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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767741/gateway-reflex-neural-activation-mediated-immune-cell-gateways-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754968/recurrent-pseudoprogression-in-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-mutant-glioblastoma
#2
Sied Kebir, Laurèl Rauschenbach, Gerrit H Gielen, Niklas Schäfer, Theophilos Tzaridis, Björn Scheffler, Frank A Giordano, Lazaros Lazaridis, Ulrich Herrlinger, Martin Glas
In a subset of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, the differentiation between tumor progression and tumor pseudoprogression (PsP) is challenging. This case describes a male patient suffering from isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant GBM who demonstrated an increasing contrast-enhancing (CE) lesion on a cranial magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) scan 8 months after radiochemotherapy. In accordance with the response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria, the cMRI lesion was classified as recurrent tumor, although 18 F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography (18 F-FET-PET) did not indicate vital tumor tissue...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754199/treatment-and-survival-of-glioblastoma-patients-in-denmark-the-danish-neuro-oncology-registry-2009-2014
#3
Steinbjørn Hansen, Birthe Krogh Rasmussen, René Johannes Laursen, Michael Kosteljanetz, Henrik Schultz, Bente Mertz Nørgård, Rikke Guldberg, Kim Oren Gradel
BACKGROUND: As many glioblastoma patients are in a poor condition they are unable to undergo the full treatment documented in clinical trials. We aimed to examine the survival and its relationship to clinical characteristics and treatment in a nationwide population of glioblastoma patients in Denmark. METHODS: We included prospectively recorded clinical data from 1364 adult patients with histologically verified glioblastoma from the Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry, 2009-2014...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752148/malignant-primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-gliomatosis-with-histone-h3-3-k27m-mutation
#4
C Champeaux, A Drier, B Devaux, A Tauziède-Espariat
INTRODUCTION: Malignant primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (MPDLG) are rare central nervous system neoplasms associated with a poor outcome. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who presented with unusual worsening of bilateral sciatica, headaches, diplopia and a left proptosis. MRI of the head and spine showed multiple leptomeningeal lesions with no intra parenchymal involvement. The search for a primary tumor was negative. An open surgical biopsy of the prominent intradural lumbar tumor was performed within a week...
May 8, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731632/development-of-nanoemulsion-for-efficient-brain-parenteral-delivery-of-cefuroxime-designs-characterizations-and-pharmacokinetics
#5
Siti Norhawani Harun, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Ahmad Fuad Shamsuddin, Mahiran Basri, Hamidon Bin Basri
Background and aim: Drugs that are effective against diseases in the central nervous system and reach the brain via blood must pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a unique interface that protects against potential harmful molecules. This presents a major challenge in neuro-drug delivery. This study attempts to fabricate the cefuroxime-loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) to increase drug penetration into the brain when parenterally administered. Methods: The nanoemulsions were formulated using a high-pressure homogenization technique and were characterized for their physicochemical properties...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727711/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-anterior-vermis-modulates-behavioural-response-to-chronic-stress-involvement-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsal-raphe
#6
Francis Rodriguez Bambico, Stefano Comai, M S Nageeb Hasan, Joshua Dean Conway, Soroush Darvish-Gane, Clement Hamani, Gabriella Gobbi, José N Nobrega
Some evidence suggests that the cerebellum modulates affect via connectivities with mood-regulating corticolimbic structures, such as the prefrontal cortex and monoamine nuclei. In rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), we examined the neuro-behavioural effects of high frequency stimulation and surgical ablation/disconnection of the cerebellar vermis. CUS reduced sucrose preference, increased novelty-induced feeding suppression and passive coping. These depressive-like behaviours were associated with decreased cerebellar zif268 expression, indicating possible cerebellar involvement in stress pathology...
May 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719553/47-consecutive-cases-of-pipeline-flex-flow-diversion-utilizing-a-novel-large-bore-intracranial-intermediate-catheter-nuances-and-institutional-experience-with-the-syphontrak
#7
Li-Mei Lin, Bowen Jiang, Matthew T Bender, Erick M Westbroek, Jessica K Campos, Rafael J Tamargo, Judy Huang, Alexander L Coon, Geoffrey P Colby
Background: The increasing complexity of modern neurointerventions has necessitated a shift in intracranial access techniques towards more robust distal support platforms. Here we present our experience with the Syphontrak Support Catheter (Codman Neuro, Raynham, MA, USA) in the triaxial platform for the implantation of the second-generation Pipeline Flex embolization device (PED Flex; Medtronic Neurovascular, Irvine, CA, USA). Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent PED Flex treatment utilizing the Syphontrak at a single institution...
April 2018: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712656/the-artemisinin-derivative-artemisone-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-human-cytomegalovirus-replication
#8
E Oiknine-Djian, Y Weisblum, A Panet, H N Wong, R K Haynes, D G Wolf
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals and the most common cause of congenital infection and neuro-sensorial disease. The expanding target populations for HCMV antiviral treatment along with the limitations of the currently available HCMV DNA polymerase inhibitors underscore the need for new antiviral agents with alternative modes of action. The anti-malarial artemisinin derivative artesunate was shown to inhibit HCMV in vitro , yet has demonstrated limited antiviral efficacy in vivo , prompting our search for more potent anti-HCMV artemisinin derivatives...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708785/interval-change-in-diffusion-and-perfusion-mri-parameters-for-the-assessment-of-pseudoprogression-in-cerebral-metastases-treated-with-stereotactic-radiation
#9
James R Knitter, William K Erly, Baldassarre D Stea, Gerald M Lemole, Isabelle M Germano, Amish H Doshi, Kambiz Nael
OBJECTIVE: Apparent increases in the size of cerebral metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be caused by pseudoprogression or true disease progression, which poses a diagnostic challenge at conventional MRI. The purpose of this study was to assess whether interval change in DWI and perfusion MRI parameters can differentiate pseudoprogression from progressive disease after treatment with SRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with apparent growth of cerebral metastases after SRS treatment who underwent pre- and post-SRS DWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI, and perfusion dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI were retrospectively evaluated...
April 30, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707307/retrograde-perfusion-through-superior-vena-cava-reaches-the-brain-during-circulatory-arrest
#10
Mario Gaudino, Natalia Ivascu, Melissa Cushing, Christopher Lau, Ivancarmine Gambardella, Antonino Di Franco, Lucas B Ohmes, Monica Munjal, Leonard N Girardi
Background: The optimal technique for brain perfusion during circulatory arrest remains controversial. Concern exists that retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) via the superior vena cava (SVC) is unable to perfuse the brain. We evaluated whether RCP blood circulates through the brain parenchyma in humans during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). We hypothesized that a significant difference in the levels of S-100β (a protein with very high neuro-sensitivity) between the blood infused in the SVC and the effluent blood returning in the left carotid artery (CA) during RCP, should be regarded as a sign of the circulation of RCP blood through the brain parenchyma...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704609/complex-learning-induced-modifications-in-synaptic-inhibition-mechanisms-and-functional-significance
#11
REVIEW
Iris Reuveni, Longnian Lin, Edi Barkai
Following training in a difficult olfactory-discrimination (OD) task rats acquire the capability to perform the task easily, with little effort. This new acquired skill, of 'learning how to learn' is termed 'rule learning'. At the single cell level, rule learning in manifested in long-term enhancement of intrinsic neuronal excitability of piriform cortex (PC) pyramidal neurons, and in excitatory synaptic connections between these neuros to maintained cortical stability, such long-lasting increase in excitability must be accompanied by paralleled increase in inhibitory processes that would prevent hyper-excitable activation...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700303/neuro-computational-account-of-how-mood-fluctuations-arise-and-affect-decision-making
#12
Fabien Vinckier, Lionel Rigoux, Delphine Oudiette, Mathias Pessiglione
The influence of mood on choices is a well-established but poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we suggest a three-fold neuro-computational account: (1) the integration of positive and negative events over time induce mood fluctuations, (2) which are underpinned by variations in the baseline activities of critical brain valuation regions, (3) which in turn modulate the relative weights assigned to key dimensions of choice options. We validate this model in healthy participants, using feedback in a quiz task to induce mood fluctuations, and a choice task (accepting vs...
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695154/effects-of-astaxanthin-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-acylated-astaxanthin-on-alzheimer-s-disease-in-app-ps1-double-transgenic-mice
#13
Hongxia Che, Qian Li, Tiantian Zhang, Dandan Wang, Lu Yang, Jie Xu, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Yaoguang Chang, Yuming Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with the characteristics of senile plaques, neuroinflammation, neurofibrillary tangles, and destruction of synapse structure stability. Previous studies have verified the protective effects of astaxanthin (AST). However, whether synthesized docosahexaenoic-acid-acylated AST diesters (AST-DHA) could delay AD pathogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, APP/PSEN1 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic mice were administrated with AST and AST-DHA for 2 months...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691190/noni-morinda-citrifolia-l-fruit-juice-delays-immunosenescence-in-the-lymphocytes-in-lymph-nodes-of-old-f344-rats
#14
Uday P Pratap, Hannah P Priyanka, Karthik R Ramanathan, Vishak Raman, Lalgi Hima, Srinivasan Thyagarajan
OBJECTIVE: Aging is associated with the development of diseases because of immunosuppression and altered functioning of the neuroendocrine system. The medicinal properties of Morinda citrifolia L. have been widely exploited for the treatment of age-associated diseases. This study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of noni (M. citrifolia) fruit juice (NFJ) on neuro-immunomodulation in the lymph node lymphocytes of F344 rats. METHODS: Lymphocytes isolated from axillary and inguinal lymph nodes of young (3-4 months) and old (18-21 months) rats were treated in vitro with different concentrations (0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682085/prostaglandin-e-2-produced-by-alginate-encapsulated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulates-the-astrocyte-inflammatory-response
#15
Elizabeth C Stucky, Joshua Erndt-Marino, Rene S Schloss, Martin L Yarmush, David I Shreiber
Astroglia are well known for their role in propagating secondary injury following brain trauma. Modulation of this injury cascade, including inflammation, is essential to repair and recovery. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated as trophic mediators in several models of secondary CNS injury, however, there has been varied success with the use of direct implantation due to a failure to persist at the injury site. To achieve sustained therapeutic benefit, we have encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate neuro-inflammation...
June 2017: Nano LIFE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680669/exposing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-chondroitin-sulphated-proteoglycans-reduces-their-angiogenic-and-neuro-adhesive-paracrine-activity
#16
Chelsea R Wood, Ibtesam R T Al Delfi, John F Innes, Peter Myint, William E B Johnson
The multifactorial complexity of spinal cord injuries includes the formation of a glial scar, of which chondroitin sulphated proteoglycans (CSPG) are an integral component. Previous studies have shown CSPG to have inhibitory effects on endothelial and neuronal cell growth, highlighting the difficulty of spinal cord regeneration. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are widely used a cell therapy, and there is mounting evidence for their angiogenic and neurotrophic paracrine properties. However, in vivo studies have observed poor engraftment and survival of MSC when injected into SCI...
April 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670514/effects-of-tdcs-on-bimanual-motor-skills-a-brief-review
#17
REVIEW
Nils H Pixa, Bettina Pollok
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of cortical excitability as well as neuroplastic reorganization using a weak constant current applied through the skull on the cerebral cortex. TDCS has been found to improve motor performance in general and motor learning in particular. However, these effects have been reported almost exclusively for unimanual motor tasks such as serial reaction time tasks, adaptation tasks, or visuo-motor tracking...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657509/a-tensor-statistical-model-for-quantifying-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#19
Yingying Zhu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Minjeong Kim, Jin Yan, Guorong Wu
Functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated in many imaging-based neuroscience and clinical studies. Since functional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) signal is just an indirect reflection of brain activity, it is difficult to accurately quantify the FC strength only based on signal correlation. To address this limitation, we propose a learning-based tensor model to derive high sensitivity and specificity connectome biomarkers at the individual level from resting-state fMRI images. First, we propose a learning-based approach to estimate the intrinsic functional connectivity...
June 2017: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625947/interaction-of-palladium-inorganic-salt-and-organic-complex-with-glutathione-content-of-liver-homogenate
#20
Muhammad Mukhtiar, Syed Umer Jan, - IhsanUllah, Rahman Gul, Abid Hussain, Essa Ali, - IzharUllah, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Akram, Sibghat Mansoor, Muhammad Farid Khan
Glutathione is an essential antioxidant of living organism that provides a primary protection against metals toxicity. A significant amount of glutathione is present in blood erythrocytes, plasma and liver hepatocytes to protect them from oxidative damage from both external and internal oxidants. Metalo-element palladium has numerous pharmacological, clinical and toxicological compensations, like palladium is used as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, neuro-protective and anti-tumor agent. However studies have also indicated some mild to serious toxic effects of palladium metallo-elements...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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