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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913854/preoperative-ultraviolet-b-inflammation-in-skin-modelling-individual-differences-in-acute-postoperative-pain-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#2
T H Lunn, J M Dawes, F Denk, D L Bennett, H Husted, H Kehlet, S B McMahon
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune interactions play a vital role in many of the most common pain conditions, such as arthritis. There have been many attempts to derive clinically predictive information from an individual's inflammatory response in order to gauge subsequent pain perception. OBJECTIVES: Here, we wanted to test whether this effort could be enhanced and complemented by the use of a model system which takes into account the function of not just circulating, but also tissue-resident immune cells: ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912153/comprehensive-genomic-profiling-of-282-pediatric-low-and-high-grade-gliomas-reveals-genomic-drivers-tumor-mutational-burden-and-hypermutation-signatures
#3
Adrienne Johnson, Eric Severson, Laurie Gay, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Julia Elvin, James Suh, Sugganth Daniel, Mandy Covert, Garrett M Frampton, Sigmund Hsu, Glenn J Lesser, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan T Mott, Sarah Z Rush, Jennifer J Stanke, Sonika Dahiya, James Sun, Prasanth Reddy, Zachary R Chalmers, Rachel Erlich, Yakov Chudnovsky, David Fabrizio, Alexa B Schrock, Siraj Ali, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Jeffrey Ross, John R Crawford, Shakti H Ramkissoon
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb])...
September 14, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905640/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-exercise-and-psychotherapy-in-depression-the-speed-study-rationale-design-and-methodological-issues
#4
Stephan Heinzel, Michael A Rapp, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle, Christina Terán, Gunnar Kallies, Melanie Schwefel, Andreas Heissel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Even though cognitive behavioral therapy has become a relatively effective treatment for major depressive disorder and cognitive behavioral therapy-related changes of dysfunctional neural activations were shown in recent studies, remission rates still remain at an insufficient level. Therefore, the implementation of effective augmentation strategies is needed. In recent meta-analyses, exercise therapy (especially endurance exercise) was reported to be an effective intervention in major depressive disorder...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904199/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-induces-hiv-1-proteasomal-degradation-in-mucosal-langerhans-cells
#5
Morgane Bomsel, Yonatan Ganor
The neuro-immune dialogue between peripheral neurons and Langerhans cells (LCs) within mucosal epithelia protects against incoming pathogens. LCs rapidly internalize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon its sexual transmission and then trans-infect CD4+ T-cells. We recently found that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted mucosally from peripheral neurons, inhibits LCs-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of CGRP-induced inhibition, focusing on HIV-1 degradation in LCs and its interplay with trans-infection...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890737/from-hard-neuro-tools-to-soft-neuro-toys-refocussing-the-neuro-enhancement-debate
#6
Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Hub Zwart
Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875373/differentiating-brain-radionecrosis-from-tumour-recurrence-a-role-for-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#7
Luca Mattei, Francesco Prada, Marcello Marchetti, Paola Gaviani, Francesco DiMeco
Differentiating radionecrosis from tumour recurrence is a major issue in neuro-oncology. Conventional imaging is far from being validated as an alternative to histological assessment. We report the case of a patient operated on for suspected recurrence of brain metastasis 9 months after cyberknife radiosurgery. While magnetic resonance imaging showed strong enhancement of the lesion, intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) surprisingly did not-different from what is expected for brain metastases...
September 5, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#8
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855243/update-on-angiotensin-ii-new-endocrine-connections-between-the-brain-adrenal-glands-and-the-cardiovascular-system
#9
Frans Leenen, Mordecai P Blaustein, John Hamlyn
In the brain, angiotensinergic pathways play a major role in chronic regulation of cardiovascular and electrolyte homeostasis. Increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone, [Na+] and cytokines can directly activate these pathways. Chronically, these stimuli also activate a slow neuromodulatory pathway involving local aldosterone, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), epithelial sodium channels, and endogenous ouabain (EO). This pathway increases AT1R and NADPH oxidase subunits, and maintains/further increases activity of angiotensinergic pathways...
August 30, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855149/development-of-the-electronic-social-network-assessment-program-using-the-center-for-ehealth-and-wellbeing-research-roadmap
#10
Maija Reblin, Yelena P Wu, Justin Pok, Lauren Kane, Howard Colman, Adam L Cohen, Eduardo Mendivil, Echo L Warner, Miriah Meyer, James Agutter
BACKGROUND: The number of Web-based psychological and behavioral interventions is growing. Beyond their theoretical underpinnings, a key factor to the success of these interventions is how they are designed and developed to ensure usability over a new method of delivery. Our team has adapted ecomapping, a tool for visualizing family caregiver social network resources, for the Web. Here, we describe how we designed and developed the electronic Social Network Assessment Program (eSNAP) Web-based tool using a framework of the Center for eHealth and Wellbeing Research (CeHRes) Roadmap for Web-based intervention development...
August 30, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855122/bacterial-isolates-degrading-ritalinic-acid-human-metabolite-of-neuro-enhancer-methylphenidate
#11
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
The consumption of nootropic drugs has increased tremendously in the last decade, though the studies on their environmental fate are still scarce. Nootropics are bioactive compounds designed to alter human's physiology therefore the adverse effects towards wildlife can be expected. In order to understand their environmental impact, the knowledge on their transformation pathways is necessary. Methylphenidate belongs to the most prescribed neuro-enhancers and is among the most favored smart drugs used in non-medical situations...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845202/reflection-as-a-deliberative-and-distributed-practice-assessing-neuro-enhancement-technologies-via-mutual-learning-exercises-mles
#12
Hub Zwart, Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Peter Eduard, Lotte Krabbenborg, Sheena Laursen, Gema Revuelta, Winnie Toonders
In 1968, Jürgen Habermas claimed that, in an advanced technological society, the emancipatory force of knowledge can only be regained by actively recovering the 'forgotten experience of reflection'. In this article, we argue that, in the contemporary situation, critical reflection requires a deliberative ambiance, a process of mutual learning, a consciously organised process of deliberative and distributed reflection. And this especially applies, we argue, to critical reflection concerning a specific subset of technologies which are actually oriented towards optimising human cognition (neuro-enhancement)...
2017: Nanoethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842741/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-criteria-contrast-enhancement-and-perfusion-mri-for-assessing-progression-in-glioblastoma
#13
Fatima Tensaouti, Jonathan Khalifa, Amélie Lusque, Benjamin Plas, Jean Albert Lotterie, Isabelle Berry, Anne Laprie, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Vincent Lubrano
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), with respect to the Macdonald criteria and changes in contrast-enhancement (CE) volume. Related variations in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated. METHODS: Forty-three patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 were included. All underwent surgical resection, followed by temozolomide-based chemoradiation. MR images were retrospectively reviewed...
August 25, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842306/berberine-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-by-suppressing-neuro-inflammation-in-stressed-mice
#14
Ya-Min Liu, Le Niu, Lin-Lin Wang, Li Bai, Xiao-Yan Fang, Yu-Cheng Li, Li-Tao Yi
Berberine, the major constituent alkaloid originally from the famous Chinese herb Huanglian (Coptis chinensis), has been shown to exert antidepressant-like effects in rodents. However, it is still not clear the involvement of neuro-inflammation suppression in the effects of berberine. The purpose of this study was to determine whether berberine affects the neuro-inflammation system in mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Berberine was orally administrated in normal or CUMS mice for successive four weeks...
August 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841802/advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-glioblastoma-a-review
#15
Gaurav Shukla, Gregory S Alexander, Spyridon Bakas, Rahul Nikam, Kiran Talekar, Joshua D Palmer, Wenyin Shi
Glioblastoma, the most common and most rapidly progressing primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system, continues to portend a dismal prognosis, despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies over the last 20 years. The standard of care radiographic characterization of glioblastoma is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a widely utilized examination in the diagnosis and post-treatment management of patients with glioblastoma. Basic MRI modalities available from any clinical scanner, including native T1-weighted (T1w) and contrast-enhanced (T1CE), T2-weighted (T2w), and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) sequences, provide critical clinical information about various processes in the tumor environment...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813967/integration-of-serious-games-and-wearable-haptic-interfaces-for-neuro-rehabilitation-of-children-with-movement-disorders-a-feasibility-study
#16
Ilaria Bortone, Daniele Leonardis, Massimiliano Solazzi, Caterina Procopio, Alessandra Crecchi, Luca Bonfiglio, Antonio Frisoli
The past decade has seen the emergence of rehabilitation treatments using virtual reality environments. One of the advantages in using this technology is the potential to create positive motivation, by means of engaging environments and tasks shaped in the form of serious games. In this work, we propose a novel Neuro Rehabilitation System for children with movement disorders, that is based on serious games in immersive virtual reality with haptic feedback. The system design aims to enhance involvement and engagement of patients, to provide congruent multi-sensory afferent feedback during motor exercises, and to benefit from the flexibility of virtual reality in adapting exercises to the patient's needs...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810623/evaluation-of-heat-shock-protein-hsp-72-expression-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-of-rats-with-glaucoma
#17
Guo-Hua Wang, Yi-Qiao Xing
The present study was planned to observe the expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in retina of rats in a glaucoma model. A total of 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into the high intraocular tension group (glaucoma model) and the sham control (sham operation) group. Glaucoma rat models were created by application of electrocoagulation on at least three groups of veins, reduction of venous return of aqueous humor and by enhancement of intraocular tension at the same time; 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after operation, the intraocular tension of rats was observed respectively, and the expression/distribution of HSP72 in retina was assessed by immunohistochemical detection...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806189/the-use-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-neuro-ophthalmology
#18
Noel C Y Chan, Carmen K M Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss; monitoring neurodegenerative diseases or multiple sclerosis; and predicting visual loss in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799299/a-comparative-study-of-csf-viral-rna-loads-between-hiv-positive-patients-with-neurological-manifestations-and-neurologically-asymptomatic-hiv-patients
#19
A D Mathur, S Devesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761415/dual-and-multi-drug-delivery-nanoparticles-towards-neuronal-survival-and-synaptic-repair
#20
REVIEW
Angelina Angelova, Borislav Angelov
Among the macromolecular drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase receptor (TrkB) present strong interest for nanomedicine development aiming at neuronal and synaptic repair. Currently, BDNF is regarded as the neurotrophic factor of highest therapeutic significance. However, BDNF has delivery problems as a protein drug. The enhanced activation of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) has been evidenced to increase the BDNF gene expression and hence the production of endogenous BDNF...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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