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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333521/nanomaterials-for-convection-enhanced-delivery-of-agents-to-treat-brain-tumors
#1
Young-Eun Seo, Tom Bu, W Mark Saltzman
Nanomaterials represent a promising and versatile platform for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain. Treatment of brain tumors has been a long-standing challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. The current standard of care - a multimodal approach of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy - yields only a modest therapeutic benefit for patients with malignant gliomas. A major obstacle for treatment is the failure to achieve sufficient delivery of therapeutics at the tumor site. Recent advances in local drug delivery techniques, along with the development of highly effective brain-penetrating nanocarriers, have significantly improved treatment and imaging of brain tumors in preclinical studies...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325869/microglial-activation-and-the-nitric-oxide-cgmp-pkg-pathway-underlie-enhanced-neuronal-vulnerability-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Andrea Mancini, Michela Tantucci, Petra Mazzocchetti, Antonio de Iure, Valentina Durante, Lara Macchioni, Carmela Giampà, Alessandra Alvino, Lorenzo Gaetani, Cinzia Costa, Alessandro Tozzi, Paolo Calabresi, Massimiliano Di Filippo
During multiple sclerosis (MS), a close link has been demonstrated to occur between inflammation and neuro-axonal degeneration, leading to the hypothesis that immune mechanisms may promote neurodegeneration, leading to irreversible disease progression. Energy deficits and inflammation-driven mitochondrial dysfunction seem to be involved in this process. In this work we investigated, by the use of striatal electrophysiological field-potential recordings, if the inflammatory process associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is able to influence neuronal vulnerability to the blockade of mitochondrial complex IV, a crucial component for mitochondrial activity responsible of about 90% of total cellular oxygen consumption...
January 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321317/the-wnt-signaling-pathway-is-differentially-expressed-during-the-bovine-herpesvirus-1-latency-reactivation-cycle-evidence-that-two-protein-kinases-associated-with-neuronal-survival-akt3-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptor-2-are-expressed-at-higher-levels
#4
Aspen Workman, Liqian Zhu, Brittney N Keel, Timothy P L Smith, Clinton Jones
Sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) abundantly express latency-related (LR) gene products, including a protein (ORF2) and two micro-RNAs. Recent studies in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2A) demonstrated ORF2 interacts with β-catenin and a β-catenin coactivator, high mobility group AT-hook 1 protein (HMGA1), which correlates with increased β-catenin dependent transcription and cell survival. β-catenin and HMGA1 are readily detected in a subset of latently infected TG neurons, but not TG neurons from uninfected calves or reactivation from latency...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317311/concomitant-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-neural-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-a-combo-cell-therapy-approach
#5
Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Mahsa Sani, Kh Husnanin Haider, Mohammadreza Dorvash, Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Aliasghar Karimi, Mohmmad Reza Namavar
with neural stem cells (NSCs) provides a hope to recover the neural damage and compensate for the lost neural structures for restoration of interrupted neural communications above and below the site of injury. However, cell-based therapy approach suffers from many biological barriers and technical caveats which severely hamper the prognosis. The biochemically-rich microenvironment at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI), the continuing neuro-degenerative process and infiltrating immune cells offer a serious barrier to the donor cells...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299506/longitudinal-up-regulation-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-patients-with-meniere-s-disease-during-medical-treatment
#6
Munehisa Fukushima, Tadashi Kitahara, Ryohei Oya, Shiro Akahani, Hidenori Inohara, Shinji Naganawa, Noriaki Takeda
Objective/Hypothesis: Meniere's disease (MD) is a common inner ear disease characterized by repeated episodic vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus. Its pathology is defined as endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in the inner ear and EH has been hypothesized to correlate with the clinical symptoms of MD. We presented the dynamics of in vivo EH in MD patients during medical treatments. Study Design: Prospective, single-arm repeated measures. Methods: Eleven MD patients were enrolled...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279190/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-and-neuro-enhancement-in-aging
#7
EDITORIAL
Carl-Johan Boraxbekk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275519/investigation-of-the-usefulness-of-fluorescein-sodium-fluorescence-in-stereotactic-brain-biopsy
#8
Ady Thien, Julian Xinguang Han, Krishan Kumar, Yew Poh Ng, Jai Prashanth Rao, Wai Hoe Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative frozen section assessment, to confirm acquisition of pathological tissues, is used in stereotactic brain biopsy to minimise sampling errors. Limitations include the dependence on dedicated neuro-oncology pathologists and an increase in operative duration. We investigated the use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium, and compared it to frozen section assessment, for confirming pathological tissue samples in the stereotactic biopsy of gadolinium-contrast-enhancing brain lesions...
December 23, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273519/adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-modulation-by-berberine-attenuates-mitochondrial-deficits-and-redox-imbalance-in-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#9
Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Bhoomika Sherkhane, Aparna Areti, Ashutosh Kumar
Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been studied for its myriad metabolic and mitochondrial benefits in several chronic diseases. Recent studies have uncovered its therapeutic potential against mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The present study is aimed at evaluating the pharmacological efficacy of berberine (BRB), a natural AMPK activator against experimental diabetic neuropathy (DN) phenotype developed in STZ (55 mg/kg, i...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260585/intraoperative-visualisation-of-functional-structures-facilitates-safe-frameless-stereotactic-biopsy-in-the-motor-eloquent-regions-of-the-brain
#10
Jia-Shu Zhang, Ling Qu, Qun Wang, Wei Jin, Yuan-Zheng Hou, Guo-Chen Sun, Fang-Ye Li, Xin-Guang Yu, Ban-Nan Xu, Xiao-Lei Chen
BACKGROUND: For stereotactic brain biopsy involving motor eloquent regions, the surgical objective is to enhance diagnostic yield and preserve neurological function. To achieve this aim, we implemented functional neuro-navigation and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) into the biopsy procedure. The impact of this integrated technique on the surgical outcome and postoperative neurological function was investigated and evaluated. METHOD: Thirty nine patients with lesions involving motor eloquent structures underwent frameless stereotactic biopsy assisted by functional neuro-navigation and iMRI...
December 20, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258553/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-a-risk-factor-for-adult-neuropathic-pain-via-aberrant-neuroimmune-function
#11
Joshua J Sanchez, Shahani Noor, Suzy Davies, Daniel Savage, Erin D Milligan
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies show that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in effects that persist into adulthood. Experimental animal models of moderate PAE demonstrate that young adults with PAE display potentiated sensitivity to light touch, clinically termed allodynia, following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) that coincides with heightened spinal glial, spinal macrophage, and peripheral immune responses. However, basal touch sensitivity and corresponding glial and leukocyte activation are unaltered...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250806/paraquat-and-mptp-alter-microrna-expression-profiles-and-downregulated-expression-of-mir-17-5p-contributes-to-pq-induced-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#12
Qingqing Wang, Yanting Zhan, Nan Ren, Zhangjing Wang, Qunwei Zhang, Siying Wu, Huangyuan Li
Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the toxic effects of paraquat (PQ) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on miRNA expression profiles in dopaminergic neurons have not been investigated. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to show that PQ and MPTP induce alterations of miRNA expression in neuro-2a cells. The results reveal that treatment with 300 μm PQ caused miRNA deregulation, such that 60 miRNAs were upregulated and 228 miRNAs were downregulated...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207888/effect-of-oral-supplementation-of-composite-leaf-extract-of-medicinal-plants-on-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#13
Brahm Kumar Tiwari, Abu Baker Abidi, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi, Kanti Bhooshan Pandey
Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation of composite extract of leaves (CLE) of four medicinal plants; Aegle marmelos, Ocimum sanctum, Murraya koenigii and Azadirachta indica on markers of oxidative stress in brain tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats in vivo. Enhanced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and reduced antioxidative defence systems were measured in brain tissues of diabetic rats. Supplementation of CLE, once in a day for 35 days significantly (p < ...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199177/inhibition-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-stimulates-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-expression-in-male-rats
#14
Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Karen P Briski
The glucose polymer glycogen is a vital fuel reserve in the brain. The mediobasal hypothalamic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains glucostasis via neurotransmitter mechanisms that suppress [γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA] or stimulate [nitric oxide; steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1)] counter-regulatory outflow. This study investigated whether glycogen-derived fuel supply is a critical screened variable in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) monitoring of neuro-metabolic stability during glucostasis and/or insulin (I)-induced hypoglycemia...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197233/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-inhibits-neointimal-hyperplasia-by-suppressing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Dong-Jie Li, Hui Fu, Jie Tong, Yong-Hua Li, Le-Feng Qu, Pei Wang, Fu-Ming Shen
Neointimal hyperplasia as a consequence of vascular injury is aggravated by inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a orchestrator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), which refers to a physiological neuro-immune mechanism that restricts inflammation. Here, we investigated the potential role of CAP in neointimal hyperplasia using α7nAChR knockout (KO) mice. Male α7nAChR-KO mice and their wild-type control mice (WT) were subjected to wire injury in left common carotid artery...
November 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196183/nmda-receptor-antagonist-rodent-models-for-cognition-in-schizophrenia-and-identification-of-novel-drug-treatments-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Cadinu, Ben Grayson, Giovanni Podda, Michael K Harte, Nazanin Doostdar, Joanna C Neill
Negative and cognitive deficit symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Improved understanding of the neuro- and psychopathology of cognitive dysfunction in the illness is urgently required to enhance the development of new improved therapeutic strategies. Careful validation of animal models that mimic the behaviour and pathology of complex psychiatric disorders is an essential step towards this goal. Non-competitive NMDAR (N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor) antagonists e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and dizocilpine (MK-801) can effectively replicate certain aspects of negative and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in animals...
November 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195158/corticospinal-excitability-during-motor-imagery-is-reduced-in-young-adults-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#17
C Hyde, I Fuelscher, J Williams, J A G Lum, J He, P Barhoun, P G Enticott
While a compelling body of behavioral research suggests that individuals with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulties engaging motor imagery (MI), very little is known about the neural correlates of this deficit. Since corticospinal excitability is a predictor of MI proficiency in healthy adults, we reasoned that decreased MI efficiency in DCD may be paralleled by atypical primary motor cortex (PMC) activity. Participants were 29 young adults aged 18- 36 years: 8 with DCD (DCD) and 21 controls...
November 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181875/integration-of-routine-qa-data-into-mega-analysis-may-improve-quality-and-sensitivity-of-multisite-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#18
Peter Kochunov, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jessica Turner, Peter B Kingsley, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Meghann C Ryan, Els Fieremans, Dmitry Novikov, Jelle Veraart, Elliot L Hong, Anil K Malhotra, Robert W Buchanan, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
A novel mega-analytical approach that reduced methodological variance was evaluated using a multisite diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) data by comparing white matter integrity in people with schizophrenia to controls. Methodological variance was reduced through regression of variance captured from quality assurance (QA) and by using Marchenko-Pastur Principal Component Analysis (MP-PCA) denoising. N = 192 (119 patients/73 controls) data sets were collected at three sites equipped with 3T MRI systems: GE MR750, GE HDx, and Siemens Trio...
November 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173147/recent-developments-of-18f-fet-pet-in-neuro-oncology
#19
Barbara Muoio, Luca Giovanella, Giorgio Treglia
From the past decade to date several studies about O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET) in brain tumours have been published in the literature. Objective The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the recent developments and the current role of 18F-FET PET in brain tumours according to recent literature data. Methods Main findings from selected recently published and relevant articles on the role of 18F-FET PET in neuro-oncology were described. Results 18F-FET PET may be useful in the differential diagnosis between brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions and between low-grade and high-grade gliomas...
November 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163157/a-dual-role-of-p53-in-regulating-colistin-induced-autophagy-in-pc-12-cells
#20
Ziyin Lu, Chunli Chen, Zhiyong Wu, Yusong Miao, Ishfaq Muhammad, Liangjun Ding, Erjie Tian, Wanjun Hu, Huilin Ni, Rui Li, Bo Wang, Jichang Li
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of p53 in regulating colistin-induced autophagy in PC-12 cells. Importantly, cells were treated with 125 μg/ml colistin for 12 and 24 h after transfection with p53 siRNA or recombinant plasmid. The hallmarks of autophagy and apoptosis were examined by real-time PCR and western blot, fluorescence/immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. The results showed that silencing of p53 leads to down-regulation of Atg5 and beclin1 for 12 h while up-regulation at 24 h and up-regulation of p62 noted...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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