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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453544/molecular-and-cellular-toxicology-of-nanomaterials-with-related-to-aquatic-organisms
#1
Mohd Ashraf Rather, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Niti Sharma, Rupam Sharma
The increasing application of nanomaterials both in commercial and industrial products has led their accumulation in the aquatic ecosystem. The rapid development and large scale production of nanomaterials in the last few decades have stimulated concerns regarding their potential environmental health risks on aquatic biota. Inorganic nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and associated material characteristics resulted in toxicity of these nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Understanding their novel properties at nanoscale has established to be a significant aspect of their toxicity...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453317/histone-h3-3k27m-mobilizes-multiple-cancer-testis-ct-antigens-in-pediatric-glioma
#2
Houliang Deng, Jianming Zeng, Ting Zhang, Longcai Gong, Hongjie Zhang, Edwin Cheung, Chris Jones, Gang Li
Lysine to Methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drive the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451218/pten-knockdown-with-the-y444f-mutant-aav2-vector-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-the-adult-optic-nerve
#3
Zheng-Ru Huang, Hai-Ying Chen, Zi-Zhong Hu, Ping Xie, Qing-Huai Liu
The lack of axonal regeneration is the major cause of vision loss after optic nerve injury in adult mammals. Activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to enhance the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and to facilitate axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after injury. The deletion of the mTOR negative regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) enhances regeneration of adult corticospinal neurons and ganglion cells. In the present study, we used a tyrosine-mutated (Y444F) AAV2 vector to efficiently express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing PTEN expression in retinal ganglion cells...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448957/brain-region-specific-enhancement-of-remyelination-and-prevention-of-demyelination-by-the-csf1r-kinase-inhibitor-blz945
#4
Nicolau Beckmann, Elisa Giorgetti, Anna Neuhaus, Stefan Zurbruegg, Nathalie Accart, Paul Smith, Julien Perdoux, Ludovic Perrot, Mark Nash, Sandrine Desrayaud, Peter Wipfli, Wilfried Frieauff, Derya R Shimshek
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). While multiple effective immunomodulatory therapies for MS exist today, they lack the scope of promoting CNS repair, in particular remyelination. Microglia play a pivotal role in regulating myelination processes, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) pathway is a key regulator for microglia differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the effects of the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor, BLZ945, on central myelination processes in the 5-week murine cuprizone model by non-invasive and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446228/integrins-promote-axonal-regeneration-after-injury-of-the-nervous-system
#5
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Barbara Haenzi, Melissa R Andrews, Joost Verhaagen, James W Fawcett
Integrins are cell surface receptors that form the link between extracellular matrix molecules of the cell environment and internal cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. They are involved in several processes, e.g. adhesion and migration during development and repair. This review focuses on the role of integrins in axonal regeneration. Integrins participate in spontaneous axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system through binding to various ligands that either inhibit or enhance their activation and signalling...
February 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445517/autonomic-components-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-crps-are-favourably-affected-by-electrical-twitch-obtaining-intramuscular-stimulation-etoims-effects-on-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate
#6
Jennifer Chu, Frans Bruyninckx, Duncan V Neuhauser
Introduction: Favourable pain relief results on evoking autonomous twitches at myofascial trigger points with Electrical Twitch Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS). Aim: To document autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from blood pressure (BP) and pulse/heart rate changes with ETOIMS. Methods and materials: A patient with persistent pain regularly received serial ETOIMS sessions of 60, 90, 120 or ≥150 min over 24 months...
July 2017: BMJ Innovations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436598/madecassoside-activates-anti%C3%A2-neuroinflammatory-mechanisms-by-inhibiting-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-microglial-inflammation
#7
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Kenny Gah Leong Voon, Rhun Yian Koh, Ying Pei Wong
Neurodegeneration is typically preceded by neuroinflammation generated by the nervous system to protect itself from tissue damage, however, excess neuroinflammation may inadvertently cause more harm to the surrounding tissues. Attenuating neuroinflammation with non‑steroidal anti‑inflammatory drugs can inhibit neurodegeneration. However, such treatments induce chronic side effects, including stomach ulcers. Madecassoside, a triterpene derived from Centella asiatica, is considered to be an alternative treatment of inflammation...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435955/effects-of-manual-somatic-stimulation-on-the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-posture
#8
Giovanni Barassi, Rosa Grazia Bellomo, Camillo Di Giulio, Giuseppe Giannuzzo, Giuseppe Irace, Claudia Barbato, Raoul Saggini
Low back pain frequently involves a multifactorial etiology and requires medical attention. The aim of the study was to assess the associations among pain, posture, and autonomic nervous system function in patients with low back pain, using neuromuscular manual therapy versus a generic peripheral manual stimulation (back massage therapy). Twenty young patients with low back pain were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: treated with neuromuscular manual therapy performed after a specific structural evaluation and treated with back massage therapy...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433522/ros-responsive-resveratrol-delivery-from-ldlr-peptide-conjugated-pla-coated-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#9
Yang Shen, Bin Cao, Noah R Snyder, Kevin M Woeppel, James R Eles, Xinyan Tracy Cui
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress acts as a trigger in the course of neurodegenerative diseases and neural injuries. An antioxidant-based therapy can be effective to ameliorate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress. Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to be effective at removing excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species generation in the central nervous system (CNS), but the delivery of RSV into the brain through systemic administration is inefficient. Here, we have developed a RSV delivery vehicle based on polylactic acid (PLA)-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs), conjugated with a ligand peptide of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to enhance their transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432379/dexmedetomidine-as-a-part-of-general-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-delivery-in-patients-with-pre-eclampsia-efficacy-and-foetal-outcome-a-randomised-double-blinded-trial
#10
Ashraf M Eskandr, Ahmed A Metwally, Abd-Elrahman A Ahmed, Elham M Elfeky, Islam M Eldesoky, Manar A Obada, Osama A Abd-Elmegid
BACKGROUND: During general anaesthesia, endotracheal intubation of patients with pre-eclampsia causes stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine release, which may lead to maternal and neonatal complications. OBJECTIVE: To attenuate both the stress response and the haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation in patients with pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: A randomised, double-blind, controlled study. SETTING: Single University Hospital...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431275/burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-review-of-preclinical-studies-and-comments-on-clinical-outcomes
#11
REVIEW
Krishnan Chakravarthy, Alexander R Kent, Adil Raza, Fang Xing, Thomas M Kinfe
BACKGROUND: Burst spinal cord stimulation (SCS) technology uses a novel waveform that consists of closely packed high-frequency electrical impulses followed by a quiescent period. Within the growing field of neuromodulation, burst stimulation is unique in that it mimics the natural burst firing of the nervous system, in particular the thalamo-cingulate rhythmicity, resulting in modulation of the affective and attentional components of pain processing (e.g., medial thalamic pathways). STUDY DESIGN: A review of preclinical and clinical studies regarding burst SCS for various chronic pain states...
February 12, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430715/characterization-and-comparison-of-rat-monosodium-iodoacetate-and-medial-meniscal-tear-models-of-osteoarthritic-pain
#12
Jill-Desiree Brederson, Katharine L Chu, Jun Xu, Arthur L Nikkel, Stella Markosyan, Michael F Jarvis, Rebecca Edelmayer, Robert S Bitner, Steve McGaraughty
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative form of arthritis that can result in loss of joint function and chronic pain. The pathological pain state that develops with OA disease involves plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems, however, the cellular mechanisms underlying OA are not fully understood. We characterized the medial meniscal tear (MMT) surgical model and the intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) chemical model of OA in rats. Both models produced histological changes in the knee joint and associated bones consistent with OA pathology...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429190/-research-progress-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-mechanism-studies-of-tinnitus
#13
B B Ji, M Li, J N Zhang
Tinnitus is a subjective symptom of phantom sound in the ear or brain without sound or electrical stimulation in the environment. The mechanism of tinnitus is complicated and mostly unclear. Recent studies suggested that the abnormal peripheral auditory input lead to neuroplasticity changes in central nervous system followed by tinnitus. More research concerned on the tinnitus central mechanism. A rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique made it more widely used in tinnitus central mechanism research...
February 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428595/galanin-enhances-systemic-glucose-metabolism-through-enteric-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressed-neurons
#14
Anne Abot, Alexandre Lucas, Tereza Bautzova, Arnaud Bessac, Audren Fournel, Sophie Le-Gonidec, Philippe Valet, Cédric Moro, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
OBJECTIVE: Decreasing duodenal contraction is now considered as a major focus for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identifying bioactive molecules able to target the enteric nervous system, which controls the motility of intestinal smooth muscle cells, represents a new therapeutic avenue. For this reason, we chose to study the impact of oral galanin on this system in diabetic mice. METHODS: Enteric neurotransmission, duodenal contraction, glucose absorption, modification of gut-brain axis, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance, insulinemia, glucose entry in tissue, hepatic glucose metabolism) were assessed...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422898/cyclic-amp-pathway-suppress-autoimmune-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-functions-of-encephalitogenic-cd4-t-cells-and-enhancing-m2-macrophage-polarization-at-the-site-of-inflammation
#15
Tatyana Veremeyko, Amanda W Y Yung, Marina Dukhinova, Inna S Kuznetsova, Igor Pomytkin, Alexey Lyundup, Tatyana Strekalova, Natasha S Barteneva, Eugene D Ponomarev
Although it has been demonstrated that cAMP pathway affect both adaptive and innate cell functions, the role of this pathway in the regulation of T-cell-mediated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammation, such as in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), remains unclear. It is also unclear how cAMP pathway affects the function of CD4 T cells in vivo at the site of inflammation. We found that adenylyl cyclase activator Forskolin besides inhibition of functions autoimmune CD4 T cells also upregulated microRNA (miR)-124 in the CNS during EAE, which is associated with M2 phenotype of microglia/macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421542/leptin-levels-and-its-correlation-with-crack-cocaine-user-severity-a-preliminary-study
#16
Mariana Escobar, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Felipe Ornell, Giovana Bristot, Cassia Medino Soares, Luciano Santos Pinto Guimarães, Lísia Von Diemen, Flavio Pechansky
BACKGROUND: Crack-cocaine is an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. It is a potent form of cocaine which results in rapid and damaging stimulating effects on the central nervous system through inhibition of the dopamine transporter. Some studies have suggested that both food and drugs - including crack, can act on the same brain reward mechanisms, altering the dopamine pathways that modulate behavioral responses. Our hypothesis was that leptin, a well-known peptide that modulates energy metabolism and appetite, can be used as a biomarker for drug use...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415995/plasma-hemopexin-ameliorates-murine-spinal-cord-injury-by-switching-microglia-from-the-m1-state-to-the-m2-state
#17
Dunxin Han, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Jifeng Feng, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Li Cao, Cheng He
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of central nervous system (CNS) trauma with limited therapeutic treatments. The polarization of microglia into the M1 or M2 state has been documented to play important roles in the pathogenesis of SCI, although the complete repertoire of underlying factors has not been identified. Interestingly, the time point at which hematomyelia (intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage) is alleviated coincides with a decrease in the number of M2 microglia. Here the function of Hemopexin (Hpx), a hematogenous glycoprotein, was examined in the crush model of SCI...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415877/challenges-associated-with-nerve-conduction-block-using-kilohertz-electrical-stimulation
#18
Yogi A Patel, Robert J Butera
Neuromodulation therapies, which electrically stimulate parts of the nervous system, have traditionally attempted to activate neurons or axons to restore function or alleviate disease symptoms. In stark contrast to this approach is inhibiting neural activity to relieve disease symptoms and/or restore homeostasis. One potential approach is Kilohertz Electrical Stimulation (KES) of peripheral nerves - which enables a rapid, reversible, and localized block of conduction. This review highlights the existing scientific and clinical utility of KES and discusses the technical and physiological challenges that must be addressed for successful translation of KES nerve conduction block therapies...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415629/mild-maternal-hypothyroxinemia-during-pregnancy-induces-persistent-dna-hypermethylation-in-the-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-in-mouse-offspring
#19
Kenichi Kawahori, Koshi Hashimoto, Xunmei Yuan, Kazutaka Tsujimoto, Nozomi Hanzawa, Miho Hamaguchi, Saori Kase, Kyota Fujita, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Hitoshi Okazawa, Yasuyo Nakajima, Nobuyuki Shibusawa, Masanobu Yamada, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental rodents have shown that even a subtle thyroid hormone insufficiency in circulating maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may adversely affect neurodevelopment in offspring, resulting in irreversible cognitive deficits. This may be due to the persistent reduced expression of the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (Bdnf), which plays a crucial role in CNS development...
February 7, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414557/caffeine-and-seizures-a-systematic-review-and-quantitative-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Rick R van Koert, Prisca R Bauer, Ilse Schuitema, Josemir W Sander, Gerhard H Visser
PURPOSE: Caffeine is the most commonly used central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The relationship between caffeine, seizures, epilepsy, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is complex and not fully understood. Case reports suggest that caffeine triggers seizures in susceptible people. Our systematic review reports on the relationship between caffeine, seizures, and drugs in animal and human studies. Quantitative analyses were also done on animal studies regarding the effects of caffeine on AEDs...
January 21, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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