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Formula feeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655656/how-social-cultural-and-economic-environments-shape-infant-feeding-for-low-income-women-a-qualitative-study-in-north-carolina
#2
Annie Hardison-Moody, Lillian MacNell, Sinikka Elliott, Sarah Bowen
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on the cultural, social, and economic factors that shape infant feeding practices among low-income mothers. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to understand factors that inhibit or facilitate breastfeeding practices of low-income mothers, including how they are linked to broader social, cultural, and economic processes. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with women about their feeding practices and food environments, including their experiences with breastfeeding and formula feeding...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651527/simultaneous-determination-of-amantadine-and-rimantadine-in-feed-by-liquid-chromatography-qtrap-mass-spectrometry-with-information-dependent-acquisition
#3
Qi Jia, Dan Li, Xinlu Wang, Shuming Yang, Yongzhong Qian, Jing Qiu
A sensitive method for simultaneous determination of amantadine and rimantadine in feed was developed using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Qtrap-MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode, and employing the mixed cation exchange (MCX) solid-phase extraction column as sample cleanup and amantadine-d15 and rimantadine-d4 as internal standards, respectively. Compared to traditional MRM mode, for the targeted drugs in feed simultaneously both the secondary mass spectra and MRM information can be obtained using UHPLC-Qtrap-MS with MRM-IDA-EPI mode, and thus more accurate qualitative confirmation results achieved even at lower concentration of 0...
April 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648878/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-against-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-2
#4
Thomas K Hoang, Baokun He, Ting Wang, Dat Q Tran, Jon Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Treatment groups were administered formula supplemented with LR 17938 or placebo (MRS media)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643883/comparison-of-volume-and-frequency-advancement-feeding-protocols-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates
#5
Afaq Hussain, Abdur Rehman, Nazia Fatima
Objective: To determine the outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates receiving volume advancement versus frequency advancement feeding protocols. Methods: This controlled clinical trial was conducted in Children Hospital Multan within duration of 6 months from February 2017 to August 2017. VLBW neonates having weight < 1500 g at the time of birth were included. The protocol for frequency advancement (FA) group was to give 1 ml/kg human or pre-formula milk after every 8 hours and in volume advancement (VA) group after every 3 hours initially...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642599/many-infants-and-young-children-are-not-compliant-with-mexican-and-international-complementary-feeding-recommendations-for-milk-and-other-beverages
#6
Myriam C Afeiche, Salvador Villalpando-Carrión, Kathleen C Reidy, Lisa R Fries, Alison L Eldridge
Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0-5.9, 6-11.9, and 12-23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was conducted ( n = 949). Among 0-5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29...
April 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627246/robustness-and-sensitivity-of-a-blueprint-for-on-farm-estimation-of-dairy-cow-energy-balance
#7
Vivi M Thorup, Mizeck G G Chagunda, Amelie Fischer, Martin R Weisbjerg, Nicolas C Friggens
Excessive negative energy balance (EB) has been associated with decreased reproductive performance and increased risk of lameness and metabolic diseases. On-farm, automated EB estimates for individual cows would enable dairy farmers to detect excessive negative EB early and act to minimize its extent and duration by altering feeding. Previously, we have shown that EB can be estimated from frequent measurements of body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) changes, referred to as EBbody . In this study, we investigated the robustness and sensitivity of the EBbody method to assess its genericity and on-farm applicability...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622825/gastrointestinal-food-allergy-in-ghanaian-children-a-case-series
#8
Taiba J Afaa, Adwoa Ka Afrane, Victor Etwire
Background: Food allergy is an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Food allergies are classified into three types: Ig(immunoglobulin)E mediated, mixed IgE and cell mediated and cell-mediated non IgE mediated. Gastrointestinal (GIT) food allergy has classically encompassed a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID)...
September 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610991/the-viability-of-probiotics-in-water-breast-milk-and-infant-formula
#9
Claire Watkins, Kiera Murphy, Eugene M Dempsey, Brendan P Murphy, Paul W O'Toole, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan
The aim of this study was to determine bacteriological stability of a probiotic mixture dispersed in various diluents. The commercially available probiotic (Infloran®), containing Bifidobacterium bifidum (109  CFU/250 mg tablet) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (109  CFU/250 mg tablet), was dispersed within expressed breast milk, sterile water, and infant formula and examined at temperatures of 4 and 21 °C. When stored at 4 °C, significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the level of L. acidophilus and B...
April 2, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607496/enteral-nutritional-therapy-for-induction-of-remission-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Neeraj Narula, Amit Dhillon, Dongni Zhang, Mary E Sherlock, Melody Tondeur, Mary Zachos
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are often preferred over enteral nutrition (EN) as induction therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). Prior meta-analyses suggest that corticosteroids are superior to EN for induction of remission in CD. Treatment failures in EN trials are often due to poor compliance, with dropouts frequently due to poor acceptance of a nasogastric tube and unpalatable formulations. This systematic review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of exclusive EN as primary therapy to induce remission in CD and to examine the importance of formula composition on effectiveness...
April 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604239/personal-infant-feeding-experiences-of-postpartum-nurses-affect-how-they-provide-breastfeeding-support
#11
Anne I Wright, Nancy M Hurst
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of postpartum nurses when feeding their own infants and explore how these experiences influence the breastfeeding support they provide to new mothers. DESIGN: Qualitative research with interviews using dialogic data generation and analysis. SETTING: Large academic women and children's hospital in the Southern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Nine postpartum nurses who gave birth and breastfed, formula-fed, or mixed-fed infants at any time in the past...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602549/early-detection-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-using-broadband-optical-spectroscopy
#12
Seth D Goldstein, Robert J Beaulieu, Diego F Niño, Young Chun, Amit Banerjee, Chhinder P Sodhi, David J Hackam
PURPOSE: The definitive diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typically at an advanced stage, indicating the need for sensitive and noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been utilized to noninvasively measure intraabdominal tissue oxygenation and to diagnose NEC, but specificity is lacking, in part because sensors are limited to a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we introduce the concept of broadband optical spectroscopy (BOS) as a noninvasive method to characterize NEC...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601338/evolving-understanding-of-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#13
Mubina A Isani, Patrick T Delaplain, Anatoly Grishin, Henri R Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that predominately affects premature neonates. The pathogenesis of NEC is multifactorial and poorly understood. Risk factors include low birth weight, formula-feeding, hypoxic/ischemic insults, and microbial dysbiosis. This review focuses on our current understanding of the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of NEC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings identify specific mucosal cell types as potential therapeutic targets in NEC...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596218/dietary-supplementation-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-reduces-candida-gastrointestinal-colonization-in-preterm-infants
#14
Amanda B Arsenault, Kearney T W Gunsalus, Sonia S Laforce-Nesbitt, Lynn Przystac, Erik J DeAngelis, Michaela E Hurley, Ethan S Vorel, Richard Tucker, Nirupa R Matthan, Alice H Lichtenstein, Carol A Kumamoto, Joseph M Bliss
BACKGROUND: Candida is an important cause of infections in premature infants. Gastrointestinal colonization with Candida is a common site of entry for disseminated disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether a dietary supplement of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) reduces Candida colonization in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants with Candida colonization (n=12) receiving enteral feedings of either infant formula (n=5) or breastmilk (n=7) were randomized to MCT supplementation (n=8) or no supplementation (n=4)...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595995/barriers-and-facilitators-of-breastfeeding-reported-by-postpartum-women-in-methadone-maintenance-therapy
#15
Jennifer Hicks, Elizabeth Morse, David K Wyant
INTRODUCTION: This study utilized a cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative interview-based survey to capture the infant feeding practices and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding for women in methadone maintenance therapy. Participants were recruited from an opioid dependence treatment center in an urban setting in the Southeastern United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of women in treatment (n = 30) were interviewed using an adapted instrument designed to capture decisions and intentions to formula feed or breastfeed; support from friends and family; hospital experience; support from healthcare personnel; and maternal knowledge of breastfeeding while taking methadone...
March 29, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587528/diet-dependent-changes-in-the-intestinal-dna-methylome-after-introduction-of-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-pigs
#16
Xiaoyu Pan, Desheng Gong, Fei Gao, Per Torp Sangild
AIM: To examine how enteral feeding affects the intestinal epigenome and gene expression just after preterm birth. MATERIALS & METHODS: Intestinal tissue from preterm pigs, modeling preterm infants, was collected at birth and 5 days after gradual introduction of infant formula or bovine colostrum. The intestinal tissue was analyzed by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and real-time qPCR. RESULTS: Relative to colostrum, formula increased bacterial epithelial adherence and LBP (lipopolysaccharide binding protein) expression, which was regulated by promoter methylation...
March 28, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580088/effect-of-fulvic-and-humic-acids-on-copper-and-zinc-homeostasis-in-rats
#17
István Hullár, András Valentin Vucskits, Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, András Bersényi, József Szabó
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), the two main compounds of humic substances (HSs), on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine experimental groups. The control diet (AIN-93G formula) and the diets supplemented with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% FA or HA were fed for 26 days. Cu and Zn concentrations of the large intestinal content (LIC), liver, kidney, femur and hair were determined. FA and HA did not influence significantly the Cu or Zn contents of the experimental diets, the rats' feed intake, weight gain and the feed to gain ratio...
March 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569541/energy-efficiency-of-digestible-protein-fat-and-carbohydrate-utilisation-for-growth-in-rainbow-trout-and-nile-tilapia
#18
Johan W Schrama, Mahmoud N Haidar, Inge Geurden, Leon T N Heinsbroek, Sachi J Kaushik
Currently, energy evaluation of fish feeds is performed on a digestible energy basis. In contrast to net energy (NE) evaluation systems, digestible energy evaluation systems do not differentiate between the different types of digested nutrients regarding their potential for growth. The aim was to develop an NE evaluation for fish by estimating the energy efficiency of digestible nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and to assess whether these efficiencies differed between Nile tilapia and rainbow trout...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567959/hiv-exposure-early-life-feeding-practices-and-delivery-mode-impacts-on-faecal-bacterial-profiles-in-a-south-african-birth-cohort
#19
Shantelle Claassen-Weitz, Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe, Paul Nicol, Gerrit Botha, Stephanie Mounaud, Jyoti Shankar, William C Nierman, Nicola Mulder, Shrish Budree, Heather J Zar, Mark P Nicol, Mamadou Kaba
There are limited data on meconium and faecal bacterial profiles from African infants and their mothers. We characterized faecal bacterial communities of infants and mothers participating in a South African birth cohort. Stool and meconium specimens were collected from 90 mothers and 107 infants at birth, and from a subset of 72 and 36 infants at 4-12 and 20-28 weeks of age, respectively. HIV-unexposed infants were primarily exclusively breastfed at 4-12 (49%, 26/53) and 20-28 weeks (62%, 16/26). In contrast, HIV-exposed infants were primarily exclusively formula fed at 4-12 (53%; 10/19) and 20-28 weeks (70%, 7/10)...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566974/donor-human-milk-and-risk-of-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-meta-analysis
#20
Marco Silano, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Giovanni Fattore, Carlo Agostoni
BACKGROUND & AIM: The prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a primary goal in the care of preterm and low birth-weight infants. Donor-banked milk (DM)-feeding has been reported to have a protective effect towards NEC with respect to formula-feeding. All the meta-analysis published so far, have been focused on the protective effect of DM on the overall risk of NEC, none of them focused on the risk of the most severe cases on NEC only, that are those requiring surgery. We conducted a meta-analysis of available evidences on the risk of developing surgical cases of NEC in DM-fed preterm and/or low birth weight infants with respect to those formula-fed...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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