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Cerebral hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351418/red-blood-cell-antibody-induced-anemia-causes-differential-degrees-of-tissue-hypoxia-in-kidney-and-brain
#1
Nikhil Mistry, C David Mazer, John G Sled, Alan H Lazarus, Lindsay S Cahill, Max Solish, Yu-Qing Zhou, Nadya Romanova, Alexander Gm Hare, Allan Doctor, Joseph A Fisher, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson, Gregory M T Hare
Moderate anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including acute kidney injury (AKI), in surgical patients. A red blood cell (RBC)-specific antibody model was utilized to determine if moderate subacute anemia could result in tissue hypoxia as a potential mechanism of injury. Cardiovascular and hypoxic cellular responses were measured in transgenic mice capable of expressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-luciferase activity in vivo. Antibody-mediated anemia was associated with mild intravascular hemolysis (6 hours) and splenic RBC sequestration (day 4), resulting in a nadir hemoglobin concentration of 89{plus minus}13 g/L at day 4...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349952/estimation-of-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-consumption-using-combined-multiwavelength-photoacoustic-microscopy-and-doppler-microultrasound
#2
Yan Jiang, Roger Zemp
The metabolic rate of oxygen consumption is an important metric of tissue oxygen metabolism and is especially critical in the brain, yet few methods are available for measuring it. We use a custom combined photoacoustic-microultrasound system and demonstrate cerebral oxygen consumption estimation in vivo. In particular, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption was estimated in a murine model during variation of inhaled oxygen from hypoxia to hyperoxia. The hypothesis of brain autoregulation was confirmed with our method even though oxygen saturation and flow in vessels changed...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341066/cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-for-perioperative-monitoring-of-brain-oxygenation-in-children-and-adults
#3
REVIEW
Yun Yu, Kaiying Zhang, Ling Zhang, Huantao Zong, Lingzhong Meng, Ruquan Han
BACKGROUND: Various techniques have been employed for the early detection of perioperative cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly used in this clinical scenario to monitor brain oxygenation. However, it is unknown whether perioperative cerebral NIRS monitoring and the subsequent treatment strategies are of benefit to patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of perioperative cerebral NIRS monitoring and corresponding treatment strategies in adults and children, compared with blinded or no cerebral oxygenation monitoring, or cerebral oxygenation monitoring based on non-NIRS technologies, on the detection of cerebral oxygen desaturation events (CDEs), neurological outcomes, non-neurological outcomes and socioeconomic impact (including cost of hospitalization and length of hospital stay)...
January 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340071/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-microglial-functions-affecting-neuronal-survival-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#4
Seoyeon Bok, Young-Eun Kim, Youngsik Woo, Soeun Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Yoontae Lee, Sang Ki Park, Irving L Weissman, G-One Ahn
Cells universally adapt to ischemic conditions by turning on a transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), in which its role is known to differ widely across many different types of cells. Given that microglia have been reported as an essential mediator of neuroinflammation in many brain diseases, we examined the role of HIF in microglia in the progression of an acute phase of ischemic stroke by challenging our novel strains of myeloid-specific Hif-1α or Hif-2α knockout (KO) mice created by Cre-loxP system via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324491/validation-of-a-second-generation-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitor-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Viviane G Nasr, Lisa T Bergersen, Hung-Mo Lin, Paul B Benni, Rachel S Bernier, Michelle E Anderson, Barry D Kussman
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technology to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and develop interventions to prevent and ameliorate hypoxic brain injury. Cerebral oximeters are calibrated and validated by comparison of the near-infrared spectroscopy-measured cerebral O2 saturation (SctO2) to a "field" or reference O2 saturation (REF CX) calculated as a weighted average from arterial and jugular bulb oxygen saturations. In this study, we calibrated and validated the second-generation, 5 wavelength, FORE-SIGHT Elite with the medium sensor (source-detector separation 12 and 40 mm) for measurement of SctO2 in children with congenital heart disease...
January 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#6
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315575/the-appswe-ps1a246e-mutations-in-an-astrocytic-cell-line-leads-to-increased-vulnerability-to-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-ca2-dysregulation-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities
#7
María Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Elisa Navarro, Ana J Moreno-Ortega, Mauricio P Cunha, Izaskun Buendia, Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, Rafael León, María F Cano-Abad, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo, Michael R Duchen, Manuela G López
Growing evidence suggests a close relationship between Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and cerebral hypoxia. Astrocytes play a key role in brain homeostasis and disease states, while some of the earliest changes in AD occur in astrocytes. We have therefore asked whether mutations associated with AD increase astrocyte vulnerability to ischemia. Two astroglioma cell lines derived from APPSWE /PS1A246E (APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin 1) transgenic mice and controls from normal mice were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313234/specific-features-of-immediate-ultrastructural-changes-in-brain-cortex-mitochondria-of-rats-with-different-tolerance-to-hypoxia-under-various-modes-of-hypoxic-exposures
#8
L L Pavlik, I B Mikheeva, Ya M Al'-Mugkhrabi, V P Berest, Yu I Kirova, E L Germanova, L D Luk'yanova, G D Mironova
We performed ultrastructural study of cerebral cortex mitochondria in rats with different tolerance to oxygen deficiency (low resistant and highly resistant specimens). Low resistant rats were characterized by the prevalence of mitochondria with lightened matrix due to the nondense packing of cristae. By contrast, mitochondria of highly resistant animals had the dense packing of cristae. The structure of mitochondria underwent adaptive changes at 14-10% O2 in the inspired air. Under these conditions, structural characteristics of the cerebral cortex in hypoxia-sensitive rats resembled those in resistant animals...
January 8, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306241/the-relationship-between-the-trendelenburg-position-and-cerebral-hypoxia-inpatients-who-have-undergone-robot-assisted-hysterectomy-and-prostatectomy
#9
Ali Özgün, Asuman Sargın, Semra Karaman, İlkben Günüşen, Işık Alper, Fatma Zekiye Aşkar
Background/aim: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the Trendelenburg position and cerebral hypoxia in robot-assisted hysterectomy and prostatectomy.Materials and methods: A standardized mini-mental state examination was administered to 50 patients enrolled in the study 1 h before and after surgery. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) values and hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded after induction of anesthesia (baseline) and once every 20 min in the Trendelenburg position and supine positions...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302698/out-of-hospital-airway-management-during-manual-compression-or-automated-chest-compression-devices-a%C3%A2-registry-based-analysis
#10
M Bernhard, N H Behrens, J Wnent, S Seewald, S Brenner, T Jantzen, A Bohn, J T Gräsner, M Fischer
BACKGROUND: Airway management during resuscitation is pivotal for treating hypoxia and inducing reoxygenation. This German Resuscitation Registry (GRR) analysis investigated the influence of the type of airway used in patients treated with manual chest compression (mCC) and automated chest compression devices (ACCD) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: Out of 42,977 patients (1 January 2010-30 June 2016) information on outcome, airway management and method of chest compressions were available for 27,544 patients...
January 4, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288070/neonatal-erythropoietin-mitigates-impaired-gait-social-interaction-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-abnormalities-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-brain-injury
#11
Shenandoah Robinson, Christopher J Corbett, Jesse L Winer, Lindsay A S Chan, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Nicholas A Andrews, Yirong Yang, Laurel O Sillerud, Lauren L Jantzie
Children who are born preterm are at risk for encephalopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay and behavioral disorders. Current interventions are limited and none have been shown to reverse cognitive and behavioral impairments, a primary determinant of poor quality of life for these children. Moreover, the mechanisms of perinatal brain injury that result in functional deficits and imaging abnormalities in the mature brain are poorly defined, limiting the potential to target interventions to those who may benefit most...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286442/neurobehavioral-assessments-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#12
MinGi Kim, Ji Hea Yu, Jung Hwa Seo, Yoon-Kyum Shin, Soohyun Wi, Ahreum Baek, Suk-Young Song, Sung-Rae Cho
We performed unilateral carotid artery occlusion on CD-1 mice to create a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) model and investigated the effects of neonatal HI brain injury by studying neurobehavioral functions in these mice compared to non-operated (i.e., normal) mice. During the study, Rice-Vannucci's method was used to induce neonatal HI brain damage in postnatal day 7-10 (P7-10) mice. The HI operation was performed on the pups by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 and 92% N2 for 90 min)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275014/development-of-a-reactive-oxygen-species-sensitive-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke
#13
Kevin M Nash, Isaac T Schiefer, Zahoor A Shah
Ischemic stroke is caused by a blockage of cerebral blood flow resulting in neuronal and glial hypoxia leading to inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death. Nitric oxide (NO) formed by NO synthase (NOS) is known to be protective in ischemic stroke, however NOS has been shown to 'uncouple' under oxidative conditions to instead produce ROS. Nitrones are antioxidant molecules that are shown to trap ROS to then decompose and release NO. In this study, the nitrone 5was designed such that its decomposition product is a NOS inhibitor, 6, effectively leading to NOS inhibition specifically at the site of ROS production...
December 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244842/intensive-care-treatments-associated-with-favorable-discharge-outcomes-in-argentine-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-for-the-south-american-guideline-adherence-group
#14
Monica S Vavilala, Silvia B Lujan, Qian Qiu, Michael J Bell, Nicolás M Ballarini, Nahuel Guadagnoli, María Alejandra Depetris, Gabriela A Faguaga, Gloria M Baggio, Leonardo O Busso, Mirta E García, Osvaldo R González Carrillo, Paula L Medici, Silvia S Sáenz, Elida E Vanella, Carly K Farr, Gustavo J Petroni
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the critical care management of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low middle income countries. We aimed to identify indicators of intensive care unit (ICU) treatments associated with favorable outcomes in Argentine children with severe TBI. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from patients previously enrolled in a prospective seven center study of children with severe TBI who were admitted to an ICU in one of the seven study centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244098/clemastine-rescues-myelination-defects-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-hypoxic-brain-injury
#15
Bruce A C Cree, Jianqin Niu, Kimberly K Hoi, Chao Zhao, Scott D Caganap, Roland G Henry, Dang Q Dao, Daniel R Zollinger, Feng Mei, Yun-An A Shen, Robin J M Franklin, Erik M Ullian, Lan Xiao, Jonah R Chan, Stephen P J Fancy
Hypoxia can injure brain white matter tracts, comprised of axons and myelinating oligodendrocytes, leading to cerebral palsy in neonates and delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) in adults. In these conditions, white matter injury can be followed by myelin regeneration, but myelination often fails and is a significant contributor to fixed demyelinated lesions, with ensuing permanent neurological injury. Non-myelinating oligodendrocyte precursor cells are often found in lesions in plentiful numbers, but fail to mature, suggesting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation arrest as a critical contributor to failed myelination in hypoxia...
December 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242570/monitoring-cerebral-oxygenation-of-preterm-infants-using-a-neonatal-specific-sensor
#16
M Kenosi, J M O'Toole, G A Hawkes, W Hutch, E Low, M Wall, G B Boylan, C A Ryan, E M Dempsey
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral oxygenation (rcSO2) monitoring in preterm infants may identify periods of cerebral hypoxia or hyperoxia. We hypothesised that there was a relationship between rcSO2 values and short term outcome in infants of GA < 32weeks. METHODS: RcSO2 values were recorded for the first 48 h of life using an INVOS monitor with a neonatal sensor. The association between cranial ultrasound scan measured brain injury and rcSO2 was assessed. RESULTS: 120 infants were included...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239330/expression-of-ng2-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-in-the-developing-neonatal-rat-brain
#17
Ping Li, Heng-Xi Li, Hong-Yan Jiang, Lie Zhu, Hai-Ying Wu, Jin-Tao Li, Jiang-Hua Lai
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system. NG2 is also considered a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. However, whether there are differences in the distribution and morphology of oligodendrocyte precursor cells labeled by NG2 or PDGFRα in the developing neonatal rat brain remains unclear. In this study, by immunohistochemical staining, NG2 positive (NG2+) cells were ubiquitous in the molecular layer, external pyramidal layer, internal pyramidal layer, and polymorphic layer of the cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum, external capsule, piriform cortex, and medial septal nucleus...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238467/neuroprotection-of-a-sesamin-derivative-1-2-bis-3-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethane-1-2-dicaroxylic-acid-mmeda-against-ischemic-and-hypoxic-neuronal-injury
#18
Chang-Tsen Hung, Li-Dian Chen, Chien-Wei Hou
Objectives: Stroke may cause severe neuronal damage. The sesamin have been demonstrated to possess neuroprotection by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. One sesamin derivative was artificially composited, 1, 2-bis [(3-methoxyphenyl) methyl] ethane-1, 2-dicaroxylic acid (MMEDA) had been developed to study its antioxidative activity and neuroprotection. Materials and Methods: The infaction of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and hypoxia models of BV-2 microglia or PC12 cells were investigated for in vivo and in vitro test respectively...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228911/intrapartum-factors-associated-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-case-controlled-study
#19
Vanessa E Torbenson, Mary Catherine Tolcher, Kate M Nesbitt, Christopher E Colby, Sherif A El-Nashar, Bobbie S Gostout, Amy L Weaver, Michaela E Mc Gree, Abimbola O Famuyide
BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) affects 2-4/1000 live births with outcomes ranging from negligible neurological deficits to severe neuromuscular dysfunction, cerebral palsy and death. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the sub cohort of NE that appears to be driven by intrapartum events. Our objective was to identify antepartum and intrapartum factors associated with the development of neonatal HIE. METHODS: Hospital databases were searched using relevant diagnosis codes to identify infants with neonatal encephalopathy...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228704/role-of-hif-1a-in-regulating-autophagic-cell-survival-during-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#20
Yongqing Guo
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) plays a beneficial role during cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects and molecular regulation of HIF-1a on brain cell apoptosis and autophagy during IR. We found that augmentation of HIF-1a in re-perfused hematopoietic cells significantly reduced brain damage, alleviated brain edema and improved neural function during IR, seemingly through two HIF-1a target genes BNIP3 and NIX, which were critical regulators for cell apoptosis and autophagic cell survival...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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