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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646702/alcohol-and-recreational-drug-use-in-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Adam Pastor, Jennifer Conn, Jessie Teng, Casey L O'Brien, Margaret Loh, Lisa Collins, Richard MacIsaac, Yvonne Bonomo
Alcohol and other recreational drug use reaches peak prevalence in young adulthood, including for those with chronic medical conditions such as type 1 diabetes. This review summarises the current literature on the patterns of substance use amongst young adults with type 1 diabetes and the mechanisms through which alcohol and recreational drugs may affect diabetes related health outcomes. These include the direct physical effect of intoxication, as well as the effects of alcohol and drugs on mental health and glucose metabolism...
June 11, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632075/-is-marijuana-even-a-drug-a-qualitative-study-of-how-teens-view-marijuana-use-and-why-they-use-it
#2
Bettina Friese
This qualitative study examines how youth in the San Francisco Bay Area perceive marijuana and their motives for using or not using marijuana. Current regular users were more likely to perceive marijuana smoking as an enjoyable activity, comparable to a hobby or sport. Current occasional users commonly reported smoking marijuana when it was offered to them, on special occasions, and sometimes as a result of not wanting to be left out. Most former regular users reported quitting marijuana use due to getting into trouble, being ordered into drug treatment and/or being drug tested...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631111/suffocation-caused-by-plastic-wrap-covering-the-face-combined-with-nitrous-oxide-inhalation
#3
Peter Mygind Leth, Birgitte Schmidt Astrup
Suicide using a combination of a plastic bag over the head and inhalation of a non-irritating gas, such as helium, argon or nitrogen, has been reported in the literature. Here an unusual suicide method in a 17-year old man by suffocation from covering the face with household plastic wrap, combined with nitrous oxide inhalation, is presented. The case was reviewed based on police, autopsy and hospital reports. A PubMed search for scientific literature related to nitrous oxide abuse and suicide by suffocation was performed and our findings discussed in relation to the scientific literature found...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#4
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615331/comparison-of-the-vta-and-lc-response-to-methylphenidate-a-concomitant-behavioral-and-neuronal-study-of-adolescent-male-rats
#5
Tahseen Jalal Karim, Cruz Reyes-Vazquez, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD), also known as Ritalin, is a psychostimulant used to treat attention hyperactivity disorder. However, it is increasingly being misused by normal adolescents for recreation and academic advantage. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of MPD in normal subjects. MPD inhibits the reuptake of catecholamines, mainly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC). The VTA and LC normally mediate attention, motivation, and drug reward behaviors...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612332/cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Javier Marquez, Lina Aguirre, Carolina Muñoz, Andres Echeverri, Mauricio Restrepo, Luis F Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the clinical spectrum of cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis. Worldwide recreational drug consumption is high among the adult population from various social strata. The use of cocaine with levamisole, a frequently added antiparasitic diluent, favors the manifestations of vasculitic lesions, especially in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There are still many unknown aspects in the pathogenesis of this disease, such as the immune system interaction with p-ANCAs and the release of inflammatory NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are the origin of auto-antigens and tissue damage, manifesting as vasculitic purpura on the skin...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610435/access-and-engagement-in-hiv-care-among-a-national-cohort-of-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#7
Nadine Kronfli, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Angela Kaida, Carmen Logie, Tracey Conway, V Logan Kennedy, Ann Burchell, Wangari Tharao, Neora Pick, Mary Kestler, Paul Sereda, Mona Loutfy, On Behalf Of The Chiwos Research Team
Attrition along the cascade of HIV care poses significant barriers to attaining the UNAIDS targets of 90-90-90 and achieving optimal treatment outcomes for people living with HIV. Understanding the correlates of attrition is critical and particularly for women living with HIV (WLWH) as gender disparities along the cascade have been found. We measured the proportion of the 1425 WLWH enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS) who had never accessed HIV medical care, who reported delayed linkage into HIV care (>3 months between diagnosis and initial care linkage), and who were not engaged in HIV care at interview (<1 visit in prior year)...
June 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607917/thrombotic-microangiopathy-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists
#8
Michael Karass, Savneek Chugh, Gabriela Andries, Aleksandra Mamorska-Dyga, John C Nelson, Praveen N Chander
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs in the United States. As marijuana is illegal in the majority of countries, the use of readily available and unregulated synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) has increased. Little is known about the potential adverse effects of SCBs especially in regards to their nephrotoxicity. Case reports of acute kidney injury (AKI) from acute tubular injury secondary to their use have been reported. However, the exact pathology, mechanism, and extent of renal injury remain unknown...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607542/interactions-of-cannabinoids-with-biochemical-substrates
#9
REVIEW
Brian F Thomas
Recent decades have seen much progress in the identification and characterization of cannabinoid receptors and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant bind to receptors and produce their physiological and psychological effects. The information generated in this process has enabled better understanding of the fundamental physiological and psychological processes controlled by the central and peripheral nervous systems and has fostered the development of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606865/use-of-growth-hormone-igf-i-and-insulin-for-anabolic-purpose-pharmacological-basis-methods-of-detection-and-adverse-effects
#10
REVIEW
Lindsey J Anderson, Jamie M Tamayose, Jose M Garcia
Hormones with anabolic properties such as growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), and insulin are commonly abused among professional and recreational athletes to enhance physical ability. Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) such as these are also commonly used by recreational athletes to improve body aesthetics. The perception of increased muscle mass due to supraphysiologic hormone supplementation, or doping, is widespread among PED users despite a paucity of evidence-based data in humans...
June 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600929/detrimental-effects-of-self-administered-methamphetamine-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-development-in-the-rat
#11
Daniela Rüedi-Bettschen, Donna M Platt
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) abuse by pregnant women is a commonly observed phenomenon. While the harmful effects of METH are well described for adults, there is only limited knowledge of the effects of METH use during pregnancy on the developing child. In the present study, we investigated how intraveneous (iv) METH self-administration throughout pregnancy affected rat dams and their offspring through weaning, compared to controls. METHODS: Female rats (n=16) were trained to self-administer METH iv; every drug infusion by a dam also resulted in a saline injection to a yoked control (n=16)...
June 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599743/pharmacologic-implications-of-marijuana-use-during-pregnancy
#12
Heidi Collins Fantasia
Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants...
June 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599208/occurrence-of-pharmaceutical-recreational-and-psychotropic-drug-residues-in-surface-water-on-the-northern-antarctic-peninsula-region
#13
Silvia González-Alonso, Luis Moreno Merino, Sara Esteban, Miren López de Alda, Damià Barceló, Juan José Durán, Jerónimo López-Martínez, Jaume Aceña, Sandra Pérez, Nicola Mastroianni, Adrián Silva, Myriam Catalá, Yolanda Valcárcel
Human presence in the Antarctic is increasing due to research activities and the rise in tourism. These activities contribute a number of potentially hazardous substances. The aim of this study is to conduct the first characterisation of the pharmaceuticals and recreational drugs present in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, and to assess the potential environmental risk they pose to the environment. The study consisted of a single sampling of ten water samples from different sources, including streams, ponds, glacier drains, and a wastewater discharge into the sea...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597920/a-case-of-nonfatal-intoxication-associated-with-the-recreational-use-of-diphenidine
#15
Enrico Gerace, Elena Bovetto, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti, Alberto Salomone
Diphenidine is a dissociative drug that shows several psychotropic effects including euphoria, shifts in perception of reality, hallucinations, and transient anterograde amnesia. In this study, a case of acute intoxication occurring after diphenidine intake is reported. A 30-year-old Caucasian male was hospitalized after he was found in a confused and agitated state and unable to communicate. The physical examination displayed tachycardia, miotic pupils, and increased both body temperature and respiratory rate...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597537/the-challenge-of-complex-drug-use-associated-use-of-codeine-containing-medicines-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-european-cross-sectional-online-population
#16
Andreas Kimergård, Michelle Foley, Zoe Davey, Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines in combination with new psychoactive substances (NPS) is inadequately described. This study characterises codeine consumption amongst NPS users and non-NPS users to provide warning of health issues. METHODS: Online survey conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. RESULTS: Out of 340 respondents, residing in a country in Europe and using codeine recently, 63.8% were female. Mean age: 34.9 years (SD = 12...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595684/marijuana-use-in-the-elderly-implications-and-considerations
#17
Tracy D Mahvan, Michelle L Hilaire, Allison Mann, Antoinette Brown, Becky Linn, Taylor Gardner, Beryen Lai
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the use of marijuana in the elderly. Pharmacists play an important role in the management of medications including drug use of potentially illegal drugs, including marijuana. The use of both recreational and medical marijuana has grown exponentially in the general population, including in older adults. As of 2017, marijuana for medical use is legal in 26 states and the District of Columbia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Internet search using the following terms: marijuana, cannabis, delta-9-tetrhydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabinoid, elderly, geriatric, and pharmacology...
June 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595208/atrial-fibrillation-following-synthetic-cannabinoid-abuse
#18
Tolga Han Efe, Mehmet Ali Felekoglu, Tolga Çimen, Mehmet Doğan
Marijuana and its synthetic forms, called synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), are used as recreational drugs. Bonzai is a kind of SC. Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported with abuse of marijuana and SCs, including arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Presently described is a case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy man, who was admitted to the emergency department with atrial fibrillation after Bonzai abuse. Sinus rhythm was restored during observation.
June 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589070/agranulocytosis-sequelae-of-chronic-cocaine-use-case-series-and-literature-review
#19
Roma Srivastava, Maira Rizwan, Muhammad Omer Jamil, Palaniandy Kogulan, Donna Salzman
Agranulocytosis is a rare condition with a reported incidence ranging from one to five cases per million population per year. Most commonly, agranulocytosis is secondary to chemotherapeutic agents, however, other medications have also been associated with it. An immune mediated destruction of circulating granulocytes and/or granulocyte precursors secondary to drug-dependent or drug-induced antibodies is the postulated mechanism. Agranulocytosis has also been reported secondary to recreational drug use...
May 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587915/acrylfentanyl-another-new-psychoactive-drug-with-fatal-consequences
#20
Davide Guerrieri, Emma Rapp, Markus Roman, Gunilla Thelander, Robert Kronstrand
The European Nordic Countries are the most exposed to opioid-related deaths. Between April and October 2016, a series of forty lethal intoxications occurred in Sweden, in which the presence of the synthetic opioid acrylfentanyl was determined to be the main - or a contributing - cause of death. In the reported cases, the blood concentration of acrylfentanyl - mostly detected in combination with other drugs - ranged from 0.01ng/g to 5ng/g; victims were predominantly males (34 males and 6 females), and their age varied between 18 and 53 years...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
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