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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141354/-research-progress-on-unprotected-anal-intercourse-and-its-influencing-factors-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#1
S Lu, D M Li
The prevalence of HIV infections continues to rise among Chinese MSM. This population is prone to has high-risk behaviors including having multiple sexual partners, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), etc. This paper summarizes the situation of UAI and related influencing factors, including age, educational level, number of sexual partners, recreational drug abusing and related status of discrimination, etc. The purpose of this article is to provide reference for targeted intervention and prevention of HIV among MSM population...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139190/a-man-before-his-time-russell-s-insights-into-nicotine-smoking-treatment-and-curbing-the-smoking-problem
#2
Ann McNeill, Debbie Robson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible. METHODS: Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. RESULTS: Russell was among the first researchers to explain that smoking was a dependence disorder caused by the drug nicotine decades before this was recognized formally...
November 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#3
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131695/time-since-first-acting-on-same-sex-attraction-and-recreational-drug-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-is-there-an-effect-of-gay-age
#4
Cara E Rice, Sara A Vasilenko, Stephanie T Lanza, John A Davis, Karen S Fields, Melissa Ervin, Abigail Norris Turner
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of substance use compared to men who have sex with women. Among MSM, drug use is linked to higher-risk sexual behavior and acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that time since first acting on one's same sex attraction, or one's "gay age", could be predictive of drug using behavior. METHODS: We examined this question among 176 MSM, aged 18-35, presenting at a public sexual health clinic...
November 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131068/maternal-cannabinoid-use-alters-cannabinoid-cb1-and-endothelin-etb-receptor-expression-in-the-brains-of-dams-but-not-their-offspring
#5
Aarti Amlani, Mary G Hornick, Kevin Cooper, Preetha Prazad, Ramona Donovan, Anil Gulati
According to the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, cannabis (marijuana) is the most commonly used recreational drug in the US. Among pregnant women aged 14-55 years, 3.4% were cannabis users. Presently, little is known about the neurodevelopmental effect of cannabis use during pregnancy and/or nursing on neonates. Endothelin (ET) is essential for normal development of the central nervous system (CNS). Decreases in ETB receptor expression correlate with a decline in nerve growth factor (NGF) and an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postnatal brain...
November 4, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126536/a-53-year-old-man-with-a-bronchial-mass-and-multiple-bone-lesions
#6
Sujith V Cherian, Rosa M Estrada-Y-Martin, Shahreen Billah, Annikka Weissferdt
A 53-year-old man was admitted with complaints of back pain of 3 months' duration along with numbness and weakness in his left upper and lower extremities. He denied any respiratory complaints or anorexia but did report an 11 kg weight loss over the last 3 months. He had no other significant medical history and denied any history of cigarette smoking or recreational drug use. Family history was significant for prostate cancer in his father.
November 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125218/marijuana-use-and-associated-motives-in-colorado-university-students
#7
Kristina T Phillips, Trent L Lalonde, Michael M Phillips, Maryia M Schneider
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, with heavy use leading to negative outcomes. Use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes in select U.S. states has been controversial, with concerns surrounding increased prevalence rates and harm. The current exploratory study aimed to assess marijuana use in college students in Colorado, demographic differences in frequency of use, and motives for using. METHODS: College students (N = 300; 61% female) were recruited through introductory psychology courses and completed a series of questionnaires and a marijuana urine screen...
November 10, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119924/deaths-in-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-united-kingdom-communities-associated-with-ghb-and-precursors
#8
John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117432/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms-for-identification-of-designer-stimulants-including-2c-amines-nbome-compounds-and-cathinones-in-urine
#9
Hemamalini Ketha, Milad Webb, Larry Clayton, Sean Li
Phenethylamine derivatives are being increasingly exploited for recreational use as "designer" stimulants designed to mimic psychostimulant properties of amphetamine or other illicit substances like 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA [ecstasy]). Clandestine operations meticulously design phenethylamines so the user can bypass legal action when detected, as many of these are yet to be regulated by government authorities. Substituted phenethylamines or 2C amines, N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of the corresponding 2C amines commonly known as NBOMe compounds, and cathinones are among the most commonly abused phenethylamines...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111505/when-adverse-effects-are-seen-as-desirable-abuse-potential-of-the-newer-generation-antiepileptic-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Kelsey L Hawkins, Barry E Gidal
There has been growing recognition of the possible abuse potential of newer generation antiepileptic drugs, and several of these agents have been categorized as controlled substances in the United States. To properly schedule a new medication, the abuse potential, or the potential for a drug to be used for its nonmedical positive subjective effects, must be determined. Performing a human abuse potential study is one step in the overall abuse potential assessment. These studies analyze the abuse potential of a new drug in a very specific population of known recreational drug users...
October 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105579/bone-and-joint-medical-devices-methods-models-and-regulations
#11
Lyn M Wancket
Repair of bone and joint tissue to restore normal function is a unique endeavor that requires recreating tissue structure and the integrated healing of both organic and inorganic tissue components. Session 5 (Structural approaches to bone and joint repair) at the 36th annual Society of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium included 2 talks covering methods, models, and regulatory considerations used to evaluate novel approaches for repairing bones and joints. Lyn Wancket provided a general overview of medical devices, with an emphasis on preclinical and clinical evaluations of bone and joint devices...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#12
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096991/intox-detox-antidotes-evidence-based-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-intoxications
#13
Andreas Schaper, Martin Ebbecke
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aim of this review is to describe the role of clinical toxicology in the context of acute medicine. A special focus is put on antidotes and important aspects of diagnosis and therapy of acute intoxications. The data of the annual report of GIZ-Nord Poisons Centre is analyzed concerning the following aspects: what intoxications are relevant in acute medicine, are there special aspects in therapy, e.g. antidotes, and what antidotes are relevant? More over intoxication-related fatalities are analyzed...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092079/pharmacokinetics-and-abuse-potential-of-benzhydrocodone-a-novel-prodrug-of-hydrocodone-after-intranasal-administration-in-recreational-drug-users
#14
Travis C Mickle, Sven M Guenther, Andrew C Barrett, Kathryn Ann Roupe, Jing Zhou, Daniel Dickerson, Lynn R Webster
Objective: Developing an acetaminophen-free, immediate-release hydrocodone product remains an unmet medical need; however, new opioid analgesics should not introduce new abuse risks. Benzhydrocodone is a prodrug of hydrocodone that must be metabolized into hydrocodone by enzymes in the intestinal tract to optimally deliver its pharmacologic effects. This study evaluated the intranasal pharmacokinetics and abuse potential of benzhydrocodone active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) compared with hydrocodone bitartrate (HB) API...
October 28, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082802/drug-drug-interactions-as-a-result-of-co-administering-%C3%AE-9-thc-and-cbd-with-other-psychotropic-agents
#15
Carola Rong, Nicole E Carmona, Yena L Lee, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Zihang Pan, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Margarita Shekotikhina, Fahad Almatham, Asem Alageel, Rodrigo Mansur, Roger C Ho, Roger S McIntyre
To determine, via narrative, non-systematic review of pre-clinical and clinical studies, whether the effect of cannabis on hepatic biotransformation pathways would be predicted to result in clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with commonly prescribed psychotropic agents. Areas covered: A non-systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception to January 2017. The search term cannabis was cross-referenced with the terms drug interactions, cytochrome, cannabinoids, cannabidiol, and medical marijuana...
October 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082319/anatomy-of-a-joint-comparing-self-reported-and-actual-dose-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-in-a-joint-and-how-these-are-influenced-by-controlled-acute-administration
#16
Chandni Hindocha, Tom P Freeman, H Valerie Curran
Introduction: Major gaps exist in the measurement of cannabis exposure. The accuracy of self-reported cannabis and tobacco dose per joint is poorly characterized and has never been investigated following acute cannabis/tobacco exposure. Using an innovative "Roll a Joint" paradigm, this study aims to (1) compare estimated and actual dose of cannabis and tobacco per joint at baseline and (2) examine the acute effects of cannabis and/or tobacco on estimated and actual dose. Materials and Methods: We investigated this by using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover 2 (active cannabis, placebo cannabis)×2 (active tobacco, placebo tobacco) design in a laboratory setting...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071751/pxr-mediated-induction-of-cyp3a4-cyp1a2-and-p-gp-by-mitragyna-speciosa-and-its-alkaloids
#17
Vamshi K Manda, Bharathi Avula, Olivia R Dale, Zulfiqar Ali, Ikhlas A Khan, Larry A Walker, Shabana I Khan
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a native herb of Southeast Asia, is widely known for its psychoactive properties. Recent increase in the use of kratom as a recreational drug has increased the risk of its interaction with conventional drugs if taken concomitantly. A few reports are available related to the effects of kratom on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), but there are no reports of its effects on pregnane X receptor (PXR), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of CYPs and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
October 26, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065796/circadian-hormone-control-in-a-human-on-a-chip-in-vitro-biology-s-ignored-component
#18
REVIEW
Kevin J Cyr, Omero M Avaldi, John P Wikswo
Organs-on-Chips (OoCs) are poised to reshape dramatically the study of biology by replicating in vivo the function of individual and coupled human organs. Such microphysiological systems (MPS) have already recreated complex physiological responses necessary to simulate human organ function not evident in two-dimensional in vitro biological experiments. OoC researchers hope to streamline pharmaceutical development, accelerate toxicology studies, limit animal testing, and provide new insights beyond the capability of current biological models...
November 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064160/marijuana-commercialization-and-adolescent-substance-treatment-outcomes-in-colorado
#19
Sean R LeNoue, Stacy Salomonsen-Sautel, Sung-Joon Min, Christian Thurstone
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Colorado, marijuana was legalized for medical use in 2000, commercialized in 2009, and approved for recreational purposes in 2012. Little is known about the association between recent policy changes and adolescent substance treatment outcomes measured by urine drug screens (UDS). This study addressed this research gap. METHODS: Participants were youth (N = 523) aged 11-19 years who were enrolled in an outpatient motivational interviewing (MI)/cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus contingency management (CM) in Denver, Colorado from October 2007 to June 2014...
October 24, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057382/ethnic-variations-in-sexual-behaviours-and-sexual-health-markers-findings-from-the-third-british-national-survey-of-sexual-attitudes-and-lifestyles-natsal-3
#20
Sonali Wayal, Gwenda Hughes, Pam Sonnenberg, Hamish Mohammed, Andrew J Copas, Makeda Gerressu, Clare Tanton, Martina Furegato, Catherine H Mercer
BACKGROUND: Sexual health entails the absence of disease and the ability to lead a pleasurable and safe sex life. In Britain, ethnic inequalities in diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STI) persist; however, the reasons for these inequalities, and ethnic variations in other markers of sexual health, remain poorly understood. We investigated ethnic differences in hypothesised explanatory factors such as socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and sexual behaviours, and whether they explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers (reported STI diagnoses, attendance at sexual health clinics, use of emergency contraception, and sexual function)...
October 2017: Lancet. Public Health
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