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Neuro enhancement

Raymond Y Huang, Patrick Y Wen
The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group is an international multidisciplinary group whose goal is to improve response criteria and define endpoints for neuro-oncology trials. The RANO criteria for high-grade gliomas attempt to address the issues of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression. Incorporation of advanced MR imaging may eventually help improve the ability of these criteria to define enhancing and nonenhancing disease better. The RANO group has also developed criteria for neurologic response and evaluation of patients receiving immunologic therapies...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Pierre Wijdenes, Hasan Ali, Ryden Armstrong, Wali Zaidi, Colin Dalton, Naweed I Syed
Our inability to accurately monitor individual neurons and their synaptic activity precludes fundamental understanding of brain function under normal and various pathological conditions. However, recent breakthroughs in micro- and nano-scale fabrication processes have advanced the development of neuro-electronic hybrid technology. Among such devices are three-dimensional and planar electrodes, offering the advantages of either high fidelity or longer-term recordings respectively. Here, we present the next generation of planar microelectrode arrays with "nano-edges" that enable long-term (≥1 month) and high fidelity recordings at a resolution 15 times higher than traditional planar electrodes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sally A Abuelezz, Nevien Hendawy, Yosra Magdy
Depression is a major health problem in which oxidative stress and inflammation are inextricably connected in its pathophysiology. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important anti-oxidant compound with anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective properties. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that CoQ10 by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials can alleviate depressive- like behavior by restoring the balance of the tryptophan catabolites kynurenine/serotonin toward the serotonin pathway by down-regulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Martina Rudgalvyte, Juhani Peltonen, Merja Lakso, Garry Wong
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental pollutant that occurs in the food chain, at occupational sites, and via medical procedures. Exposure in humans and animal models results in renal, neuro, and reproductive toxicities. In this study, we demonstrate that chronic exposure to MeHg (10μM) causes epigenetic landscape modifications of histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) marks in Caenorhabditis elegans using chromatin immuno-precipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). The modifications correspond to the locations of 1467 genes with enhanced and 508 genes with reduced signals...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Junwei Xu, Lu Lu, Jing Lu, Jihui Xia, Hongjin Lu, Lin Yang, Wensheng Xia, Shihai Shen
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc), a CD200R1 agonist may attenuate inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases and neuro-degeneration. While, little is known about the function of CD200Fc in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced mouse Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells (mCMECs). The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of CD200Fc on CSE-induced vascular endothelial barrier (VEB) dysfunction and inflammatory responses, which is a highly clinically relevant model of smoking related cardiovascular diseases...
October 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mark John Hackett, Phyllis G Paterson, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George
A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically "tagged" and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease, and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine's neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo, or in situ in tissue sections...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Francesc Villarroya, Marion Peyrou, Marta Giralt
Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription...
October 5, 2016: Biochimie
Grace M McPhee, Luke A Downey, Anthony Noble, Con Stough
As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
Eliseo F Castillo, Handong Zheng, Christian Van Cabanlong, Fei Dong, Yan Luo, Yi Yang, Meilian Liu, Winston W-Y Kao, Xuexian O Yang
TH17 cells play an essential role in the development of both human multiple sclerosis and animal experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Nevertheless, it is not well understood how the pathogenicity of TH17 cells is controlled in the autoimmune neuro-inflammation. In vitro, we found Lumican (Lum), an extracellular matrix protein, is selectively expressed by TH17 cells among tested murine TH subsets. Lum-deficiency leads to earlier onset and enhanced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Sonia Rey, Visila Moiche, Sebastian Boltaña, Mariana Teles, Simon MacKenzie
Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (TR at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (TCH: 28-32 °C)...
September 23, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
D Ontaneda, K Sakaie, J Lin, X-F Wang, M J Lowe, M D Phillips, R J Fox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI is an MR imaging measure of brain tissue integrity. Little is known regarding the long-term longitudinal evolution of lesional and nonlesional tissue DTI parameters in multiple sclerosis and the present study examines DTI evolution over 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with multiple sclerosis were imaged for up to 48 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline, chronic T2 lesions, and normal-appearing white matter were followed longitudinally...
September 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Antonella Castellano, Andrea Falini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Jens Heyn, Benjamin Luchting, Ludwig C Hinske, Max Hübner, Shahnaz C Azad, Simone Kreth
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that neuropathic pain is a neuro-immune disorder with enhanced activation of the immune system. Recent data provided proof that neuropathic pain patients exhibit increased numbers of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs), which may represent an endogenous attempt to limit inflammation and to reduce pain levels. We here investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations. METHODS: Our experimental approach includes functional analyses of primary human T cells, 3'-UTR reporter assays, and expression analyses of neuropathic pain patients' samples...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jin Hyoung Kim, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf Hossain, Ajit Mahadev Patil, Jin Young Choi, Seong Bum Kim, Erdenebelig Uyangaa, Sang-Youel Park, John-Hwa Lee, Bumseok Kim, Koanhoi Kim, Seong Kug Eo
Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alfred Gugerell, Johanna Kober, Melanie Schmid, Elisabeth Buchberger, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Maike Keck
BACKGROUND: Botulinum (neuro)toxin A (BoNT) is widely used in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Among treatment of pain, hyperhidrosis, or aesthetic purposes, it is also used to enhance wound healing and prevent excessive scar formation. Some clinical data already exist, but only little is known on a cellular level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of BoNT on cells essential for wound healing in vitro. Therefore, primary human keratinocytes and endothelial cells were treated with different concentrations of BoNT and tested on proliferation, migration, and angiogenic behavior...
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Dana Luminița Sobariu, Daniela Ionela Tudorache Fertu, Mariana Diaconu, Lucian Vasile Pavel, Raluca-Maria Hlihor, Elena Niculina Drăgoi, Silvia Curteanu, Markus Lenz, Philippe François-Xavier Corvini, Maria Gavrilescu
Certain species of plants can benefit from synergistic effects with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that improve plant growth and metal accumulation, mitigating toxic effects on plants and increasing their tolerance to heavy metals. The application of PGPR as biofertilizers and atmospheric nitrogen fixators contributes considerably to the intensification of the phytoremediation process. In this paper, we have built a system consisting of rhizospheric Azotobacter microbial populations and Lepidium sativum plants, growing in solutions containing heavy metals in various concentrations...
September 9, 2016: New Biotechnology
Nia M Harris, Rodney Ritzel, Nikolas Mancini, Yuhang Jiang, Xiang Yi, Devika S Manickam, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov, Louise D McCullough, Rajkumar Verma
BACKGROUND: Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are linked to delayed neurological recovery, depression, and cognitive impairment following stroke. Supplementation with BDNF reverses these effects. Unfortunately, systemically administered BDNF in its native form has minimal therapeutic value due to its poor blood brain barrier permeability and short serum half-life. In this study, a novel nano-particle polyion complex formulation of BDNF (nano-BDNF) was administered to mice after experimental ischemic stroke...
September 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Dariush Haghmorad, Zohreh Salehipour, Reza Nosratabadi, Maryam Rastin, Parviz Kokhaei, Mohammad Bagher Mahmoudi, Abbas Ali Amini, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Estrogen is a neuro-protective hormone in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The present study evaluated the role of estrogen during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at doses selected to mimic any suppressive potential from the hormone during pregnancy. Here, mice were ovariectomized and then 2 weeks later treated with MOG antigen to induce EAE. Concurrently, mice then received (subcutaneously) an implanted pellet to deliver varying estrogen amounts over a 21-day period. Clinical scores and other parameters were monitored daily for the 21 days...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Harika Dasari, Bharath Wootla, Arthur E Warrington, Moses Rodriguez
We provide an overview of rehabilitation in neurological diseases. A large amount of literature available on neurorehabilitation is based from the rehabilitative work on stroke and spinal cord injuries. After a brief description of rehabilitation, the potential application of neurorehabilitation in neurodegenerative diseases specifically multiple sclerosis (MS) is summarized. Since MS causes a wide variety of symptoms, the rehabilitation in MS patients may benefit from an interdisciplinary approach that encloses physiotherapy, cognitive rehabilitation, psychological therapy, occupational therapy, and other methods to improve fatigue...
August 2016: International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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