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Nervous system stimulants

Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Throughout the disease process, patients may complain of a panel of sensory, motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Fatigue is a debilitating manifestation of central nervous system diseases with physical, cognitive and psychosocial dimensions. In MS, fatigue could be very frequent concerning up to 90% of patients and may have a drastic impact on their quality of life...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Katja Venborg Pedersen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Ole Graumann, Susanne Sloth Osther, Anne Estrup Olesen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Palle Jørn Sloth Osther
Background and purpose Visceral and somatic afferents activate the same neuronal structures in the central nervous system. Assessing somatosensory function and trophic changes in the referred pain area may therefore indirectly increase information on mechanisms involved in painful visceral diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and trophic changes in the flank corresponding to the referred pain area in patients with kidney stone disease. Methods A total of 24 patients with unilateral pain-causing kidney stone disease were studied before and after endoscopic percutaneous kidney stone surgery...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Pasquale Scaramozzino, Alban Y Neziri, Ole K Andersen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Michele Curatolo
Aabstract Background and purpose Central hypersensitivity, defined as an increased excitability of the central nervous system, is considered as the main factor behind facilitation of central pain processes and is probably a very important factor in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Widespread hyposensitivity is less studied than hypersensitivity states, but recent work indicates that hypoesthesia may be present in chronic non-neuropathic pain conditions and could have negative prognostic value...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Tianle Gao, Jingxia Hao, Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Xiao-Jun Xu
Aims Pain in response to innocuous cold stimulation (cold allodynia) is a common symptom in patients with neuropathic pain. Cold allodynia is difficult to treat and its mechanisms are poorly understood. Several transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been shown to be the molecular sensors for cold stimulation in a temperature-dependent manner, but the contribution of various TRP channels in mediating cold allodynia in neuropathic pain is unclear. We have previously shown that spinally injured rats developed neuropathic pain-like behaviors, including marked cold allodynia...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Christina Brock, Carina Graversen, Jens B Frøkjær, Eirik Søfteland, Massimiliano Valeriani, Asbjørn M Drewes
Background/aims Abnormal visceral sensory function in diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to neuronal changes in the enteric, peripheral and/or central nervous system (CNS). To explore the role of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) in patients with long-standing DM, we investigated psychophysical responses and neuronal activity recorded as evoked brain potentials (EPs) and dipolar source modelling. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and 14 type-1 DM patients with DAN were assessed with a symptom score index characterizing upper GI abnormalities...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jan Brun, Christina Brock, Jens B Frøkjær, Eirik Söfteland, Magnus Simrén, Hans Gregersen, Asbjørn M Drewes
Background Abnormal visceral sensory function has been demonstrated in patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic autonomic neuropathy seems to be involved in the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in, e.g. the esophagus has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favours investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia and hyperalgesia...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Christine Mohn, Olav Vassend, Stein Knardahl
Background and purpose Psychophysiological factors may contribute to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Both local orofacial and systemic responses have been investigated. However, most studies have concentrated on physiological responding during cognitive challenges, while responses during painful tasks may be highly relevant for the development of chronic pain conditions. Moreover, the relationship between experimental challenges and physiological responding may be influenced by affective responses during the experimental tasks, an issue not often considered in the literature...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Caspar Skau Madsen, Nanna Brix Finnerup, Ulf Baumgärtner
Background and purpose Conventional neurophysiological techniques do not assess the function of nociceptive pathways and are inadequate to detect abnormalities in patients with small-fiber damage. This overview aims to give an update on the methods and techniques used to assess small fiber (Aδ- and C-fibers) function using evoked potentials in research and clinical settings. Methods Noxious radiant or contact heat allows the recording of heat-evoked brain potentials commonly referred to as laser evoked potentials (LEPs) and contact heat-evoked potentials (CHEPs)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Anne-Li Lind, Magnus Wetterhall, Marcus Sjödin, Torsten Gordh
Aims Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system affecting approximately 2% of the population. Current pharmacological treatments are ineffective for more than 50% of the patients and often give much adverse effects. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an alternative cost-effective treatment with high efficacy, prolonged pain relief, few side effects. We have compared the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomes from neuropathic pain patients during pain relief induced by SCS and during pain sensation without SCS, to gain further insights into the mechanisms behind the obtained analgesia...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Bright N Okine, Clare Spicer, Paul Millns, Andrew Bennett, Victoria Chapman
Background and aims The clinical management of chronic neuropathic pain remains a global health challenge. Current treatments are either ineffective, or associated with unwanted side-effects. The development of effective, safe therapies requires the identification of novel therapeutic targets using clinically relevant animal models of neuropathic pain. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), is a member of the nuclear hormone family of transcription factors, which is widely distributed in the peripheral and central nervous systems...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
A Lind, P Emami, M Sjödin, L Katila, M Wetterhall, T Gordh, K Kultima
Aims The aim of this study was to uncover possible proteins involved in the mechanism for neuropathic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) pain relief in humans. Methods Using two different proteomic protocols we compared the protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 14 SCS responsive neuropathic pain patients using a shotgun proteomic approach. The comparison was made between samples from the same individual taken when the stimulator had been off for 48 h, and after the stimulator had been used as normal for three weeks...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Brian E Cairns, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Paola Sacerdote
Background It is unknown why an acute pain condition under various circumstances can transition into a chronic pain condition. There has been a shift towards neuroinflammation and hence glial cell activations specifically in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord as a mechanism possibly driving the transition to chronic pain. This has led to a focus on non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. Besides infiltrating macrophages, Schwann cells and satellite glial cells release cytokines and therefore important mechanisms in the maintenance of pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Emil H Rijnbeek, Nick Eleveld, Wouter Olthuis
In this paper various types of electrodes for stimulation and recording activity of peripheral nerves for the control of neuroprosthetic limbs are reviewed. First, an overview of interface devices for (feedback-) controlled movement of a prosthetic device is given, after which the focus is on peripheral nervous system (PNS) electrodes. Important electrode properties, i.e., longevity and spatial resolution, are defined based upon the usability for neuroprostheses. The cuff electrode, longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFE), transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME), Utah slanted electrode array (USEA), and the regenerative electrode are discussed and assessed on their longevity and spatial resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
J D Z Chen, M Ni, J Yin
Functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common and there are patients who are refractory to medical therapies as not all treatments work in all patients. Consequently, a large number of patients with functional GI diseases use complementary and alternative medicine, such as acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA). In this issue, Zheng et al. reported interesting results of a multi-center placebo-controlled clinical study on the use of EA for treating refractory functional dyspepsia; another study reported a multi-center clinical trial on EA for chronic functional constipation; Liang et al...
July 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Scott Seitz, Penny Clarke, Kenneth L Tyler
Flaviviruses account for most arthropod-borne cases of human encephalitis in the world. However the exact mechanisms of injury to the central nervous system (CNS) during Flavivirus infections remain poorly understood. Microglia are the resident immune cell of the CNS and are important for multiple functions, including control of viral pathogenesis. Utilizing a pharmacologic method of microglia depletion (PLX5622, Plexxikon Inc, an inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor) we sought to determine the role of microglia in Flaviviral pathogenesis...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ricardo Galhardoni, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Mariana Yt Puerta, Andre R Brunoni, Bruna Lr Varotto, José Tt de Siqueira, Manoel J Teixeira, Silvia Rdt Siqueira
Introduction Persistent idiopathic facial pain is a refractory and disabling condition of unknown mechanism and etiology. It has been suggested that persistent idiopathic facial pain patients have not only peripheral generators of pain, but also central nervous system changes that would contribute to the persistence of symptoms. We hypothesized that persistent idiopathic facial pain would have changes in brain cortical excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation compared to healthy controls...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Yanqing Wu, Zhouguang Wang, Pingtao Cai, Ting Jiang, Yiyang Li, Yuan Yuan, Rui Li, Sinan Khor, Yingfeng Lu, Jian Wang, Daqing Chen, Qiqiang Zeng, Ruisheng Zhong, Hongyu Zhang, Yuan Lin, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are essential for proper development, survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, because bFGF and NGF have short half-life and rapid diffusion rate, they have limited clinical efficacy. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop an effective delivery system to protect bFGF and NGF from proteolysis while maintaining their normal bioactivities. METHODS: To more efficiently deliver bFGF and NGF, we used a coacervate (synthesized with heparin and a biodegradable polycation at mass ratio of 500: 100)...
June 12, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rong Li, Sudhanshu Sahu, Melitta Schachner
BACKGROUND: Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 contributes to nervous system development and maintenance by promoting neuronal survival, neuritogenesis, axonal regrowth/sprouting, myelination, and synapse formation and plasticity. L1 also enhances recovery after spinal cord injury and ameliorates neurodegenerative processes in experimental rodent models. Aiming for clinical translation of L1 into therapy we screened for and functionally characterized in vitro the small organic molecule phenelzine, which mimics characteristic L1 functions...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Tina Balletta, Antonia Trinchera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The central nervous system involvement, in terms of a maladaptive sensory-motor plasticity, is well known in patients with dystrophic myotonias (DMs). To date, there are no data suggesting a central nervous system involvement in non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate sensory-motor plasticity in patients with Myotonia Congenita (MC) and Paramyotonia Congenita (PMC) with or without mexiletine. METHODS: Twelve patients with a clinical, genetic, and electromyographic evidence of MC, fifteen with PMC, and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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