. She went to the USA, where she trained in paediatrics and met her husband, the biochemist Samuel Mitja Rapoport. During the "McCarthy Era" both were persecuted as communists...
September 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900665/-questionnaire-for-the-utilization-of-the-emergency-department-department-implications-for-the-patient-survey
#20
J Frick, M Möckel, M Schmiedhofer, J Searle, B Erdmann, M Erhart, A Slagman
BACKGROUND: For several years, Emergency Departments (ED) in Germany have observed increasing patient numbers, resulting in ED crowding. This leads to the question of whether patients with nonurgent conditions could also receive adequate treatment in primary care. Our objective was to develop a quantitative questionnaire to investigate in a larger patient group the reasons for this and to describe the implications for a patient survey in the ED. METHODS: The development of the questionnaire was based on a literature search and the results of the qualitative EPICS-2 study...
September 12, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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