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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776525/ability-to-monitor-driving-under-the-influence-of-marijuana-among-non-fatal-motor-vehicle-crashes-an-evaluation-of-the-colorado-electronic-accident-reporting-system
#1
Alexis B Peterson, Erin K Sauber-Schatz, Karin A Mack
INTRODUCTION: As more states legalize medical/recreational marijuana use, it is important to determine if state motor-vehicle surveillance systems can effectively monitor and track driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana. This study assessed Colorado's Department of Revenue motor-vehicle crash data system, Electronic Accident Reporting System (EARS), to monitor non-fatal crashes involving driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana. METHODS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines on surveillance system evaluation were used to assess EARS' usefulness, flexibility, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, and data quality...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770100/lymphogranuloma-venereum-in-quebec-re-emergence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
C A Boutin, S Venne, M Fiset, C Fortin, D Murphy, A Severini, C Martineau, J Longtin, A C Labbé
Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes L1 , L2 and L3 . This LGV is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of HIV transmission. While fewer than two cases per year were reported in Quebec before 2005, LGV emerged in 2005-2006 with 69 cases, followed by a period of low incidence (2007-2012), and subsequent re-emergence since 2013. Objectives: To describe the incidence of LGV in Quebec and the characteristics of the affected population, including demographics and risk factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments and reinfection rates...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767282/the-effect-of-medical-marijuana-laws-on-marijuana-related-attitude-and-perception-among-us-adolescents-and-young-adults
#3
Hefei Wen, Jason M Hockenberry, Benjamin G Druss
Marijuana liberalization policies are gaining momentum in the USA, coupled with limited federal interference and growing dispensary industry. This evolving regulatory landscape underscores the importance of understanding the attitudinal/perceptual pathways from marijuana policy to marijuana use behavior, especially for adolescents and young adults. Our study uses the restricted-access National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2004-2012 data and a difference-in-differences design to compare the pre-policy, post-policy changes in marijuana-related attitude/perception between adolescents and young adults from ten states that implemented medical marijuana laws during the study period and those from the remaining states...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762344/use-of-nonantiretroviral-medications-that-may-impact-neurocognition-patterns-and-predictors-in-a-large-long-term-hiv-cohort-study
#4
Kendra K Radtke, Peter Bacchetti, Kathryn Anastos, Daniel Merenstein, Howard Crystal, Roksana Karim, Kathleen M Weber, Andrew Edmonds, Anandi N Sheth, Margaret A Fischl, David Vance, Ruth M Greenblatt, Leah H Rubin
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment is a frequent and often disabling comorbidity of HIV infection. In addition to antiretroviral therapies, individuals with HIV infection may commonly use nonantiretroviral medications that are known to cause neurocognitive adverse effects (NC-AE). The contribution of NC-AE to neurocognitive impairment is rarely considered in the context of HIV and could explain part of the variability in neurocognitive performance among individuals with HIV. SETTING: Women's Interagency HIV Study, a prospective, multisite, observational study of US women with and without HIV...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760180/the-affective-and-neural-correlates-of-heroin-vs-cocaine-use-in-addiction-are-influenced-by-environmental-setting-but-in-opposite-directions
#5
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760024/an-updated-analysis-of-direct-to-consumer-television-advertisements-for-prescription-drugs
#6
Janelle Applequist, Jennifer Gerard Ball
PURPOSE: In 2015, the American Medical Association called for a ban of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs. Yet, the pharmaceutical industry spends more than ever on broadcast advertisements, with national health care costs largely driven by drug spending. An evaluation of these ads is critical, as these advertisements can impact the frequency which patients ask their doctors about medications. METHODS: A content analysis of prime-time direct-to-consumer ads was conducted across 4 major cable television networks...
May 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753971/development-and-validation-of-an-hplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ketamine-in-calliphora-vomitoria-l-diptera-calliphoridae
#7
Paola A Magni, Marco Pazzi, Jessica Droghi, Marco Vincenti, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic entomology that studies the detection of drugs or other toxic substances from insects developing on the decomposing tissues of a human corpse or animal carcass. Entomotoxicology also investigates the effects of these substances on insect development, survival and morphology to provide an estimation of the minimum time since death. Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. In recent years ketamine has also been used as a recreational drug, and occasionally as a sedating drug to facilitate sexual assault...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749877/the-british-association-for-sexual-health-and-hiv-2016-uk-national-audit-and-survey-of-clinic-policies-in-relation-to-risk-assessment-hiv-testing-and-follow-up
#8
S Bhaduri, H Curtis, H McClean, A K Sullivan
This national audit of 142 clinics demonstrated that the majority of clinics surveyed had policies and agreed clinical practice for alcohol and recreational drug enquiry, as well as documentation of HIV test refusal, although this was not the case in 24% of clinics as regards alcohol usage, 21% of clinics as regards recreational drugs use and 43% of clinics as regards chemsex usage. Regarding management of HIV test refusal, there was no policy or agreed practice in 13% of clinics with respect to men having sex with men (MSM) attenders, and in 18% of clinics for heterosexual attenders...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749280/beyond-china-s-drug-century-yunnan-s-first-therapeutic-community-and-narratives-of-drug-treatment-and-mental-health-care
#9
Sandra Teresa Hyde
China is experiencing rapid cultural change and new forms of sociability that are accompanied by social problems and novel humanitarian interventions that have been formulated to address those problems. The pressure related to the rapid transformation of the countryside into mid-level cities has led to recreational drug-use as a means of escape. These illegal drugs have greased the wheels of what I call an affective biopolitics that has influenced Chinese citizens. Carlos Rojas argues that development in China results from the effects of discrete protocols, or practices that stem from tensions between capital and labor, governmentality and biopolitics, and nationalism and globalization...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746151/determinants-of-successful-direct-breastfeeding-at-hospital-discharge-in-high-risk-premature-infants
#10
Lara Casey, Sandra Fucile, Kimberly E Dow
BACKGROUND: Despite a mother's intention to breastfeed, there are many barriers to feeding preterm infants that decrease breastfeeding rates. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to determine factors associated with successful direct breastfeeding (DBF) of the preterm infant at hospital discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 69 preterm (<34 weeks' gestational age) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, whose mothers intended to breastfeed, was conducted...
May 10, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743005/bashh-2016-uk-national-audit-and-survey-of-hiv-testing-risk-assessment-and-follow-up-case-note-audit
#11
Sumit Bhaduri, Hilary Curtis, Hugo McClean, Ann K Sullivan
This national audit demonstrated discrepancies between actual practice and that indicated by clinic policies following enquiry about alcohol, recreational drugs and chemsex use. Clinics were more likely to enquire about risk behaviour if this was clinic policy or routine practice. Previous testing was the most common reason for refusing HIV testing, although 33% of men who have sex with men had a prior test of more than three months ago. Of the group declining due to recent exposure in the window period, 21/119 cases had an exposure within the four weeks prior to presentation, but had a previous risk not covered by previous testing...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740356/behavioural-pharmacokinetic-metabolic-and-hyperthermic-profile-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-the-wistar-rat
#12
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Barbara Feriancikova, Michal Himl, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Páleníček
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics after single dose of 2 mg/kg MDPV was measured over 6 h in serum, brain and lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736579/combination-of-polymeric-supports-and-drug-delivery-systems-for-osteochondral-regeneration
#13
Luis Rojo
Musculoskeletal conditions have been defined by European National Health systems as one of the key themes which should be featured during the present decade as a consequence of the significant healthcare and social support costs. Among others, articular cartilage degeneration due to traumatic and degenerative lesion injury or other pathologies commonly results in the development of musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoarthritis and arthritis rheumatoid, eventually leading to progressive articular cartilage and joint destruction especially at osteochondral interphase, that account for more disability among the elderly than any other diseases constituting a global social challenge that needs a multidisciplinary response from the scientific community...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733742/are-ecstasy-induced-serotonergic-alterations-overestimated-for-the-majority-of-users
#14
Balázs Szigeti, Adam R Winstock, David Erritzoe, Larissa J Maier
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies imply that the regular use of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the major constituent of ecstasy pills, alters the brain's serotonergic system in a dose-dependent manner. However, the relevance of these findings remains unclear due to limited knowledge about the ecstasy/MDMA use pattern of real-life users. AIMS: We examined the representativeness of ecstasy users enrolled in neuroimaging studies by comparing their ecstasy use habits with the use patterns of a large, international sample...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733106/how-do-stimulant-treatments-for-adhd-work-evidence-for-mediation-by-improved-cognition
#15
Larry W Hawk, Whitney D Fosco, Craig R Colder, James G Waxmonsky, William E Pelham, Keri S Rosch
BACKGROUND: Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate (MPH) are the frontline treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite their well-documented efficacy, the mechanisms by which stimulants improve clinical outcomes are not clear. The current study evaluated whether MPH effects on classroom behavior were mediated by improved cognitive functioning. METHODS: Children with ADHD (n = 82; 9-12 years old) participated in a week-long summer research camp, consisting of cognitive testing, classroom periods, and recreational activities...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731530/noble-metal-nanostructures-in-optical-biosensors-basics-and-their-introduction-to-anti-doping-detection
#16
Hedieh Malekzad, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Hadi Mohammadi, Mohsen Sadroddini, Zahra Jafari, Niloofar Mahlooji, Somaye Abbaspour, Somaye Gholami, Mana Ghanbarpoor, Rahim Pashazadeh, Ali Beyzavi, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R Hamblin
Nanotechnology has illustrated significant potentials in biomolecular-sensing applications; particularly its introduction to anti-doping detection is of great importance. Illicit recreational drugs, substances that can be potentially abused, and drugs with dosage limitations according to the prohibited lists announced by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) are becoming of increasing interest to forensic chemists. In this review, the theoretical principles of optical biosensors based on noble metal nanoparticles, and the transduction mechanism of commonly-applied plasmonic biosensors are covered...
March 2018: Trends in Analytical Chemistry: TRAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726054/gdnf-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#17
Segev Barak, Somayeh Ahmadiantehrani, Marian L Logrip, Dorit Ron
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been extensively studied for its role in the development and maintenance of the midbrain dopaminergic system, although evidence suggests that GDNF also plays a role in drug and alcohol addiction. This review focuses on the unique actions of GDNF in the mechanisms that prevent the transition from recreational alcohol use to abuse. Specifically, we describe studies in rodents suggesting that alcohol acutely increases GDNF expression in the ventral tegmental area, which enables the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and the gating of alcohol intake...
May 4, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718956/a-reliable-and-validated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-4-cannabinoids-in-40-consumer-products
#18
Qingfang Meng, Beth Buchanan, Jonathan Zuccolo, Mathieu-Marc Poulin, Joseph Gabriele, David Charles Baranowski
In the past 50 years, Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has gone from a substance essentially prohibited worldwide to one that is gaining acceptance both culturally and legally in many countries for medicinal and recreational use. As additional jurisdictions legalize Cannabis products and the variety and complexity of these products surpass the classical dried plant material, appropriate methods for measuring the biologically active constituents is paramount to ensure safety and regulatory compliance. While there are numerous active compounds in C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708042/the-epidemiology-of-5-methoxy-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-5-meo-dmt-use-benefits-consequences-patterns-of-use-subjective-effects-and-reasons-for-consumption
#19
Alan K Davis, Joseph P Barsuglia, Rafael Lancelotta, Robert M Grant, Elise Renn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 5-Methoxy- N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive compound found in several plants and in high concentrations in Bufo alvarius toad venom. Synthetic, toad, and plant-sourced 5-MeO-DMT are used for spiritual and recreational purposes and may have psychotherapeutic effects. However, the use of 5-MeO-DMT is not well understood. Therefore, we examined patterns of use, motivations for consumption, subjective effects, and potential benefits and consequences associated with 5-MeO-DMT use...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706358/the-role-of-cannabinoid-signaling-in-acute-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Federica Barutta, Graziella Bruno, Raffaella Mastrocola, Stefania Bellini, Gabriella Gruden
The endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol bind to the cannabinoid receptors of type 1 and 2. These receptors are also the binding sites for exogenous, both natural and synthetic, cannabinoids that are used for recreation purposes. Until recently, cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors have attracted little interest among nephrologists; however, a full endocannabinoid system (ECS) is present in the kidney and it has recently emerged as an important player in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, drug nephrotoxicity, and progressive chronic kidney disease...
April 26, 2018: Kidney International
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