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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346464/sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-and-anti-lipolytic-response-to-iv-glucose-load-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-obese-and-obese-type-2-diabetic-subjects
#1
Uwe Schumann, Christopher P Jenkinson, Andreas Alt, Martina Zügel, Jürgen M Steinacker, Marion Flechtner-Mors
The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10-4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343139/oxytocin-in-corticosterone-induced-chronic-stress-model-focus-on-adrenal-gland-function
#2
Dušanka Stanić, Bosiljka Plećaš-Solarović, Duško Mirković, Predrag Jovanović, Slađana Dronjak, Bojan Marković, Tea Đorđević, Svetlana Ignjatović, Vesna Pešić
Chronic stress conditions can lead to considerable and extensible changes in physiological and psychological performances, and in emergence of risk for various somatic diseases. On the other hand, the neuropeptide oxytocin is reported to increase the resistance of the organism to stress and modulate activity of autonomic nervous system. Chronic corticosterone administration is used as a rat model for a state observed in terms of chronic stress exposure, when negative feedback mechanism of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is disrupted...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341893/single-prolonged-stress-induced-changes-in-autophagy-related-proteins-beclin-1-lc3-and-p62-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Shilei Zheng, Fang Han, Yuxiu Shi, Lili Wen, Dan Han
Autophagy, or type II programmed cell death, plays a crucial role in many nervous system diseases. However, few studies have examined the role of autophagy in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the mechanisms underlying PTSD are poorly understood. The objective of this research was to explore the expression of three important autophagy-related proteins, Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and p62/SQSTM1 (p62), in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of an animal model of PTSD to identify changes in autophagic activity during PTSD pathogenesis...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340239/hypertension-in-dialysis-patients-a-consensus-document-by-the-european-renal-and-cardiovascular-medicine-eureca-m-working-group-of-the-european-renal-association-european-dialysis-and-transplant-association-era-edta-and-the-hypertension-and-the-kidney-working
#4
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Alexandre Persu, Rajiv Agarwal, Michel Burnier, Peter de Leeuw, Charles J Ferro, Jean-Michel Halimi, Gunnar H Heine, Michel Jadoul, Faical Jarraya, Mehmet Kanbay, Francesca Mallamaci, Patrick B Mark, Alberto Ortiz, Gianfranco Parati, Roberto Pontremoli, Patrick Rossignol, Luis Ruilope, Patricia Van der Niepen, Raymond Vanholder, Marianne C Verhaar, Andrzej Wiecek, Gregoire Wuerzner, Gérard M London, Carmine Zoccali
In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, hypertension is common and often poorly controlled. Blood pressure (BP) recordings obtained before or after haemodialysis display a J- or U-shaped association with cardiovascular events and survival, but this most likely reflects the low accuracy of these measurements and the peculiar haemodynamic setting related to dialysis treatment. Elevated BP detected by home or ambulatory BP monitoring is clearly associated with shorter survival...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337287/memri-is-a-biomarker-defining-nicotine-specific-neuronal-responses-in-subregions-of-the-rodent-brain
#5
Aditya N Bade, Howard E Gendelman, Michael D Boska, Yutong Liu
Nicotine dependence is defined by dopaminergic neuronal activation within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and by affected neural projections from nicotine-stimulated neurons. Control of any subsequent neural activities would underpin any smoking cessation strategy. While extensive efforts have been made to study the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, more limited works were developed to find imaging biomarkers. If such biomarkers are made available, addictive behaviors could be monitored noninvasively. To such ends, we employed manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to determine whether it could be used to monitor neuronal activities after acute and chronic nicotine exposure in rats...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337172/bone-marrow-derived-cell-accumulation-in-the-spinal-cord-is-independent-of-peripheral-mobilization-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Kyle Peake, John Manning, Coral-Ann Lewis, Kevin Tran, Fabio Rossi, Charles Krieger
Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are capable of migrating across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and accumulating in the central nervous system (CNS) when transplanted into recipients conditioned with whole-body irradiation or chemotherapy. We used the chemotherapeutic agents busulfan and treosulfan to condition recipient mice for transplantation with bone marrow (BM) cells isolated from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein. We attempted to increase the accumulation of BMDCs in the CNS by mobilization of BMDCs using either, or both, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) or plerixafor (AMD3100)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#7
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332488/parkinson-disease
#8
REVIEW
Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Caroline M Tanner, Glenda M Halliday, Patrik Brundin, Jens Volkmann, Anette-Eleonore Schrag, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331355/observing-continuous-change-in-heart-rate-variability-and-photoplethysmography-derived-parameters-during-the-process-of-pain-production-relief-with-thermal-stimuli
#9
Jing-Jhao Ye, Kuan-Ting Lee, Jing-Siang Lin, Chiung-Cheng Chuang
Continuously monitoring and efficiently managing pain has become an important issue. However, no study has investigated a change in physiological parameters during the process of pain production/relief. This study modeled the process of pain production/relief using ramped thermal stimulation (no pain: 37°C water, process of pain production: a heating rate of 1°C/min, and subject feels pain: water kept at the painful temperature for each subject, with each segment lasting 10 min). In this duration, the variation of the heat rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters was observed...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326550/from-neuron-to-behavior-sensory-motor-coordination-of-zebrafish-turning-behavior
#10
REVIEW
Keiko Umeda, Wataru Shoji
Recent development of optogenetics brought non-invasive neural activation in living organisms. Transparent zebrafish larva is one of the suitable animal models for this technique, which enables us to investigate neural circuits for behaviors based on a whole individual nervous system. In this article we review our recent finding that suggests sensory-motor coordination in larval zebrafish escape behavior. When water vibration stimulates mechanosensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons, intra-spinal reflex circuit launches contralateral trunk muscle contraction that makes rapid body curvature for turning...
March 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325505/clinical-interpretation-of-urine-drug-tests-what-clinicians-need-to-know-about-urine-drug-screens
#11
REVIEW
Karen E Moeller, Julie C Kissack, Rabia S Atayee, Kelly C Lee
Urine drug testing is frequently used in clinical, employment, educational, and legal settings and misinterpretation of test results can result in significant adverse consequences for the individual who is being tested. Advances in drug testing technology combined with a rise in the number of novel misused substances present challenges to clinicians to appropriately interpret urine drug test results. Authors searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify published literature written in English between 1946 and 2016, using urine drug test, screen, false-positive, false-negative, abuse, and individual drugs of abuse as key words...
March 18, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324985/a-novel-thermal-tactile-stimulator-device-for-quantitative-sensory-testing
#12
Umit Kursun, Olcay Kursun, Oleg V Favorov
This paper outlines the design and preliminary experimental results of a novel thermal stimulator device designed to measure, from some perspectives, brain health. The device delivers some thermal stimuli and asks the subject about his perception about them, thus checking the correctness of the perception and even the existence of certain perceptual illusions that would normally be present in healthy cortex and nervous system. This noninvasive sensory technology is cheap and easy to use, it has the potential to be used in telemonitoring systems and in empowering the individual to track his/her progression over time on the provided neuropathy tests...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324618/thermogelling-chitosan-lactate-hydrogel-improves-functional-recovery-after-a-c2-spinal-cord-hemisection-in-rat
#13
Katarzyna Nawrotek, Tanguy Marqueste, Zofia Modrzejewska, Roman Zarzycki, Agnieszka Rusak, Patrick Decherchi
The present study was designed to provide an appropriate micro-environment for regenerating axotomized neurons and proliferating/migrating cells. Because of its intrinsic permissive properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, we chose to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a chitosan-based biopolymer. The biomaterial toxicity was measured through in vitro test based on fibroblast cell survival on thermogelling chitosan lactate hydrogel substrate and then polymer was implanted into a C2 hemisection of the rat spinal cord...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324017/a-novel-selective-bombesin-receptor-subtype-3-agonist-promotes-weight-loss-in-male-diet-induced-obese-rats-with-circadian-rhythm-change
#14
Yasunori Nio, Natsu Hotta, Minoru Maruyama, Kenichi Hamagami, Toshimi Nagi, Masaaki Funata, Junichi Sakamoto, Masanori Nakakariya, Nobuyuki Amano, Tomohiro Okawa, Yasuyoshi Arikawa, Shinobu Sasaki, Shoki Okuda, Shizuo Kasai, Yugo Habata, Yasutaka Nagisa
Bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Based on the obese phenotype of male BRS-3-deficient mice, BRS-3 has been considered an attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we developed a novel selective BRS-3 agonist (Compound-A) and evaluated its anti-obesity effects. Compound-A showed anorectic effects and enhanced energy expenditure in diet-induced obese (DIO)-F344 rats. Moreover, repeated oral administration of Compound-A for 7 days resulted in a significant body weight reduction in DIO-F344 rats...
March 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323640/a-micro-scale-printable-nanoclip-for-electrical-stimulation-and-recording-in-small-nerves
#15
Charles A Lissandrello, Winthrop F Gillis, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Flavia Vitale, Matteo Pasquali, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: The vision of bioelectronic medicine is to treat disease by modulating the signaling of visceral nerves near various end organs. In small animal models, the nerves of interest can have small diameters and limited surgical access. New high-resolution methods for building nerve interfaces are desirable. In this study, we present a novel nerve interface and demonstrate its use for stimulation and recording in small nerves. APPROACH: We design and fabricate micro-scale electrode-laden nanoclips capable of interfacing with nerves as small as 50 µm in diameter...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323064/the-relevance-of-%C3%AE-klotho-to-the-central-nervous-system-some-key-questions
#16
REVIEW
Marina Minto Lopes-Cararo, Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti, Cristoforo Scavone, Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto, Daniel Charles Berwick
α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging...
March 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321599/c-jun-amino-terminal-kinase-is-involved-in-valproic-acid-mediated-neuronal-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-nscs-and-neurite-outgrowth-of-nsc-derived-neurons
#17
Lu Lu, Hengxing Zhou, Bin Pan, Xueying Li, Zheng Fu, Jun Liu, Zhongju Shi, Tianci Chu, Zhijian Wei, Guangzhi Ning, Shiqing Feng
Valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, can induce neuronal differentiation, promote neurite extension and exert a neuroprotective effect in central nervous system (CNS) injuries; however, comparatively little is known regarding its action on mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Recent studies suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is required for neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation during neuronal development. In the present study, we cultured mouse embryonic NSCs and treated the cells with 1 mM VPA for up to 7 days...
March 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321419/pvaxhsp65-vaccination-primes-for-high-il-10-production-and-decreases-experimental-encephalomyelitis-severity
#18
Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Thais Graziela Donegá França, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Larissa Camargo da Rosa, Priscila Maria Colavite, Bianca Balbino, Camila Marques, Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma, Ana Paula Masson, Célio Lopes Silva, Alexandrina Sartori
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating pathology of the central nervous system (CNS) used as a model to study multiple sclerosis immunopathology. EAE has also been extensively employed to evaluate potentially therapeutic schemes. Considering the presence of an immune response directed to heat shock proteins (hsps) in autoimmune diseases and the immunoregulatory potential of these molecules, we evaluated the effect of a previous immunization with a genetic vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene on EAE development...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320969/ena-vasp-proteins-regulate-activated-t-cell-trafficking-by-promoting-diapedesis-during-transendothelial-migration
#19
Miriam L Estin, Scott B Thompson, Brianna Traxinger, Marlie H Fisher, Rachel S Friedman, Jordan Jacobelli
Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and Ena-VASP-like (EVL) are cytoskeletal effector proteins implicated in regulating cell morphology, adhesion, and migration in various cell types. However, the role of these proteins in T-cell motility, adhesion, and in vivo trafficking remains poorly understood. This study identifies a specific role for EVL and VASP in T-cell diapedesis and trafficking. We demonstrate that EVL and VASP are selectively required for activated T-cell trafficking but are not required for normal T-cell development or for naïve T-cell trafficking to lymph nodes and spleen...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317476/myocardial-infarction-pathological-relevance-and-relationship-with-coronary-risk-factors
#20
Aurelio Leone
BACKGROUND: Three types of necrosis characterize MI: coagulation necrosis, typically due to a coronarogenic mechanism, coagulative myocytolysis with formation of contract bands as an effect of sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic stimulation, and colliquative myocytolysis, characterized by myocardial fiber lysis, which is a close result of hydrolytic enzyme activity deriving from the material reaching the infarct area. METHODS: Although a multifactorial etiology may be identified, nevertheless coronary alterations, which are a consequence of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complications with a reduced blood flow supply to the myocardium, are the benchmark of MI...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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