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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342356/the-dark-side-of-total-synthesis-strategies-and-tactics-in-psychoactive-drug-production
#1
Schuyler A Chambers, Jenna M DeSousa, Eric D Huseman, Steven D Townsend
Humankind has used and abused psychoactive drugs for millennia. Formally, a psychoactive drug is any agent that alters cognition and mood. The term "psychotropic drug" is neutral and describes the entire class of substrates, licit and illicit, of interest to governmental drug policy. While these drugs are prescribed for issues ranging from pain management to anxiety, they are also used recreationally. In fact, the current opioid epidemic is the deadliest drug crisis in American history. While the topic is highly politicized with racial, gender, and socioeconomic elements, there's no denying the toll drug mis- and overuse is taking on this country...
January 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342272/daily-decision-making-about-food-during-pregnancy-a-new-zealand-study
#2
Susan Pullon, Angela Ballantyne, Lindsay Macdonald, Christine Barthow, Kristin Wickens, Julian Crane
Pregnancy has always been a life-changing event for women and their families, but societal concern about pregnancy and motherhood has become intense in the digital age. The role of health promotion agencies and others supplying health-related resources about lifestyle behaviours is both important and in need of scrutiny. Ever increasing advice for pregnant women, their families and health professionals, abounds. This study of decision making during pregnancy investigated how women made everyday decisions during pregnancy about food and drink, as well as dietary supplements and medications, alcohol and recreational drugs...
January 12, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334961/smoke-alcohol-and-drug-addiction-and-male-fertility
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Sansone, Carla Di Dato, Cristina de Angelis, Davide Menafra, Carlotta Pozza, Rosario Pivonello, Andrea Isidori, Daniele Gianfrilli
In recent decades, the decline in human fertility has become increasingly more worrying: while therapeutic interventions might help, they are vexing for the couple and often burdened with high failure rates and costs. Prevention is the most successful approach to fertility disorders in males and females alike. We performed a literature review on three of the most common unhealthy habits - tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction - and their reported effects on male fertility. Tobacco smoking is remarkably common in most first-world countries; despite a progressive decline in the US, recent reports suggest a prevalence of more than 30% in subjects of reproductive age - a disturbing perspective, given the well-known ill-effects on reproductive and sexual function as well as general health...
January 15, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334885/2016-united-kingdom-national-guideline-on-the-sexual-health-care-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
Dan Clutterbuck, David Asboe, Tristan Barber, Carol Emerson, Nigel Field, Stuart Gibson, Gwenda Hughes, Rachael Jones, Martin Murchie, Achyuta V Nori, Michael Rayment, Ann Sullivan
This guideline is intended for use in UK Genitourinary medicine clinics and sexual health services but is likely to be of relevance in all sexual health settings, including general practice and Contraception and Sexual Health (CASH) services, where men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual health care or where addressing the sexual health needs of MSM may have public health benefits. For the purposes of this document, MSM includes all gay, bisexual and all other males who have sex with other males and both cis and trans men...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#5
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314750/phase-i-metabolism-of-the-recently-emerged-synthetic-cannabinoid-cumyl-pegaclone-and-detection-in-human-urine-samples
#6
Lukas Mogler, Maurice Wilde, Laura M Huppertz, Georg Weinfurtner, Florian Franz, Volker Auwärter
Indole, indazole or azaindole based synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), bearing a cumyl substituent are a widespread, recreationally used subgroup of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The latest cumyl-derivative, CUMYL-PEGACLONE, emerged in December 2016 on the German drug market. The substance features a novel γ-carboline core structure, which is most likely synthesized to bypass generic legislative approaches to control SCs by prohibiting distinct core structures. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry techniques, the main in vivo phase I metabolites of this new substance were detected...
January 3, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313438/is-the-recreational-use-of-3-4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine-safe
#7
Toby Boote
3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine is taken recreationally by thousands of people, especially the young, across the globe. It is highly associated with electronic music and its use in the UK remains high at around 4.5% of 16-24 year olds. This review discusses both the short- and long-term effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine including methods by which some of these adverse effects can be prevented or even reversed to increase the safety of the commonly used drug.
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313138/do-psychoactive-drugs-have-a-therapeutic-role-in-compulsivity-studies-on-schedule-induced-polydipsia
#8
Elena Martín-González, Ángeles Prados-Pardo, Santiago Mora, Pilar Flores, Margarita Moreno
RATIONALE: Clinical studies have shown that some psychoactive recreational drugs have therapeutic applications in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. However, to date, there are few studies on the therapeutic potential efficacy of recreational drugs in compulsive neuropsychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVES: We explored the therapeutic potential of different psychoactive and psychedelic drugs in a preclinical model of compulsive behavior. METHODS: Outbred male Wistar rats were selected as either high (HD) or low (LD) drinkers according to their behavior in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP)...
January 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311404/recreational-drug-and-psychosocial-profile-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-seeking-antiviral-therapy
#9
Nayana George, Sherrie M Harrell, Kimberly D Rhodes, Andres Duarte-Rojo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Practitioners treating hepatitis C (HCV) provide healthcare to a special population with high rates of substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. We investigated the psychosocial profile in HCV patients and tested what variables affect commencement of antiviral therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Recreational drug use (RDU), marijuana (THC), alcohol use, and psychiatric history were initially investigated with a questionnaire prior to history and physical...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#10
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300122/characterizing-blunt-smokers-by-their-acquisition-of-cannabis
#11
David S Timberlake
BACKGROUND: Ethnographers have reported that young, urban males embraced blunt smoking in response to the crack cocaine epidemic that ravaged their neighborhoods in the 1980s. But, recent survey data has indicated high rates of other illicit drug use among blunt smokers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the association between blunt smoking and cannabis acquisition as a potential explanation for the correlation with other illicit drug use. METHODS: The sample consisted of participants from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) who reported use of cannabis or blunts in the prior month (n = 6,040)...
January 4, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296031/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#12
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290737/abuse-and-misuse-of-selected-dietary-supplements-among-adolescents-a-look-at-poison-center-data
#13
Jessica M Biggs, Jill A Morgan, Allison B Lardieri, Omayma A Kishk, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: The use of dietary supplements has increased and is associated with adverse effects. Indications for use include recreation, body image concerns, mood enhancement, or control of medical conditions. The risk of adverse effects may be enhanced if agents are used improperly. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of abuse and misuse of 4 dietary substances among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of medical outcomes, clinical effects, location of treatments provided, and treatments administered...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289268/rhabdomyolysis-associated-acute-kidney-injury-with-normal-creatine-phosphokinase
#14
Faisal Kamal, Lindsay Snook, Jagannath H Saikumar
Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by the breakdown of skeletal muscle and leakage of intracellular myocyte contents, such as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and myoglobin, into the interstitial space and plasma resulting in acute kidney injury (AKI). Elevated CPK of at least 5 times the upper limit of normal is an important diagnostic marker of Rhabdomyolysis. We present a case of rhabdomyolysis with severe AKI with a normal CPK at presentation. A 32-year-old man presented with acute respiratory failure and AKI after an overdose of recreational drugs...
January 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288746/a-new-synthetic-drug-5-2-aminopropyl-indole-5-it-induces-rewarding-effects-and-increases-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-levels
#15
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Seul Yang, Yoon Mi Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#16
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
December 29, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275958/edeus-a-real-life-study-on-the-users-of-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-prevalence-perceptions-and-health-care-seeking-behavior-among-european-men-with-a-focus-on-2nd-generation-avanafil
#17
Giovanni Corona, Mario Maggi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multidimensional disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 10% in men younger than 40 years and up to 100% in men in their 70s and 80s. AIM: To evaluate the real-life characteristics and unmet needs of men with ED, its impact on well-being, and treatment rates across Europe. METHODS: Adult men in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain were invited to participate in the survey...
December 21, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262260/breaking-the-in-vitro-barrier-in-respiratory-medicine-engineered-microphysiological-systems-for-copd-and-beyond
#18
Kambez H Benam, Melanie Königshoff, Oliver Eickelberg
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading global health problem; however, our ability to understand the disease pathogenic processes and discover new pharmacotherapies have been significantly hindered due to lack of reliable model systems that are human-derived, physiologically more relevant, and can be applied predictively. Recent advances in microsystems engineering have made it possible to create biomimetic microfluidic cell culture devices, known as 'organs-on-chips'. In this Pulmonary Perspective, we discuss the emergence of 'Lung- and Small Airway-on-a-Chip' technologies and their application to recapitulate critical aspects of human lung pathophysiology, in particular COPD...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248863/the-efficacy-of-computerized-interventions-to-reduce-cannabis-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Alexandre Olmos, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit drug. Although it is too early to confirm the impact of legalization, the use of cannabis appears to be on the rise in some countries due to its authorization for medical/recreational purposes. Among different types of therapeutic approaches to reduce cannabis use, computerized interventions are becoming a new treatment option. To assess their efficacy, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed employing randomized controlled clinical trials indexed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO...
December 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247881/college-students-perceived-benefit-to-risk-tradeoffs-for-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-stimulants-implications-for-intervention-designs
#20
Elissa M Ross, Amelia M Arria, Jessica P Brown, C Daniel Mullins, Jason Schiffman, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined the benefit-to-risk tradeoffs undergraduate students perceive when engaging in the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS). This study examined the variation in college students' perceived risks and benefits for NPS. METHODS: An online survey was administered to 259 college students (ages 18-25) at six public universities who had engaged in NPS in the past year. A best-worst scaling (BWS) instrument assessed the relative importance of 12 perceived benefits and risks of NPS...
December 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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