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Recreational drug

Johannes M Hugo, Kevin B Rebe, Evan Tsouroulis, Anthony Manion, Glenn de Swart, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre
Chemsex is the colloquial term used for a specific pattern of drug use that is increasingly common among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. The recreational substances employed are used specifically in a sexualized context. The reasons for chemsex among MSM are complex. The Anova Health Institute (Anova) provided harm-reduction services in Cape Town, South Africa in 2013 and 2014. This project, known as Tikking the Boxes had two objectives: first to provide direct harm-reduction services to drug-using MSM in Cape Town, South Africa, and second, to reduce HIV and hepatitis B and C transmission among this population...
March 21, 2018: Sexual Health
Wai-Kay Seto, Siu-King Mak, Keith Chiu, Varut Vardhanabhuti, Ho-Fai Wong, Heng-Tat Leong, Paul S F Lee, Y C Ho, Chi-Kei Lee, Ka-Shing Cheung, Man-Fung Yuen, Wai K Leung
BACKGROUND: Recreational ketamine use has emerged as an important health and social issue worldwide. Although ketamine is associated with biliary tract damage, the clinical and radiological profiles of ketamine-related cholangiopathy have not been well-described. METHODS: We prospectively recruited consecutive Chinese individuals who used ketamine recreationally at least twice per month over 6 months in the past 2 years via a territory-wide community network of charitable organizations tackling substance abuse...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie M Wall, Katherine M Keyes, Magdalena Cerdá, John E Schulenberg, Patrick M O'Malley, Lloyd D Johnston, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: National trends in adolescent's marijuana risk perceptions are traditionally used as a predictor of concurrent and future trends in adolescent marijuana use. We test the validity of this practice during a time of rapid marijuana policy change. METHODS: Two repeated cross-sectional U.S. nationally-representative surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders: Monitoring the Future (MTF) (1991-2015; N = 1,181,692) and National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2002-2014; N = 113,317)...
March 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Raynell Lang, Ron Read, Hartmut B Krentz, Soheil Ramazani, Mingkai Peng, Jennifer Gratrix, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a global health concern disproportionately affecting HIV-infected populations. In Alberta, Canada, the incidence of syphilis in the general population has recently doubled with 25% of these infections occurring in HIV-infected patients. The Southern Alberta HIV Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Program (CSTI) analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics of incident syphilis infections in our well-defined, HIV-infected population over 11 years. METHODS: Since 2006, as routine practice of both the Southern Alberta Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Programs (CSTI), syphilis screening has accompanied HIV viral load measures every four months...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence and correlates of illegal drug use in Puerto Rico are now almost 20 years old. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate the 12-month prevalence of illegal and non-prescribed medical drug use in San Juan, Puerto Rico and identify sociodemographic correlates of use. METHODS: Data are from a random household sample of 1510 individuals, 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of any illegal or non-prescribed drug use was 16...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rania Oueslati, Cheng Cheng, Jayne Wu, Jiangang Chen
Cocaine is one of the most used illegal recreational drugs. Developing an on-site test for cocaine use detection has been a focus of research effort, since it is essential to the control and legal action against drug abuse. Currently most of cocaine detection methods are time-consuming and require special or expensive equipment, and the detection often suffers from high cross-reactivity with cocaine metabolites and relative low sensitivity with the best limit of detection reported at sub nanomolar (nM) level...
February 27, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles, Glennon M Floyd, Elizabeth S Cahn, Veronica L Chaitan, Marisel Ponton
BACKGROUND: The US has seen an increase in the popularity of highly concentrated forms of cannabis (hereafter concentrates) and too little is known about the potential risks associated with their use. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to better understand the patterns and outcomes of concentrates use through the perspectives of young adult users. METHODS: Participants (N = 234, 27.9% female) aged 18-35 years were recruited using SurveyMonkey Audience® and had ingested concentrates at least once in the past 6 months...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Joshua S Elmore, Ann M Decker, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, John S Partilla, Bruce E Blough, Michael H Baumann
2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C compounds) are 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists that induce hallucinogenic effects. N-methoxybenzylation of 2C compounds markedly increases their affinity for 5-HT2A receptors, and two such analogs, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) and 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe), have emerged in recreational drug markets. Here, we investigated the neuropharmacology of 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in rats, as compared to their 2C analogs and the prototypical 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine (DOI)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ulrike Steiner, Eckhard Leistner
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula . The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Landon M Klein, Nicholas V Cozzi, Paul F Daley, Simon D Brandt, Adam L Halberstadt
Substantial effort has been devoted toward understanding the psychopharmacological effects of tryptamine hallucinogens, which are thought to be mediated by activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. Recently, several psychoactive tryptamines based on the N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) scaffold have been encountered as recreational drugs. Despite the apparent widespread use of DALT derivatives in humans, little is known about their pharmacological properties. We compared the binding affinities of DALT and its 2-phenyl-, 4-acetoxy-, 4-hydroxy-, 5-methoxy-, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, 5-fluoro-2-methyl-, 5-bromo-, and 7-ethyl-derivatives at 45 receptor and transporter binding sites...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ellen M Raney, Harold J P van Bosse, Kevin G Shea, Joshua M Abzug, Richard M Schwend
INTRODUCTION: The opioid epidemic in the United States has reached crisis proportions. Urgent response is needed. Hydrocodone in combination with acetaminophen is the most prescribed drug in the United States. The most common source of opioids available for misuse is the unused portions of postoperative prescriptions. Among high school seniors, 80% of those who reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids previously had legitimate prescriptions but recreationally used leftover doses...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Felix Reyes, Vytas Vaitkus, Mohammad Al-Ajam
Cocaine is a commonly abused recreational drug in the United States. An adult man developed non-specific pleuritic chest pain, pharyngitis and odynophagia after inhaling cocaine. Initial laboratory results revealed eosinophilia. Bronchoalveolar lavage also showed eosinophilia in the lavage fluid. These findings suggested the diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia. Chest imaging revealed scattered bilateral opacities and interstitial infiltrates. After initiation of systemic corticosteroids, the patient reported symptomatic resolution and radiographic clearance was achieved at 2 months follow up...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Myung-Ku Kim, Chul-Won Ha, Yong In, Sung-Do Cho, Eui-Sung Choi, Jeong-Ku Ha, Ju-Hong Lee, Jae-Doo Yoo, Seong-Il Bin, Choong-Hyeok Choi, Hee-Soo Kyung, Myung-Chul Lee
OBJECTIVE: To test the clinical efficacy of TissueGene-C (TG-C), a cell and gene therapeutic for osteoarthritis consisting of non-transformed and transduced chondrocytes (3:1), retrovirally transduced to overexpress TGF-β1. DESIGN: We randomly assigned 163 with knee osteoarthritis to receive intra-articular TG-C or placebo in Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 patients for clinical trial. Primary efficacy measures included criteria for subjective assessment by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and pain severity by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for 52 weeks...
February 27, 2018: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Jeffrey R Brubacher, Herbert Chan, Shannon Erdelyi, Mark Asbridge, Robert E Mann, Roy A Purssell, Robert Solomon
INTRODUCTION: Most countries have laws against driving while impaired by drugs. However, in many countries, including Canada and the United States, police must have individualized suspicion that the driver has recently used an impairing substance before they can gather the evidence required for laying a criminal charge. This report studies police documentation of drug involvement among drivers who had a motor-vehicle crash after using an impairing substance. METHODS: We obtained blood samples and police reports on injured drivers treated in participating British Columbia trauma centres following a crash...
February 23, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Christoph D Spinner, Nikola Hanhoff, Ivanka Krznaric, Gaby Knecht, Tim Kuemmerle, Robin Ruesenberg, Knud Schewe
PRUPOSE: To examine current risk behavior, awareness, experience, and attitudes towards pre-exposure-prophylaxis (PrEP), and to estimate a potential impact on the prevention of HIV transmission among HIV-negative MSM in Germany. PrEP was not officially licensed at the time of survey. METHODS: Web-based questionnaire from 03-06/2016. Potential participants were informed through social media, flyers, and advertisements. Risk contacts were defined as unprotected sexual intercourse under the influence of recreational drugs in the past 6 months...
February 24, 2018: Infection
Sofia P Rebelo, Catarina Pinto, Tatiana R Martins, Nathalie Harrer, Marta F Estrada, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, José Cabeçadas, Paula M Alves, Emilio J Gualda, Wolfgang Sommergruber, Catarina Brito
The tumour microenvironment (TME) shapes disease progression and influences therapeutic response. Most aggressive solid tumours have high levels of myeloid cell infiltration, namely tumour associated macrophages (TAM). Recapitulation of the interaction between the different cellular players of the TME, along with the extracellular matrix (ECM), is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease progression. This particularly holds true for prediction of therapeutic response(s) to standard therapies and interrogation of efficacy of TME-targeting agents...
May 2018: Biomaterials
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