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Neuro enhancement

Tenpei Akita, Kazushi Aoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Masaaki Shiina, Hiroki Mutoh, Mitsuko Nakashima, Ichiro Kuki, Shin Okazaki, Shinichi Magara, Takashi Shiihara, Kenji Yokochi, Kaori Aiba, Jun Tohyama, Chihiro Ohba, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Kazuhiro Ogata, Atsuo Fukuda, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu
Objective: α ( CAMK2A ) and β ( CAMK2B ) isoforms of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) play a pivotal role in neuronal plasticity and in learning and memory processes in the brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of α - and β -CaMKII variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed for 976 individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and epilepsy. The effect of CAMK2A and CAMK2B variants on CaMKII structure and firing of neurons was evaluated by computational structural analysis, immunoblotting, and electrophysiological analysis...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Nelly Siller, Jens Kuhle, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Christian Barro, Timo Uphaus, Sergiu Groppa, Ludwig Kappos, Frauke Zipp, Stefan Bittner
BACKGROUND: Monitoring neuronal injury remains one key challenge in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Upon axonal damage, neurofilament - a major component of the neuro-axonal cytoskeleton - is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subsequently peripheral blood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) for acute and chronic axonal damage in early RRMS. METHODS: sNfL levels were determined in 74 patients (63 therapy-naive) with recently diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or RRMS using Single Molecule Array technology...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Majid Vahed, Saburo Neya, Katsumi Matsuzaki, Tyuji Hoshino
The interaction of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide with cell membrane is one of the factors enhancing Aβ aggregation, which is closely related to neuro-disturbance disease. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the initial stage of adhesion of Aβ40 to a GM1 ganglioside-containing membrane. Conformational change of Aβ40 due to interaction with the membrane was monitored and compared with that of Aβ42 observed in the previous study. Multiple computational trials were executed to analyze the probability of Aβ binding using a calculation model consisting of a GM1-containing mixed lipid membrane, water layer, ions, and Aβ40...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xiaobo Peng, Chunyan Wang, Lili Bai, Jianguang Dong, Xiaoxia Lu, Yanqing Liu, Zewu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical manifestation and therapeutic method in patients with acute mushroom poisoning. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of 48 patients with acute mushroom poisoning admitted to Department of Poisoning Treatment of the 307th Hospital of PLA from January 2016 to May 2017 were analyzed. The clinical data including gender, age, clinical symptoms, onset season, initial symptoms, incubation time, the length of hospital stay, treatment, and prognosis...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Dirk Theile, Gerd Mikus
Recently, the opioid analgesic D,L-methadone has gained much attention as a potential antineoplastic compound, considerably triggered through lay press and media. In consequence, physicians and pharmacists are currently confronted with numerous patients willing to use D,L-methadone against their malignancies. Well-performed in vitro and in vivo models have in fact shown pro-apoptotic effects of D,L-methadone or other opioids, but also proliferation-stimulating properties. Moreover, the mechanisms of proposed opioid-stimulated apoptosis are incompletely described or contradicting...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Thomas Berger, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Tünde Csépány, Franz Fazekas, Tanja Hojs Fabjan, Dana Horáková, Zsolt Illes, Eleonóra Klimová, Fritz Leutmezer, Konrad Rejdak, Csilla Rozsa, Saša Šega Jazbec, Jarmila Szilasiová, Peter Turčáni, Marta Vachová, László Vécsei, Eva Havrdová
Multiple sclerosis (MS) experts in Europe are facing rapidly rising demands of excellence due to the increasing complexity of MS therapy and management. A central European expert board of MS experts met to identify needs and obstacles with respect to raising quality of MS care in central and Eastern European countries. There are substantial variations across countries regarding delivery of care and its cost structure, as well as access to treatment. To date, Eastern European countries are often less able to afford reimbursement of immunomodulatory agents than Western countries...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Hiroshi Nakashima, Tran Nguyen, Kazue Kasai, Carmela Passaro, Hirotaka Ito, William F Goins, Imran Shaikh, Ronald Erdelyi, Reiko Nishihara, Ichiro Nakano, David A Reardon, Ana C Anderson, Vijay Kuchroo, E Antonio Chiocca
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary central nervous system cancer in adults. Oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) is the first FDA-approved gene therapy approach for the treatment of malignant melanoma. For GBM, oHSVs need to be engineered to replicate within and be toxic to the glial tumor but not to normal brain parenchymal cells. We have thus engineered a novel oHSV to achieve these objectives. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: NG34 is an attenuated HSV-1 with deletions in the genes encoding viral ICP6 and ICP34...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Katharina Maria Busl
Infectious complications in the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are common, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, and intracranial infection. The neuro-ICU population poses a specific challenge in the diagnosis of infections, because of the high incidence of fever in acutely brain-injured patients. Furthermore, susceptibility to infections is likely enhanced by brain-injury (induced immune modulation). This article reviews the concept of brain injury-induced immune modulation, and summarizes available data and knowledge on nosocomial meningitis and ventriculitis, and systemic infectious complications in patients with traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Xin Yu, Heyi Zheng, Matthew T V Chan, William K K Wu
Increasing studies have suggested that dysregulation of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) contributes to cancer progression. Neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 (NOVA1) is a novel RBP and plays an important role in tumour development. However, the expression and role of NOVA1 in melanoma remain unknown. In this study, we indicated that NOVA1 expression was up-regulated in melanoma samples and cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that knockdown of NOVA1 suppressed melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion in both A375 and A875 cell lines...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Cristiano Cuppini, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The ability to integrate information across its multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well-documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of cross-modal events and, in turn, the speed and accuracy of SC-mediated behavioral responses to them. However, this capability is not an innate feature of the circuit, and only develops postnatally after the animal acquires sufficient experience with covariant cross-modal events to form links between their modality-specific components...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Surabhi Ranjan, Martha Quezado, Nancy Garren, Lisa Boris, Christine Siegel, Osorio Lopes Abath Neto, Brett J Theeler, Deric M Park, Edjah Nduom, Kareem A Zaghloul, Mark R Gilbert, Jing Wu
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are being investigated in clinical trials for patients with glioblastoma. While these therapies hold great promise, management of the patients receiving such treatment can be complicated due to the challenges in recognizing immune-related adverse events caused by checkpoint inhibitor treatment. Brain imaging changes that are the consequence of an inflammatory response may be misinterpreted as disease progression leading to inappropriate premature cessation of treatment...
March 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
Sandra Zečević Penić, Marijana Lisak, Tomislav Gregurić, Hrvoje Hećimović, Vanja Bašić Kes
This case report presents a patient diagnosed with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) after an extensive neuro-diagnostic and neuroimaging evaluation. Diagnostic work-up included thorough physical and neurological examination, complete laboratory serum assessments, neuroendocrine and immunohistochemistry analysis, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neurophysiology assessment, ophthalmologist examination and neuroimaging. Th e most important diagnostic tool in deriving the diagnosis of THS was neuroimaging evaluation that included baseline and follow-up cranial contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Simko Sama, Eric Woith, Wolfgang Walther, Gerold Jerz, Wei Chen, Stephen Hart, Matthias F Melzig, Alexander Weng
Neuroblastoma represents the third most common malign neoplasm occurring in children and the most common in newborn. Although mortality in childhood cancer declined in the last decade, high-risk patients have poor prospects, due to the aggressiveness of the cancer. In the recent past, we underlined the potential of sapofectosid as novel and efficient transfection enhancer, demonstrating non-toxic gene delivery, but its value in tumor therapies has yet to be elucidated. A suicide gene, coding for saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein type I, was incorporated into targeted, peptide-based nanoplexes...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Baskar Duraisamy, Jayanthi Venkatraman Shanmugam, Jayanthi Annamalai
An early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly essential due to the fact that this neuro degenerative disease generates major life-threatening issues, especially memory loss among patients in society. Moreover, categorizing NC (Normal Control), MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) and AD early in course allows the patients to experience benefits from new treatments. Therefore, it is important to construct a reliable classification technique to discriminate the patients with or without AD from the bio medical imaging modality...
February 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Changmeng Xu, Mi Wang, Zhongbao Song, Zhijian Wang, Qianyu Liu, Ping Jiang, Juan Bai, Yufeng Li, Xianwei Wang
Autophagy of cytoplasmic components plays an essential role in the pathogenic infection process. Furthermore, research suggests that autophagy is an extremely important component of the innate immune response. Our study aimed to reveal the effect of virus-induced autophagy on pseudorabies virus (PRV) replication. Our results confirmed that light chain 3 (LC3)-I was converted into LC3-II after PRV infection; this transition is considered an important indicator of autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that PRV infection could notably increase the number of autophagosomes in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells...
February 13, 2018: Virus Research
Taiji Iwasawa, Pu Zhang, Yuki Ohkawa, Hiroyuki Momota, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Keiko Furukawa, Koichi Furukawa
Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, gangliosides, are considered as cancer associated antigens in neuro-ectoderm-derived tumors such as melanomas and neuroblastomas. In particular, gangliosides GD3 and GD2 are expressed in human gliomas. It has been reported that their expression levels increase along with increased malignant properties. However, the implication of GD3/GD2 in human glioma cells has never been clarified, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we introduced the cDNA of GD3 synthase (GD3S)(ST8SIA1) into a glioma cell line, U-251MG, that expresses neither GD3 nor GD2, thereby establishing transfectant cells U-251MG-GD3S(+) expressing high levels of GD3 and GD2 on the cell surface...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jordan Xu, Rod J Nault, Andres Maldonado-Naranjo, Leonardo A Frizon, Kuruvilla John, Katherine Holman, Sean J Nagel
Infections are one of the most common causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. In patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies, treatment with stem cell transplants (SCT) or T-cell suppressing chemotherapy increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS) infections, of which toxoplasmosis is the most common. We report the case of a 63 year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that presented with gait instability and visual changes. Intracranial lesions were noted on initial neuro-imaging...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jianghui Meng, Masaki Moriyama, Micha Feld, Joerg Buddenkotte, Timo Buhl, Attila Szöllösi, Jingming Zhang, Paul Miller, Andre Ghetti, Michael Fischer, Peter W Reeh, Chunxu Shan, Jiafu Wang, Martin Steinhoff
BACKGROUND: T helper type 2 cell-released interleukin 31 (IL-31) is a critical mediator in atopic dermatitis (AD), a prevalent and debilitating chronic skin disorder. Brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been described as a central itch mediator. The importance of BNP in peripheral (skin-derived) itch and its functional link to IL-31 within the neuro-immune axis of the skin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the function of BNP in the peripheral sensory system and skin in IL-31-induced itch and neuro-epidermal communication in AD...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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