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Nervous system stimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682149/evaluation-of-autonomic-nervous-system-function-using-heart-rate-variability-analysis-during-transient-heart-rate-reduction-caused-by-acupuncture
#1
Chikako Uchida, Hideaki Waki, Yoichi Minakawa, Hideaki Tamai, Tatsuya Hisajima, Kenji Imai
Objective: Human studies have demonstrated that heart rate (HR) decreases during acupuncture stimulation, and pharmacologic studies have shown that this autonomic nervous system (ANS) response is parasympathetic-dominant. It has become clear that significant changes occur in the ANS after acupuncture, based on HR variability (HRV). However, it is inconclusive, according to HRV analysis, if acupuncture induces a significant change in autonomic function during stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate ANS function using HRV analysis during HR reduction induced by manual acupuncture stimulation to the muscles...
April 1, 2018: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679562/myotube-derived-factor-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-proliferation
#2
Akino Nakasone, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuki Kato, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Muscle cells secrete numerous molecules that function as endocrine hormones and regulate the functions of distant organs. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by peripheral hormones. However, the effects of muscle-derived molecules on myelination have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we show that muscle-releasing factors promote proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which is an element of myelination process. Supernatants of mouse myotube cultures stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into mouse OPCs...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676614/sourcebook-update-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contractility-and-autonomic-control
#3
Philip D Langton
This laboratory practical requires first-year students to anticipate the effects of drugs active at cholinergic and adrenergic receptors on gut motility in order to design experiments during an authentic inquiry exercise. Rather than specifying a strict sequence of drug additions that aim to provide ideal demonstrations of pharmacological and physiological antagonism, I have instead designed switches into the drugs provided and set students, working in small teams, the task of identifying the switched drugs, an inquiry activity...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675728/histone-deacetylase-2-inhibitor-cay10683-alleviates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-through-attenuating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#4
Fang-Zhou Jiao, Yao Wang, Hai-Yue Zhang, Wen-Bin Zhang, Lu-Wen Wang, Zuo-Jiong Gong
Neuroinflammation involves in the progression of many central nervous system diseases. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors modulated inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. While, the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of HDAC2 inhibitor CAY10683 on inflammatory responses and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS activated BV2 microglial cells and LPS induced mice neuroinflammation. The effect of CAY10683 on cell viability of BV2 microglial cells was detected by CCK-8 assay...
April 19, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675134/leptin-and-leptin-resistance-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-possible-link-to-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-complications
#5
REVIEW
Slava Berger, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obesity-related sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) cause intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a powerful trigger of oxidative stress. Obesity also leads to dramatic increases in circulating levels of leptin, a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Leptin acts in the hypothalamus to suppress food intake and increase metabolic rate. However, obese individuals are resistant to metabolic effects of leptin. Leptin also activates the sympathetic nervous system without any evidence of resistance, possibly because these effects occur peripherally without a need to penetrate the blood-brain barrier...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673529/neurochemistry-of-anesthetic-states
#6
Ralph Lydic, Helen A Baghdoyan, Amanda L May
Anesthetic mechanisms that eliminate consciousness and perception of pain are products of the nervous system. Chemical approaches to the study of anesthetic mechanisms have the potential to serve as an ideal interface between basic and clinical neuroscience. There are disproportionately more basic neurochemical studies than clinical studies of anesthetic mechanisms. Even within neuroscience, the study of anesthetic mechanisms is sparse. The Society for Neuroscience hosts one of the world's largest and most vibrant scientific meetings, yet the content themes of that meeting do not include anesthesia...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673130/effects-of-gip-on-regional-blood-flow-during-normoglycemia-and-hyperglycemia-in-anesthetized-rats
#7
Xiang Gao, Andreas Lindqvist, Monica Sandberg, Leif Groop, Nils Wierup, Leif Jansson
The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and affects β-cell turnover. This study aimed at evaluating if some of the beneficial effects of GIP on glucose homeostasis can be explained by modulation of islet blood flow. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with different doses of GIP (10, 20, or 60 ng/kg*min) for 30 min. Subsequent organ blood flow measurements were performed with microspheres. In separate animals, islets were perfused ex vivo with GIP (10-6 -10-12  mol/L) during normo- and hyperglycemia and arteriolar responsiveness was recorded...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#8
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666932/-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-crps-an-update
#9
V Dimova, F Birklein
The acute phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pathophysiologically characterized by an activation of the immune system and its associated inflammatory response. During the course of CRPS, central nervous symptoms like mechanical hyperalgesia, loss of sensation, and body perception disorders develop. Psychological factors such as pain-related anxiety and traumatic events might have a negative effect on the treatment outcome. While the visible inflammatory symptoms improve, the pain often persists...
April 17, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666241/muscularis-macrophage-development-in-the-absence-of-an-enteric-nervous-system
#10
Marina Avetisyan, Julia E Rood, Silvia Huerta Lopez, Rajarshi Sengupta, Elizabeth Wright-Jin, Joseph D Dougherty, Edward M Behrens, Robert O Heuckeroth
The nervous system of the bowel regulates the inflammatory phenotype of tissue resident muscularis macrophages (MM), and in adult mice, enteric neurons are the main local source of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), a protein required for MM survival. Surprisingly, we find that during development MM colonize the bowel before enteric neurons. This calls into question the requirement for neuron-derived CSF1 for MM colonization of the bowel. To determine if intestinal innervation is required for MM development, we analyzed MM of neonatal Ret -/- ( Ret KO) mice that have no enteric nervous system in small bowel or colon...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665911/-clinical-analysis-of-refractory-primary-central-nervouse-system-lymphoma-treated-with-high-dose-mtx-based-chemotherapy-and-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-infusion
#11
Juan Liu, Wan-Jun Sun, Xiao-Qin Xi, Xiao-Mei Huang, Xiao-Xi Li, Jiao Xia, Yuan-Yuan Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy combined with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized family related haploidentical donor peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (G-PBHSC) infusion for the treatment of patients with refractory primary central nervouse system lymphoma (PCNSL). METHODS: Three patients with refractory PCNSL were treated in Department of Hematology of the General Hospital of the PLA's Rocket Force from March 2014 to September 2015...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665351/neuroendocrine-response-to-gaba-b-receptor-agonism-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-results-from-a-combined-outpatient-and-human-laboratory-experiment
#12
Mehdi Farokhnia, Mikela B Sheskier, Mary R Lee, April N Le, Erick Singley, Sofia Bouhlal, Timmy Ton, Zhen Zhao, Lorenzo Leggio
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, plays an important role in biobehavioral processes that regulate alcohol seeking, food intake, and stress response. The metabotropic GABA-B receptor has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target for alcohol use disorder, by using orthosteric agonists (e.g., baclofen) and positive allosteric modulators. Whether and how pharmacological manipulation of the GABA-B receptor, in combination with alcohol intake, may affect feeding- and stress-related neuroendocrine pathways remains unknown...
April 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662940/large-scale-in-vivo-recording-of-sensory-neuron-activity-with-gcamp6
#13
Kim I Chisholm, Nikita Khovanov, Douglas M Lopes, Federica La Russa, Stephen B McMahon
Greater emphasis on the study of intact cellular networks in their physiological environment has led to rapid advances in intravital imaging of the central nervous system (CNS), while the peripheral system remains largely unexplored. To assess large networks of sensory neurons, we selectively label primary afferents with GCaMP6s in male and female C57bl/6 mice and visualize their functional responses to peripheral stimulation in vivo . We show that we are able to monitor the activity of hundreds of sensory neurons simultaneously, with sufficient sensitivity to detect, in most cases, single action potentials with a typical rise time of around 200 ms, and an exponential decay with a time constant of approximately 700 ms...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662453/response-of-cultured-neuronal-network-activity-after-high-intensity-power-frequency-magnetic-field-exposure
#14
Atsushi Saito, Masayuki Takahashi, Kei Makino, Yukihisa Suzuki, Yasuhiko Jimbo, Satoshi Nakasono
High-intensity and low frequency (1-100 kHz) time-varying electromagnetic fields stimulate the human body through excitation of the nervous system. In power frequency range (50/60 Hz), a frequency-dependent threshold of the external electric field-induced neuronal modulation in cultured neuronal networks was used as one of the biological indicator in international guidelines; however, the threshold of the magnetic field-induced neuronal modulation has not been elucidated. In this study, we exposed rat brain-derived neuronal networks to a high-intensity power frequency magnetic field (hPF-MF), and evaluated the modulation of synchronized bursting activity using a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based extracellular recording technique...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661162/the-cold-pressor-test-in-interictal-migraine-patients-different-parasympathetic-pupillary-response-indicates-dysbalance-of-the-cranial-autonomic-nervous-system
#15
Ozan E Eren, Ruth Ruscheweyh, Christoph Schankin, Florian Schöberl, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Data on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activations in migraine patients are quite controversial, with previous studies reporting over- and underactivation of the sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explicitly aimed to assess the cranial ANS in migraine patients compared to healthy controls by applying the cold pressor test to a cohort of migraine patients in the interictal phase and measuring the pupillary response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a strong sympathetic stimulus was applied to 20 patients with episodic migraine in the interictal phase and 20 matched controls without migraine, whereby each participant dipped the left hand into ice-cold (4 °C) water for a maximum of 5 min (cold pressor test)...
April 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660252/encapsulated-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-fate-is-dependent-on-pdgf-aa-release-kinetics-in-a-3d-microparticle-hydrogel-drug-delivery-system
#16
Meghan R Pinezich, Lauren N Russell, Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Biomaterial drug delivery systems (DDS) can be used to regulate growth factor release and combat the limited intrinsic regeneration capabilities of central nervous system (CNS) tissue following injury and disease. Of particular interest are systems that aid in oligodendrocyte regeneration, as oligodendrocytes generate myelin which surrounds neuronal axons and helps transmit signals throughout the CNS. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are found in small numbers in the adult CNS, but are unable to effectively differentiate following CNS injury...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659729/t-helper-17-1-cells-associate-with-multiple-sclerosis-disease-activity-perspectives-for-early-intervention
#17
Jamie van Langelaar, Roos M van der Vuurst de Vries, Malou Janssen, Annet F Wierenga-Wolf, Isis M Spilt, Theodora A Siepman, Wendy Dankers, Georges M G M Verjans, Helga E de Vries, Erik Lubberts, Rogier Q Hintzen, Marvin M van Luijn
Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients...
April 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658942/neuron-macrophage-co-cultures-to-activate-macrophages-secreting-molecular-factors-with-neurite-outgrowth-activity
#18
Hyeok Jun Yun, Eun-Hye Kim, Byung Gon Kim
There is strong evidence that macrophages can participate in the regeneration or repair of injured nervous system. Here, we describe a protocol in which macrophages are induced to produce conditioned medium (CM) that promotes neurite outgrowth. Adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are acutely dissociated and plated. After the neurons are stably attached, peritoneal macrophages are co-cultured on a cell culture insert overlaid on the same well. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) is applied to the co-cultures for 24 h, after which the cell culture insert containing the macrophages is moved to another well to collect CM for 72 h...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658440/effects-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-autonomic-nervous-system-of-hypertensive-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Sandra do Amaral Sartori, Cinara Stein, Christian Correa Coronel, Fabricio Edler Macagnan, Rodrigo Della Mea Plentz
BACKGROUND: Patients with hypertension have altered autonomic nervous system function, which are increased sympathetic activity. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a useful modality for pain control and has also been shown to be effective in the reduction of sympathetic activity in healthy subjects and individuals with cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation by the evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with essential hypertension...
April 16, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657092/the-critical-chemical-and-mechanical-regulation-of-folic-acid-on-neural-engineering
#20
Gloria B Kim, Yongjie Chen, Weibo Kang, Jinshan Guo, Russell Payne, Hui Li, Qiong Wei, Julianne Baker, Cheng Dong, Sulin Zhang, Pak Kin Wong, Elias B Rizk, Jiazhi Yan, Jian Yang
The mandate of folic acid supplementation in grained products has reduced the occurrence of neural tube defects by one third in the U.S since its introduction by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998. However, the advantages and possible mechanisms of action of using folic acid for peripheral nerve engineering and neurological diseases still remain largely elusive. Herein, folic acid is described as an inexpensive and multifunctional niche component that modulates behaviors in different cells in the nervous system...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
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