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Yin-Xin Zeng, Zong-Yun Qiao, Yong Yu, Hui-Rong Li, Wei Luo
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is the major source of organic sulfur in the world's oceans, plays a significant role in the global sulfur cycle. This compound is rapidly degraded by marine bacteria either by cleavage to dimethylsulfide (DMS) or demethylation to 3-methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA). The diversity of genes encoding bacterial demethylation (dmdA) and DMS production (dddL and dddP) were measured in Arctic Kongsfjorden. Both dmdA and dddL genes were detected in all stations along a transect from the outer to the inner fjord, while dddP gene was only found in the outer and middle parts of the fjord...
2016: Scientific Reports
Liyi Xu, Ilana L Brito, Eric J Alm, Paul C Blainey
We have developed hydrogel-based virtual microfluidics as a simple and robust alternative to complex engineered microfluidic systems for the compartmentalization of nucleic acid amplification reactions. We applied in-gel digital multiple displacement amplification (dMDA) to purified DNA templates, cultured bacterial cells and human microbiome samples in the virtual microfluidics system, and demonstrated whole-genome sequencing of single-cell MDA products with excellent coverage uniformity and markedly reduced chimerism compared with products of liquid MDA reactions...
September 2016: Nature Methods
Chun-Xiang Zhuo, Alois Fürstner
The marine macrolide pateamine A and its non-natural sibling DMDA-Pat A are potent translation inhibitors targeting the eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), an enzyme with RNA helicase activity. Although essential for every living cell, this protein target seems "drugable" since DMDA-Pat A has previously been shown to exhibit remarkable in vivo activity against two different melanoma mouse models. The novel entry into this promising compound presented herein is shorter and significantly more productive than the literature route...
May 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Yingshun Cui, Shotaro Suzuki, Yuko Omori, Shu-Kuan Wong, Minoru Ijichi, Ryo Kaneko, Sohiko Kameyama, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Koji Hamasaki
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is mainly produced by marine phytoplankton but is released into the microbial food web and degraded by marine bacteria to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other products. To reveal the abundance and distribution of bacterial DMSP degradation genes and the corresponding bacterial communities in relation to DMS and DMSP concentrations in seawater, we collected surface seawater samples from DMS hot spot sites during a cruise across the Pacific Ocean. We analyzed the genes encoding DMSP lyase (dddP) and DMSP demethylase (dmdA), which are responsible for the transformation of DMSP to DMS and DMSP assimilation, respectively...
June 15, 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Vanessa A Varaljay, Julie Robidart, Christina M Preston, Scott M Gifford, Bryndan P Durham, Andrew S Burns, John P Ryan, Roman Marin, Ronald P Kiene, Jonathan P Zehr, Christopher A Scholin, Mary Ann Moran
The 'bacterial switch' is a proposed regulatory point in the global sulfur cycle that routes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to two fundamentally different fates in seawater through genes encoding either the cleavage or demethylation pathway, and affects the flux of volatile sulfur from ocean surface waters to the atmosphere. Yet which ecological or physiological factors might control the bacterial switch remains a topic of considerable debate. Here we report the first field observations of dynamic changes in expression of DMSP pathway genes by a single marine bacterial species in its natural environment...
July 2015: ISME Journal
Hiroko Tsukatani, Kazuhiro Tobiishi
We developed a selective method for determining N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (DMDA) and N,N-dimethyloctadecylamine (DMOA) concentrations in river and sea water samples using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). DMDA and DMOA are suspected to be toxic, and DMDA is categorized as a "Class I Designated Chemical Substance" under the "Act on Confirmation, etc. of Release Amounts of Specific Chemical Substances in the Environment and Promotion of Improvements to the Management Thereof" in Japan...
June 2015: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tibor Kiss, Nóra Krajcs, Zsolt Pirger, László Hernádi
Three recently discovered tentacle muscles are crucial to perform patterned movements of upper tentacles of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia. The muscles receive central and peripheral excitatory cholinergic innervation lacking inhibitory innervation. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of acetylcholine (ACh) responses in muscles to determine the properties of the ACh receptor (AChR), the functional availability of which was assessed using isotonic contraction measurement. Using broad spectrum of nicotinic and muscarinic ligands, we provide the evidence that contractions in the muscles are attributable to the activation of nAChRs that contain the α7-like subunit...
2014: PloS One
Xianmei Cai, Jiang Yuan, Shuangchun Chen, Pengfei Li, Li Li, Jian Shen
Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been widely adopted as a scaffold biomaterial, but further hemocompatibility improvement is still needed for wide biomedical applications. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we propose to use self-polymerized dopamine to form a surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET sheet, followed by Michael addition with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMDA) to build tertiary amine, and final zwitterions(sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine) construction through ring-opening reaction...
March 1, 2014: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ajoy Saha, Ahammed Shabeer Tp, V T Gajbhiye, Suman Gupta, Rajesh Kumar
Removal of mixed pesticides, namely alachlor, metolachlor, chlorpyriphos, fipronil, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDT and two metabolites p,p'-DDE and endosulfan sulphate from aqueous solution by batch adsorption onto three commercial organo-modified montmorillonite clays [modified with octadecylamine (ODA-M), modified with dimethyl- dialkylamine (DMDA-M) and modified with octadecylamine and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ODAAPS-M)] were investigated. Effect of process variables, mainly contact time and initial concentration of mixed pesticides, on adsorption phenomenon were evaluated...
July 2013: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jonathan D Todd, Andrew R J Curson, Matthew J Sullivan, Mark Kirkwood, Andrew W B Johnston
The Escherichia coli YhdH polypeptide is in the MDR012 sub-group of medium chain reductase/dehydrogenases, but its biological function was unknown and no phenotypes of YhdH(-) mutants had been described. We found that an E. coli strain with an insertional mutation in yhdH was hyper-sensitive to inhibitory effects of acrylate, and, to a lesser extent, to those of 3-hydroxypropionate. Close homologues of YhdH occur in many Bacterial taxa and at least two animals. The acrylate sensitivity of YhdH(-) mutants was corrected by the corresponding, cloned homologues from several bacteria...
2012: PloS One
Mary Ann Moran, Chris R Reisch, Ronald P Kiene, William B Whitman
Genomic and functional genomic methods applied to both model organisms and natural communities have rapidly advanced understanding of bacterial dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation in the ocean. The genes for the two main pathways in bacterial degradation, routing DMSP to distinctly different biogeochemical fates, have recently been identified. The genes dmdA, -B, -C, and -D mediate the demethylation of DMSP and facilitate retention of carbon and sulfur in the marine microbial food web. The genes dddD, -L, -P, -Q, -W, and -Y mediate the cleavage of DMSP to dimethylsulfide (DMS), with important consequences for ocean-atmosphere sulfur flux...
2012: Annual Review of Marine Science
Vanessa A Varaljay, Scott M Gifford, Samuel T Wilson, Shalabh Sharma, David M Karl, Mary Ann Moran
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an organic sulfur compound that is rapidly metabolized by marine bacteria either by cleavage to dimethylsulfide (DMS) or demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate. The abundance and diversity of genes encoding bacterial DMS production (dddP) and demethylation (dmdA) were measured in the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) between May 2008 and February 2009 at Station ALOHA (22°45'N, 158°00'W) at two depths: 25 m and the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; ∼100 m). The highest abundance of dmdA genes was in May 2008 at 25 m, with ∼16...
April 2012: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
David J Schuller, Chris R Reisch, Mary Ann Moran, William B Whitman, William N Lanzilotta
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a ubiquitous algal metabolite and common carbon and sulfur source for marine bacteria. DMSP is a precursor for the climatically active gas dimethylsulfide that is readily oxidized to sulfate, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonic acid, and other products that act as cloud condensation nuclei. Although the environmental importance of DMSP metabolism has been known for some time, the enzyme responsible for DMSP demethylation by marine bacterioplankton, dimethylsufoniopropionate-dependent demethylase A (DmdA, EC 2...
February 2012: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Chris R Reisch, Mary Ann Moran, William B Whitman
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a metabolite produced primarily by marine phytoplankton and is the main precursor to the climatically important gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMS is released upon bacterial catabolism of DMSP, but it is not the only possible fate of DMSP sulfur. An alternative demethylation/demethiolation pathway results in the eventual release of methanethiol, a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. The activity of these pathways control the natural flux of sulfur released to the atmosphere...
2011: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zakir M O Rzayev, A Ernur Söylemez
We have developed a new approach for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using a bifunctional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent, two types of organo-montmorillonites, such as a non-reactive dimethyldodecyl ammonium (DMDA)-MMT and a reactive octadecylamine (ODA)-MMT organoclays, and a radical initiator. The method includes the following stages: (1) synthesis of RAFT intercalated O-MMTs by a physical or chemical interaction of the RAFT agent having two pendant carboxylic groups [S,S-bis(alpha,alpha'-dimethyl-alpha"-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate] with surface alkyl amines of O-MMT containing tertiary ammonium cation or primary amine groups through strong H-bonding and complexing/amidization reactions, respectively, and (2) utilization of these well-dispersed and intercalated RAFT ...
April 2011: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Erinn C Howard, Shulei Sun, Christopher R Reisch, Daniela A del Valle, Helmut Bürgmann, Ronald P Kiene, Mary Ann Moran
Over half of the bacterioplankton cells in ocean surface waters are capable of carrying out a demethylation of the phytoplankton metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) that routes the sulfur moiety away from the climatically active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). In this study, we tracked changes in dmdA, the gene responsible for DMSP demethylation, over the course of an induced phytoplankton bloom in Gulf of Mexico seawater microcosms. Analysis of >91,000 amplicon sequences indicated 578 different dmdA sequence clusters at a conservative clustering criterion of ≥90% nucleotide sequence identity over the 6-day study...
January 2011: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Paul C Blainey, Stephen R Quake
Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is an isothermal, sequence-independent method for the amplification of high molecular weight DNA that is driven by φ29 DNA polymerase (DNAP). Here we report digital MDA (dMDA), an ultrasensitive method for quantifying nucleic acid fragments of unknown sequence. We use the new assay to show that our custom φ29 DNAP preparation is free of contamination at the limit of detection of the dMDA assay (1 contaminating molecule per assay microliter). Contamination in commercially available preparations is also investigated...
March 2011: Nucleic Acids Research
Jonathan D Todd, Andrew R J Curson, Mark Kirkwood, Matthew J Sullivan, Robert T Green, Andrew W B Johnston
Ruegeria (previously Silicibacter) pomeroyi DSS-3, a marine roseobacter, can catabolize dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a compatible solute that is made in large amounts by marine plankton and algae. This strain was known to demethylate DMSP via a demethylase, encoded by the dmdA gene, and it can also cleave DMSP, releasing the environmentally important volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the process. We found that this strain has two different genes, dddP and dddQ, which encode enzymes that cleave DMSP, generating DMS plus acrylate...
February 2011: Environmental Microbiology
Hong Yang, Qiyan Feng
With dimethyldecylamine (DMDA) as the expander, a new kind of pore-expanded amino-functionalized mesoporous silicas (PEAFMS) was directly synthesized under mild alkali condition. The characteristics of PEAFMS sample demonstrated that the presence of DMDA markedly augmented the average pore diameter (19.04 nm) and strongly enhanced its decolorization ability. Subsequently, acid mordant dark yellow GG (YGG) and reactive red violet X-2R (RVX) were chosen to assess its adsorption capacity for sulphonated azo dyes...
August 15, 2010: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Minghuo Wu, Yingzhuang Chen, Ren'an Wu, Ruibing Li, Hanfa Zou, Bo Chen, Shouzhuo Yao
A chloropropyl-functionalized silica (CP-silica) hybrid monolithic column was synthesized within the confines of a capillary via the sol-gel process using tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and (3-chloropropyl)-trimethoxysilane (CPTMS) as the precursors. The resulting CP-silica hybrid monolith inside the capillary showed homogeneous macroporous morphology and was well attached to the inner wall of the capillary. The obtained CP-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column demonstrated the inherent hydrophobic property and could be applied as a reversed-phase stationary phase in CEC directly...
June 25, 2010: Journal of Chromatography. A
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