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Nervous system stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053621/isoproterenol-increases-rankl-expression-in-a-atf4-nfatc1-dependent-manner-in-mouse-osteoblastic-cells
#1
Kyunghwa Baek, Hyun-Jung Park, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyung-Ryong Kim
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation-induced β-adrenergic signal transduction is known to induce bone loss and increase of osteoclast activity. Although isoproterenol, a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been shown to increase receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), the details of the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in isoproterenol-induced RANKL expression in C2C12 and in primary cultured mouse calvarial cells...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052004/hypoxia-regulated-catecholamine-secretion-in-chromaffin-cells
#2
REVIEW
Colin A Nurse, Shaima Salman, Angela L Scott
Adrenal catecholamine (CAT) secretion is a general physiological response of animals to environmental stressors such as hypoxia. This represents an important adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis and protect vital organs such as the brain. In adult mammals, CAT secretory responses are triggered by activation of the sympathetic nervous system that supplies cholinergic innervation of adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) via the splanchnic nerve. In the neonate, the splanchnic innervation of AMC is immature or absent, yet hypoxia stimulates a non-neurogenic CAT secretion that is critical for adaptation to extra-uterine life...
October 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051583/nuclear-fragments-of-the-neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-ncam-with-or-without-polysialic-acid-differentially-regulate-gene-expression
#3
Nina Westphal, Thomas Theis, Gabriele Loers, Melitta Schachner, Ralf Kleene
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the major carrier of polysialic acid (PSA) which modulates NCAM functions of neural cells at the cell surface. In previous studies, we have shown that stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands leads to the generation and nuclear import of PSA-lacking and -carrying NCAM fragments. Here, we show that the nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is mediated by positive cofactor 4 and cofilin, which we identified as novel PSA-binding proteins...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046777/effect-of-palmitoylethanolamide-on-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#4
Tai-Kyung Seol, Wonho Lee, Sunah Park, Kyu Nam Kim, Tae Yeon Kim, You Na Oh, Jong Hun Jun
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of mast cells and glial cells, and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous systems, plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which is a type of N-acylethanolamide and a lipid, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Relative to the anti-inflammatory effect, little is known about its analgesic effect in chronic pain...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038659/in-silico-prediction-analysis-of-idiotope-driven-t-b-cell-collaboration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Rune A Høglund, Andreas Lossius, Jorunn N Johansen, Jane Homan, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Harlan Robins, Bjarne Bogen, Robert D Bremel, Trygve Holmøy
Memory B cells acting as antigen-presenting cells are believed to be important in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the antigen they present remains unknown. We hypothesized that B cells may activate CD4(+) T cells in the central nervous system of MS patients by presenting idiotopes from their own immunoglobulin variable regions on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules. Here, we use bioinformatics prediction analysis of B cell immunoglobulin variable regions from 11 MS patients and 6 controls with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OINDs), to assess whether the prerequisites for such idiotope-driven T-B cell collaboration are present...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036309/chiral-analysis-of-methamphetamine-in-oral-fluid-samples-a-method-to-distinguish-licit-from-illicit-drug-use
#6
Damon Borg, Elizabeth Kolb, Cindy Lantigua, Richard Stripp
Methamphetamine (MAMP) is a popular illicit drug abused for its central nervous system stimulating effects. MAMP is also used therapeutically in the treatment of overeating disorders, narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, in over-the-counter (OTC) products to ease nasal congestion. MAMP exists in two enantiomeric forms, dextrorotary (d-MAMP) or levorotary (l-MAMP). The compounds are similar in chemical structure, simply differing in the orientation of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon. In part because of the availability of l-MAMP in OTC nasal inhalers, forensic guidelines require a sample to contain greater than 20% d-MAMP to consider illicit drug use when interpreting results...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036198/the-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-hpk-1-preserves-protein-homeostasis-and-longevity-through-master-regulatory-control-of-the-hsf-1-chaperone-network-and-torc1-restricted-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Ritika Das, Justine A Melo, Manjunatha Thondamal, Elizabeth A Morton, Adam B Cornwell, Beresford Crick, Joung Heon Kim, Elliot W Swartz, Todd Lamitina, Peter M Douglas, Andrew V Samuelson
An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028437/stimulants-do-not-increase-the-risk-of-seizure-related-hospitalizations-in-children-with-epilepsy
#8
Xinyue Liu, Paul R Carney, Regina Bussing, Richard Segal, Linda B Cottler, Almut G Winterstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of stimulants in children with epilepsy. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study based on Medicaid Analytic eXtract billing records from 26 U.S. states from 1999 to 2010, we identified incident stimulant use among children with epilepsy through outpatient encounter claims and pharmacy claims. We established a control group of nonusers and used frequency matching to generate index dates. We followed both cohorts for 12 months and calculated hazard ratios [HRs] of current and former use of stimulants versus no use on the outcome of seizure-related hospitalization using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024490/categorization-of-abuse-potential-related-adverse-events
#9
Edward M Sellers, Myroslava K Romach
All drugs with central nervous system activity must undergo an assessment of their abuse potential, and these data must be included in a New Drug Application. Part of this assessment is an analysis of treatment-emergent adverse events that occur during clinical development. Using an iterative consensus strategy, we evaluated and grouped an available list of 213 flag terms for abuse potential from the Food and Drug Administration, into categories and assessed the relevance of the terms to primary abuse behavior...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022246/alpha-lipoic-acid-mitigates-toxic-induced-demyelination-in-the-corpus-callosum-by-lessening-of-oxidative-stress-and-stimulation-of-polydendrocytes-proliferation
#10
Nima Sanadgol, Fereshteh Golab, Hassan Askari, Fatemeh Moradi, Marziyeh Ajdary, Mehdi Mehdizadeh
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), is a disease that degenerates myelin in central nervous system (CNS). Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are toxic metabolites, and accumulating data indicate that ROSs-mediated apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OLGs) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of MS under oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the role of endogenous antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as ROSs scavenger in the OLGs loss and myelin degeneration during cuprizone (cup)-induced demyelination in the experimental model of MS...
October 12, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018212/enhanced-therapeutic-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-using-surface-modified-nanoporous-acupuncture-needles
#11
Bo Ram Lee, Hye-Rim Kim, Eun-Sook Choi, Jung-Hoon Cho, Nam-Jun Kim, Jung-Hee Kim, Kyeong-Min Lee, Abdul Razzaq, Hansaem Choi, Yunju Hwang, Craig A Grimes, Bong-Hyo Lee, Eunjoo Kim, Su-Il In
Acupuncture originated within the auspices of Oriental medicine, and today is used as an alternative method for treating various diseases and symptoms. The physiological mechanisms of acupuncture appear to involve the release of endogenous opiates and neurotransmitters, with the signals mediating through electrical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). Earlier we reported a nanoporous stainless steel acupuncture needle with enhanced therapeutic properties, evaluated by electrophysiological and behavioral responses in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017814/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-induces-long-term-transcription-dependent-plasticity-and-remodeling-at-autonomic-synapses
#12
Eric R Starr, Joseph F Margiotta
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide, widely expressed in the nervous system (Vaudry et al., 2009; Starr and Margiotta, 2016). At neuronal synapses where transmission is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) transient PACAP exposure increases the frequency and amplitude (FS and AS) of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) within minutes. This short-term (ST) plasticity requires high-affinity PACAP receptor (PAC1R) signaling via adenylate cyclase (AC), cyclic AMP (cAMP), Protein kinase A (PKA) and obligatory nAChR-dependent stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis to retrogradely increase presynaptic ACh release (Pugh et al...
October 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993273/acute-mental-stress-induces-mitochondrial-bioenergetic-crisis-and-hyper-fission-along-with-aberrant-mitophagy-in-the-gut-mucosa-in-rodent-model-of-stress-related-mucosal-disease
#13
Rudranil De, Somnath Mazumder, Souvik Sarkar, Subhashis Debsharma, Asim Azhar Siddiqui, Shubhra Jyoti Saha, Chinmoy Banerjee, Shiladitya Nag, Debanjan Saha, Uday Bandyopadhyay
Psychological stress, depression and anxiety lead to multiple organ dysfunctions wherein stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) is common to people experiencing stress and also occur as a side effect in patients admitted to intensive care units; however the underlying molecular aetiology is still obscure. We report that in rat-SRMD model, cold restraint-stress severely damaged gut mitochondrial functions to generate superoxide anion (O2(•-)), depletion of ATP and shifted mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics towards enhanced fission to induce mucosal injury...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992907/scaling-relationships-among-heart-rate-electrocardiography-parameters-and-body-weight
#14
Amanda Sarita Cruz Aleixo, Angélica Alfonso, Eunice Oba, Fabiana Ferreira de Souza, Raíssa Karolliny Salgueiro Cruz, Maurício Gianfrancesco Fillippi, Simone Biagio Chiacchio, Miriam Tsunemi, Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço
Although heart rate (HR) is one of the most important clinical parameters determined via physical examinations, little information is available on the normal HR in dogs, which may be related to the high variability of body weight (BW) in this species. HR is determined by the discharge rate of the sinus node, which is dependent on the autonomic nervous system and the release of catecholamines. The allometric relationship between BW and HR in different species has been described as inversely proportional; however, this relationship has been refuted...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992248/region-specific-irradiation-system-with-heavy-ion-microbeam-for-active-individuals-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Michiyo Suzuki, Yuya Hattori, Tetsuya Sakashita, Yuichiro Yokota, Yasuhiko Kobayashi, Tomoo Funayama
Radiation may affect essential functions and behaviors such as locomotion, feeding, learning and memory. Although whole-body irradiation has been shown to reduce motility in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the detailed mechanism responsible for this effect remains unknown. Targeted irradiation of the nerve ring responsible for sensory integration and information processing would allow us to determine whether the reduction of motility following whole-body irradiation reflects effects on the central nervous system or on the muscle cells themselves...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992000/differential-expression-of-neuregulin-1-nrg1-and-candidate-mirna-regulating-nrg1-transcription-in-the-chicken-oviduct-in-response-to-hormonal-changes
#16
W Jeong, H Bae, W Lim, F W Bazer, G Song
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a signaling protein that binds to members of the erythroblastoma (ErbB) family, is known to play essential biological roles in mediating cell-cell interactions and orchestrating vital cell functions in the heart and nervous system. NRG1 is closely associated with developmental processes in various organs and expression of several NRG1 isoforms are regulated by estrogen. However, expression and its hormonal regulation during development of the female reproductive tract remain unknown. The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional changes in response to estrogen and the molting process...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991117/thermal-a-%C3%AE-nociceptors-identified-by-transcriptomics-express-higher-levels-of-anesthesia-sensitive-receptors-than-thermal-c-fibers-and-are-more-suppressible-by-low-dose-isoflurane
#17
Stephen J Raithel, Matthew R Sapio, Michael J Iadarola, Andrew J Mannes
We investigated the effect of isoflurane on 2 main types of thermal nociceptors: A-δ and C-fibers. Surprisingly, 1% inhaled isoflurane led to a hyperalgesic response to C-fiber thermal stimulation, whereas responses to A-δ thermal stimulation were blunted. We explored the hypothesis that differences in withdrawal behavior are mediated by differential expression of isoflurane-sensitive proteins between these types of thermal nociceptors. Multiple transcriptomic databases of peripheral neurons were integrated to reveal that isoflurane-susceptible proteins Htr3a, Kcna2, and Scn8a were enriched in thermosensitive A-δ neurons...
October 4, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990645/-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-a-systematic-review
#18
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a multisymptomatic diffuse chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome with evidence of central nervous system dysfunction. Accordingly, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a complementary therapeutic resource to reduce pain perception. AIMS: To review the potential effectiveness of tDCS to reduce pain in fibromyalgia, to identify the most effective neurostimulation parameters and to delimit its safety...
October 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990513/protective-effects-of-the-caffeine-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Ester Tellone, Antonio Galtieri, Annamaria Russo, Silvana Ficarra
Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulant of the central nervous system. Similar to those of other stimulants, its effects are to improve brain activity and stimulate cognition learning and memory. Caffeine affects the brain by acting mainly as a non-selective blocker of the adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3). The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview on the neurobiochemical impact of caffeine, focusing on the ability of the drug to effectively counteract several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, Multiple sclerosis and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Epilepsy...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988244/evolution-of-sound-source-localization-circuits-in-the-nonmammalian-vertebrate-brainstem
#20
Peggy L Walton, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Catherine E Carr
The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement created by external sources. The potential to identify and localize these external sources may have been a major selection force in the evolution of the early vertebrate ear and in the processing of sound in the central nervous system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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