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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924364/metabolic-characterization-of-1-5-fluoropentyl-1h-indol-3-yl-4-methyl-1-naphthalenyl-methanone-mam-2201-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-cdna-overexpressed-cytochrome-p450-enzymes
#1
Tae Yeon Kong, Ju-Hyun Kim, Won Gu Choi, Joo Young Lee, Hee Seung Kim, Jin Young Kim, Moon Kyo In, Hye Suk Lee
MAM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that is increasingly found in recreational drug abusers and cases of severe intoxication. Thus, characterization of the metabolic pathways of MAM-2201 is necessary to predict individual pharmacokinetics and toxicity differences, and to avoid toxic drug-drug interactions. Collectively, 19 phase 1 metabolites of MAM-2201 were identified using liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry following human liver microsomal incubations in the presence of NADPH: 7 hydroxy-MAM-2201 (M1-M7), 4 dihydroxy-MAM-2201 (M8-M11), dihydrodiol-MAM-2201 (M12), N-(5-hydroxypentyl)-MAM-2201 (M13), hydroxy-M13 (M14), N-dealkyl-MAM-2201 (M15), 2 hydroxy-M15 (M16, M17), MAM-2201 N-pentanoic acid (M18), and hydroxy-M18 (M19)...
December 6, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919469/dangerous-intoxication-after-oral-ingestion-of-poppers-alkyl-nitrites-two-case-reports
#2
Stéphanie Pain, François Chavant, Bernard Fauconneau, Jérémy Guenezan, Nicolas Marjanovic, Jean-Yves Lardeur, Bertrand Brunet, Marie-Christine Perault-Pochat
"Poppers" (alkyl nitrites) were made famous in the 1960s as a party drug and are still used today. They are highly volatile, sweet-smelling liquids commonly administered by inhalation. However, sometimes, they can be consumed by oral ingestion resulting in greater toxicity. They are used for their vasodilator effects but these volatile nitrites can also cause methemoglobinemia. Methemoglobinemia is a rare pathology that results from the oxidation of iron in the hemoglobin molecule. Oxidation of iron switches it from the ferrous to the ferric state and impedes the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen...
December 2, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918861/to-study-to-party-or-both-assessing-risk-factors-for-non-prescribed-stimulant-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students
#3
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#4
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#5
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#6
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#7
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895625/evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-vitro-resistance-to-osmotic-stress-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-tropicalis-isolated-from-the-coastal-environment-of-northeast-brazil
#8
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Sayama S T Q de Medeiros, Luanda B F C de Souza, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Elaine C Francisco, Maria C B de Araújo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Rejane P Neves, Analy S de Azevedo Melo, Guilherme M Chaves
Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894904/from-niche-to-stigma-headshops-to-prison-exploring-the-rise-and-fall-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-young-adults
#9
Shane Blackman, Rick Bradley
The aim of this paper will be to consider the rise and subsequent fall in NPS use at national and local level with a focus on synthetic cannabinoid products in Kent. We will examine the local practice and policy responses by Kent's Young Persons' Drug and Alcohol Service towards a possible change in patterns of NPS drug consumption. The county has seen an expansion in the number of Headshops and we present local media coverage on NPS, and the Trading Standards and Kent Police intervention Operation Lantern to regulate Headshops...
November 25, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894029/college-student-marijuana-involvement-perceptions-use-and-consequences-across-11-college-campuses
#10
Matthew R Pearson, Bruce S Liese, Robert D Dvorak
BACKGROUND: Marijuana is currently the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and with the movement toward legalization of recreational marijuana, the country faces numerous issues regarding policy, prevention, and treatment of marijuana use. The present study examines the prevalence of marijuana use and consequences and compares users and non-users on a wide range of other marijuana-related constructs among college students across 11 universities. METHOD: Participants included 8141 college students recruited from the psychology department participant pools of 11 universities throughout the US, including four major regions of the US (West, South, Midwest, Northeast) and states with varying policies regarding the legality of marijuana use...
October 31, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891233/effectiveness-and-implementation-of-a-community-based-prevention-programme-targeting-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-in-gyms-study-protocol-of-a-quasi-experimental-control-group-study
#11
Yasmina Molero, Johanna Gripenberg, Ann-Sofie Bakshi
BACKGROUND: During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group. Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended. The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888525/breaking-sad-unleashing-the-breakthrough-potential-of-ketamine-s-rapid-antidepressant-effects
#12
David Feifel
Preclinical Research The surprising results of a small clinical trial on the effects of low dose ketamine, a 65-year old anesthetic drug that is also used off-label for chronic pain and recreationally as a club drug, in eight depressed subjects unleashed the most significant advance in antidepressant drug development in decades. That study and subsequent ones have demonstrated that low dose, infused ketamine is able to induce a remission of depression in patients who have failed conventional medications, within 24 h...
November 26, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882204/comparison-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-dermatoglyphic-characteristics-of-opium-addicts-with-healthy-individuals
#13
Omid Mehrpour, Ardeshir Sheikhazadi, Afsoon Barzegar, Afzal Husein, Claudia Malic, Elham Sheikhazadi, Seyed Hossein Saberi-Anary
BACKGROUND: Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage...
April 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875951/effect-of-supraphysiological-doses-of-nandrolone-decanoate-upon-aldosterone-concentration-and-serum-na-k-levels-in-albino-mice
#14
Parmita Chowdhury, Rita Mahanta
BACKGROUND: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Nandrolone Decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of nandrolone decanoate when consumed at an abused dose, upon serum aldosterone concentration in albino mice...
November 21, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873179/oxycodone-deterx-%C3%A2-a-novel-abuse-deterrent-extended-release-analgesic-option-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-chronic-pain
#15
REVIEW
Jeff Gudin
BACKGROUND: Extended-release (ER) opioid analgesics are commonly used to provide safe and effective pain relief to treat pain severe enough to require around-the-clock, long-term dosing. These ER opioid formulations usually contain more drug per dosage unit than immediate-release (IR) agents, and therefore bring with them challenges related to both opioid abuse and misuse, often through manipulation of the dosage form. Oxycodone DETERx(®) (Xtampza(®) ER, Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc...
December 2016: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872323/rates-of-sexual-history-taking-and-screening-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#16
Alasdair MacRae, Emily Lord, Annabel Forsythe, Jackie Sherrard
A case note audit was undertaken of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) to ascertain whether national guidelines for taking sexual histories, including recreational drug use and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening were being met. The notes of 142 HIV-positive men seen in 2015 were available, of whom 85 were MSM. Information was collected regarding sexual history, recreational drug use documentation, sexually transmitted infection screen offer and test results. Seventy-seven (91%) of the MSM had a sexual history documented, of whom 60 (78%) were sexually active...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871157/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-immunosuppression-augments-cerebellar-dysfunction-in-tetanus-toxin-treated-mice
#17
Jaesuk Yun, Sun Mi Gu, Tac-Hyung Lee, Yun Jeong Song, Seonhwa Seong, Young-Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Cha, Kyoung Moon Han, Jisoon Shin, Hokyung Oh, Kikyung Jung, Chiyoung Ahn, Hye-Kyung Park, Hyung Soo Kim
Synthetic cannabinoids are one of most abused new psychoactive substances. The recreational use of abused drug has aroused serious concerns about the consequences of these drugs on infection. However, the effects of synthetic cannabinoid on resistance to tetanus toxin are not fully understood yet. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the administration of synthetic cannabinoids increase the susceptibility to tetanus toxin-induced motor behavioral deficit and functional changes in cerebellar neurons in mice...
November 25, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862608/assessing-prescription-drug-abuse-using-functional-principal-component-analysis-fpca-of-wastewater-data
#18
Stefania Salvatore, Jo Røislien, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Jørgen G Bramness
BACKGROUND: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. METHODS: Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway...
November 11, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861613/non-serotonergic-neurotoxicity-by-mdma-ecstasy-in-neurons-derived-from-mouse-p19-embryonal-carcinoma-cells
#19
Dina Popova, Andréas Forsblad, Sanaz Hashemian, Stig O P Jacobsson
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855594/when-chems-meet-sex-a-rising-phenomenon-called-chemsex
#20
Raffaele Giorgetti, Adriano Tagliabracci, Fabrizio Schifano, Simona Zaami, Enrico Marinelli, Francesco Paolo Busardò
BACKGROUND: The term "chemsex" was coined to indicate the voluntary intake of psychoactive and non psychoactive drugs in the context of recreational settings to facilitate and/or to enhance sexual intercourses mostly among men who have sex with other men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to review the mechanisms of action, the toxicity and the pattern of use and abuse of substances involved in "chemsex" practice together with the sociocultural background underlying it and the health-related consequences that they may have...
November 17, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
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