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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528172/cannabis-and-pregnancy-maternal-child-health-implications-during-a-period-of-drug-policy-liberalization
#1
Katrina Mark, Mishka Terplan
Cannabis use is common and increasing among women in the United States. State policies are changing with a movement towards decriminalization and legalization. We explore the implications of cannabis liberalization for maternal and child health. Most women who use cannabis quit or cut back during pregnancy. Although women are concerned about the possible health effects of cannabis, providers do a poor job of counseling. There is a theoretical potential for cannabis to interfere with neurodevelopment, however human data have not identified any long-term or long lasting meaningful differences between children exposed in utero to cannabis and those not...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517911/is-there-a-potential-of-misuse-for-magnolia-officinalis-compounds-metabolites
#2
Fabrizio Schifano, Valentina Guarino, Duccio G Papanti, Jacopo Baccarin, Laura Orsolini, John M Corkery
OBJECTIVE: Magnolia bark contains magnolol, metabolized to tetrahydromagnolol and honokiol, with both GABA-ergic/cannabimimetic activities, hence of possible attraction to vulnerable individuals/recreational misusers. METHODS: A literature review, assessment of related anecdotal online Magnolia misuse's reports and an overview of Magnolia products' online acquisition possibilities has been here described. RESULTS: No peer-reviewed papers about Magnolia abuse/misuse/dependence/addiction were identified...
May 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507726/adapting-tissue-engineered-in-vitro-cns-models-for-high-throughput-study-of-neurodegeneration
#3
Caitriona O'Rourke, Charlotte Lee-Reeves, Rosemary Al Drake, Grant Ww Cameron, A Jane Loughlin, James B Phillips
Neurodegenerative conditions remain difficult to treat, with the continuing failure to see therapeutic research successfully advance to clinical trials. One of the obstacles that must be overcome is to develop enhanced models of disease. Tissue engineering techniques enable us to create organised artificial central nervous system tissue that has the potential to improve the drug development process. This study presents a replicable model of neurodegenerative pathology through the use of engineered neural tissue co-cultures that can incorporate cells from various sources and allow degeneration and protection of neurons to be observed easily and measured, following exposure to neurotoxic compounds - okadaic acid and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506719/two-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-opioids-ah-7921-and-mt-45
#4
Helena Fels, Julia Krueger, Hans Sachs, Frank Musshoff, Matthias Graw, Gabriele Roider, Andreas Stoever
In this study, two fatalities associated with the synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45 are reported. Within the last few years, both compounds have emerged on the recreational drug market and are sold as "research chemicals" on the internet. In the first case, a 22-year-old woman was found dead in the bedroom of her apartment by two of her friends. A plastic bag labeled "AH-7921" was found in the apartment and the two friends stated that the deceased had consumed AH-7921 prior to her death. The woman was a known drug addict...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506705/the-interaction-of-gender-and-cannabis-in-early-phase-psychosis
#5
Candice E Crocker, Philip G Tibbo
Cannabis is the third most common recreational drug used world-wide after tobacco and alcohol. Globally, cannabis legalization is becoming more common. In light of its known link to psychosis development, it is imperative that we are well-informed regarding the impact of cannabis on the course of psychosis, in both males and females. However, the majority of the work to date on the role of cannabis in psychosis outcomes has not had a gender focus, important when considering patient specific treatments. This review examines what is currently known, from gender focused studies, about the interaction of gender, cannabis use and psychotic disorders...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503141/addiction-as-an-attachment-disorder-white-matter-impairment-is-linked-to-increased-negative-affective-states-in-poly-drug-use
#6
Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Karl Koschutnig, Jürgen Fuchshuber, Sebastian Tscheschner, Maria Url, Jolana Wagner-Skacel, Eva Z Reininghaus, Ilona Papousek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Fink
Substance use disorders (SUD) have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM) and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD) in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19), recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20) as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493263/pattern-of-addiction-and-its-relapse-among-habitual-drug-abusers-in-lahore-pakistan
#7
Sadia Batool, Iram Manzoor, Shamaila Hassnain, Aslam Bajwa, Muslim Abbas, Maha Mahmood, Hina Sohail
This study assessed the pattern of drug abuse and the reasons for relapse of addiction among male drug addicts seeking rehabilitative services in different centres in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on male drug abusers from April to December 2016. Nonprobability purposive sampling was done to collect a sample of 119 participants. A structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Out of 119 participants, 71.4% were in the age group 15-35 years. Educational levels were low in the majority, with 68...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489809/cannabis-induced-bullous-lung-disease-leading-to-pneumothorax-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Rashmi Mishra, Ravi Patel, Misbahuddin Khaja
RATIONALE: Marijuana use has been increasing in the United States among college students and young adults. Marijuana use has been associated with bullous lung disease which can lead to pneumothorax. There are other recreational drugs like methylphenidate, cocaine and heroin which have been associated with pneumothorax. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 30-year-old man with spontaneous pneumothorax associated with marijuana use. The patient had no medical conditions and presented to the emergency room with chest pain...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488235/emulating-host-microbiome-ecosystem-of-human-gastrointestinal-tract-in-vitro
#9
Gun-Seok Park, Min Hee Park, Woojung Shin, Connie Zhao, Sameer Sheikh, So Jung Oh, Hyun Jung Kim
The human gut microbiome performs prodigious physiological functions such as production of microbial metabolites, modulation of nutrient digestion and drug metabolism, control of immune system, and prevention of infection. Paradoxically, gut microbiome can also negatively orchestrate the host responses in diseases or chronic disorders, suggesting that the regulated and balanced host-gut microbiome crosstalk is a salient prerequisite in gastrointestinal physiology. To understand the pathophysiological role of host-microbiome crosstalk, it is critical to recreate in vivo relevant models of the host-gut microbiome ecosystem in human...
May 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484907/inhibition-of-cytochrome-p450-and-uridine-5-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases-by-mam-2201-in-human-liver-microsomes
#10
Tae Yeon Kong, Ju-Hyun Kim, Soon-Sang Kwon, Jae Chul Cheong, Hee Seung Kim, Moon Kyo In, Hye Suk Lee
MAM-2201, a synthetic cannabinoid, is a potent agonist of the cannabinoid receptors and is increasingly used as an illicit recreational drug. The inhibitory effects of MAM-2201 on major drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) have not yet been investigated although it is widely abused, sometimes in combination with other drugs. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of MAM-2201 on eight major human CYPs (CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and six UGTs (UGTs 1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) of pooled human liver microsomes; we thus explored potential MAM-2201-induced drug interactions...
May 8, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483135/a-33-year-old-woman-with-a-fluorodeoxyglucose-avid-left-lower-lobe%C3%A2-mass
#11
Sujith V Cherian, Rosa M Estrada-Y-Martin, Adel D Irani, Jain Zhou, Annikka Weissferdt
A 33-year-old woman of Latin American origin was referred to our department by her primary care physician for a left lower lobe mass, which was incidentally found on a CT scan of her abdomen. The patient had complaints of abdominal pain for which she underwent imaging of her abdomen. Review of systems was negative for any respiratory complaints, and she denied any history of cigarette smoking or recreational drug use.
May 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480154/congenital-tracheobronchomegaly-mounier-kuhn-syndrome-in-a-woman-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#12
Amanda Fletcher, Justin Stowell, Socrates Jamoulis
Congenital tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome, MKS) is a rare idiopathic disorder characterized by dilation of the central airways, including the trachea and first through fourth order bronchi. MKS disproportionately affects men and results in chronic respiratory tract infections. The diagnosis is made through the synthesis of clinical and radiological data. Here we report a unique case of MKS in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 45-year-old African American woman with a past medical history of HIV, tobacco and recreational drug abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and a 15-year history of recurrent respiratory infections presented with dyspnea, wheezing, a productive cough, increased yellow-green sputum production, and subjective fevers...
April 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477247/why-psychiatry-needs-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-child-psychiatrist-s-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions...
May 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472358/metabolic-profile-determination-of-nbome-compounds-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-comparison-with-findings-in-authentic-human-blood-and-urine
#14
Keith-Dane H Temporal, Karen S Scott, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as hallucinogenic NBOMes (N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of 2C phenethylamines) in the past few years into the recreational drug market has introduced various challenges in forensic analytical toxicology in regard to adequate and timely detection of these compounds. This is especially true in samples from individuals who have experienced severe and fatal intoxications. The aim of this research was to identify the major Phase I metabolites of selected NBOMe compounds to generate a predicted human metabolic pathway of these substances...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471947/measuring-and-managing-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv
#15
Sam Nightingale, Alan Winston
: Cognitive impairment remains a frequently reported complaint in HIV-positive patients despite virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Rates of cognitive impairment in antiretroviral treated HIV-positive cohorts vary and strongly depend on definitions utilized.The underlying pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and includes immune activation, neuroinflammation, antiretroviral neurotoxicity, the presence of noninfectious comorbidities such as vascular disease and depression and patient lifestyle factors such as recreational drug use...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458170/down-in-the-valley-trajectories-of-injection-initiation-among-young-injectors-in-california-s-central-valley
#16
Jennifer L Syvertsen, Catherine E Paquette, Robin A Pollini
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use initiation represents a critical point of public health intervention, as injection increases risk for blood borne infections including Hepatitis C and HIV. In this paper, we explore pathways to injection initiation among youth (≤30) in the rural context of California's Central Valley, where rates of injection drug use are among the highest in the nation. METHODS: We draw on semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 young injectors to examine drug use histories, including the factors that participants associated with their transition to injection drug use...
April 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457056/cannabis-use-in-palliative-oncology-a-review-of-the-evidence-for-popular-indications
#17
Ilit Turgeman, Gil Bar-Sela
A flowering plant of variegated ingredients and psychoactive qualities, cannabis has long been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. Currently, cannabis is approved in several countries for indications of symptomatic alleviation. However, limited knowledge on the benefits and risks precludes inclusion of cannabis in standard treatment guidelines. This review provides a summary of the available literature on the use of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines in palliative oncology. Favorable outcomes are demonstrated for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain, with evidence of advantageous neurological interactions...
February 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455458/an-interesting-case-of-opium-tea-toxicity
#18
Chitsa Seyani, Peregrine Green, Lisa Daniel, Amanda Pegden
We present an unusual cause of respiratory arrest resulting from sole ingestion of home-brewed opium tea. A 64-year-old woman was found unresponsive and in respiratory arrest by a first responder. There were no obvious signs of regular recreational drug use. On presentation to the local district general hospital, the patient was in extremis, with severe physiological and biochemical derangements. A naloxone infusion was commenced and she later made a good recovery. It was subsequently discovered that she had brewed opium tea from opium buds she had picked from a nearby commercial poppy farm, a practice she had learnt while in Afghanistan...
April 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454718/effects-of-co-administration-of-ketamine-and-ethanol-on-the-dopamine-system-via-the-cortex-striatum-circuitry
#19
Qing Liu, Tian-Yong Xu, Zhi-Bi Zhang, Chi-Kwan Leung, Ding-Yun You, Shang-Wen Wang, Shuai Yi, Qiang Jing, Run-Fang Xie, Huifang-Jie Li, Xiao-Feng Zeng
AIM: Ketamine and ethanol are increasingly being used together as recreational drugs in rave parties. Their effects on the dopamine (DA) system remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming two different concentrations of ketamine with and without alcohol on the DA system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to evaluate the rewarding effects of the combined administration of two different doses of ketamine (30mg/kg and 60mg/kg) with ethanol (0...
April 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452189/qt-prolongation-by-dexamphetamine-does-experience-matter
#20
Anouk Schrantee, Lena Václavů, Liesbeth Reneman, Hein J Verberne, Jan Booij, Hanno L Tan
INTRODUCTION: Case reports of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) among amphetamine users have raised serious concerns about the cardiac safety of this class of drugs. This is important in light of the high prevalence of dexamphetamine (dAMPH) prescription for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and its rising use as a recreational drug. The objective was to investigate electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters upon intravenous administration of a single dAMPH dose in habitual recreational dAMPH users (users) and healthy gender/age/IQ-matched controls (non-users)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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