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Cerebral hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453332/long-term-intermittent-exposure-to-high-altitude-elevates-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-first-exposed-young-adults
#1
Nicole Lüneburg, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Juan José De La Cruz, Fabiola León-Velarde, Juliane Hannemann, Cristian Ibanez, Rainer H Böger
Lüneburg, Nicole, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Juan José De La Cruz, Fabiola León-Velarde, Juliane Hannemann, Cristian Ibanez, and Rainer Böger. Long-term intermittent exposure to high altitude elevates asymmetric dimethylarginine in first exposed young adults. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Hypoxia-induced dysregulation of pulmonary and cerebral circulation may be related to an impaired nitric oxide (NO) pathway. We investigated the effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIH) on metabolites of the NO pathway...
April 28, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448965/neuroprotective-treatments-after-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-evaluated-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#2
Hester Rijkje Berger, Eva Brekke, Marius Widerøe, Tora Sund Morken
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442737/structural-and-biochemical-insights-of-cypa-and-aif-interaction
#3
Biancamaria Farina, Gianluigi Di Sorbo, Angela Chambery, Andrea Caporale, Guido Leoni, Rosita Russo, Fabiola Mascanzoni, Domenico Raimondo, Roberto Fattorusso, Menotti Ruvo, Nunzianna Doti
The Cyclophilin A (CypA)/Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) complex is implicated in the DNA degradation in response to various cellular stress conditions, such as oxidative stress, cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and traumatic brain injury. The pro-apoptotic form of AIF (AIF(Δ1-121)) mainly interacts with CypA through the amino acid region 370-394. The AIF(370-394) synthetic peptide inhibits complex formation in vitro by binding to CypA and exerts neuroprotection in a model of glutamate-mediated oxidative stress. Here, the binding site of AIF(Δ1-121) and AIF(370-394) on CypA has been mapped by NMR spectroscopy and biochemical studies, and a molecular model of the complex has been proposed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434138/dynamic-epr-oximetry-of-changes-in-intracerebral-oxygen-tension-during-induced-thromboembolism
#4
Huagang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Sangeeta Gohain, Clifford J Eskey, Karen L Moodie, Kirk J Maurer, Harold M Swartz, Periannan Kuppusamy
Cerebral tissue oxygenation (oxygen tension, pO2) is a critical parameter that is closely linked to brain metabolism, function, and pathophysiology. In this work, we have used electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry with a deep-tissue multi-site oxygen-sensing probe, called implantable resonator, to monitor temporal changes in cerebral pO2 simultaneously at four sites in a rabbit model of ischemic stroke induced by embolic clot. The pO2 values in healthy brain were not significantly different among the four sites measured over a period of 4 weeks...
April 22, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434006/unbiased-quantification-of-subplate-neuron-loss-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-a-rat-model
#5
Alexandra Mikhailova, Naveena Sunkara, Patrick S McQuillen
BACKGROUND: Cellular targets of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) include both oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages with differences in the patterns of vulnerable cells depending upon the developmental stage at which the injury occurs. Injury to the developing white matter is a characteristic feature of human preterm brain injury. Data are accumulating, however, for neuronal injury in the developing cerebral cortex. In the most widely used rodent model of preterm HI brain injury, conflicting data have been reported regarding the sensitivity of subplate neurons to early neonatal HI, with some reports of selective vulnerability and others that find no increased loss of subplate neurons in comparison with other cortical layers...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433745/hypoxia-augments-lps-induced-inflammation-and-triggers-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-mice
#6
Yanzhao Zhou, Xin Huang, Tong Zhao, Meng Qiao, Xingnan Zhao, Ming Zhao, Lun Xu, Yongqi Zhao, Liying Wu, Kuiwu Wu, Ruoli Chen, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a life-threatening illness that develops during the rapid ascent to high altitudes, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Growing evidence has implicated inflammation in the susceptibility to and development of brain edema. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response and its roles in HACE in mice following high altitude hypoxic injury. We report that acute hypobaric hypoxia induced a slight inflammatory response or brain edema within 24 h in mice...
April 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432539/early-onset-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-incidence-risk-factors-and-consequences-in-cerebral-oxygenation-and-outcome
#7
Pierre Esnault, Cédric Nguyen, Julien Bordes, Erwan D'Aranda, Ambroise Montcriol, Claire Contargyris, Jean Cotte, Philippe Goutorbe, Christophe Joubert, Arnaud Dagain, Henry Boret, Eric Meaudre
BACKGROUND: Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EOVAP) occurs frequently in severe traumatic brain-injured patients, but potential consequences on cerebral oxygenation and outcome have been poorly studied. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, risk factors for, and consequences on cerebral oxygenation and outcome of EOVAP after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study including all intubated TBI admitted in the trauma center...
April 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431445/-near-drowning-with-good-outcome-after-ecmo-therapy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-despite-20-minutes-of-anoxia-and-16-hours-of-hypoxia
#8
Peter Stachon, Johannes Kalbhenn, Stephan Walterspacher, Christoph Bode, Dawid Staudacher
Introduction Drowning with submersion over 10 minutes is associated with a high mortality. Here, we present a case, in which a good neurological outcome was achieved after interdisciplinary, intensive care therapy despite submersion of 20 minutes followed by 16 hours of hypoxia. History A 19 year old man drowned in fresh-water. After 20 minutes submersion he was localized and salvaged from 8 meters depth and primarily resuscitated successfully after 10 minutes. Within the next hour, there condition worsened by respiratory deterioration due to a massive capillary leak syndrome in addition to a disseminated intravascular coagulation...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427869/ischemic-preconditioning-with-ketogenic-diet-improves-brain-ischemic-tolerance-through-increased-extracellular-adenosine-levels-and-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#9
Qi Yang, Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Hongyan Ding, Mei Cui, Qiang Dong
Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state reduces brain damage and neurological dysfunction characteristic of brain ischemia. The ketogenic diet (KD) has disease-modifying effects in several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we fed mice with KD for three weeks and performed reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the animals. KD-fed mice had significantly reduced infarct volume, increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and extracellular adenosine levels in both ischemic and reperfusion stages...
April 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424584/hif-1%C3%AE-overexpression-improves-transplanted-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-survival-in-rat-mcao-stroke-model
#10
Bingke Lv, Feng Li, Jianbang Han, Jie Fang, Limin Xu, Chengmei Sun, Tian Hua, Zhongfei Zhang, Zhiming Feng, Xiaodan Jiang
Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) death after transplantation is a serious obstacle impacting on the outcome of cell therapy for cerebral infarction. This study was aimed to investigate whether modification of BMSCs with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) could enhance the survival of the implanted BMSCs. BMSCs were isolated from Wistar rats, and were infected with Hif-1α-GFP lentiviral vector or Hif-1α siRNA. The modified BMSCs were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) condition, cellular viability and apoptosis were then assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421304/increased-autophagic-degradation-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Yuanjun Zhu, Mengyang Shui, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenhui Hu, Yinye Wang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous signal molecule, exhibits protective effect against ischemic injury. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have recently reported that exogenous H2S decreases the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in mouse brain with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To further investigate whether this H2S-induced reduction of autophagic vacuoles is caused by the decreased autophagosome synthesis and/or the increased autophagic degradation inautophagic flux, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies using SH-SY5Y cells for the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and mice for the cerebral I/R, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421173/cerebral-autoregulation-brain-injury-and-the-transitioning-premature-infant
#12
REVIEW
Zachary A Vesoulis, Amit M Mathur
Improvements in clinical management of the preterm infant have reduced the rates of the two most common forms of brain injury, such as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury, both of which are contributory factors in the development of cerebral palsy. Nonetheless, they remain a persistent challenge and are associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse neurodevelopment outcomes. Repeated episodes of ischemia-reperfusion represent a common pathway for both forms of injury, arising from discordance between systemic blood flow and the innate regulation of cerebral blood flow in the germinal matrix and periventricular white matter...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415917/exercise-rehabilitation-immediately-following-ischemic-stroke-exacerbates-inflammatory-injury
#13
Fengwu Li, John T Pendy, Jessie N Ding, Changya Peng, Xiaorong Li, Jiamei Shen, Sainan Wang, Xiaokun Geng
OBJECTIVES: The rehabilitative benefits of physical exercise after stroke appear to be contingent upon exercise initiation timing. The present study assessed the hypothesis that very early post-stroke exercise would amplify cellular stress and increases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, while exercise initiated later would limit the inflammation associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Adult rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and subsequently assigned to one of seven groups: one sham injury control group, three stroke groups subjected to exercise initiated after 6, 24 hours, or 3 days of reperfusion, and three stroke groups not subjected to exercise...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#14
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413125/transient-dysautonomia-in-an-acute-phase-of-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion
#15
Yuko Ichimiya, Noriyuki Kaku, Yasunari Sakai, Fumiya Yamashita, Wakato Matsuoka, Mamoru Muraoka, Satoshi Akamine, Soichi Mizuguchi, Michiko Torio, Yoshitomo Motomura, Yuichiro Hirata, Yoshito Ishizaki, Masafumi Sanefuji, Hiroyuki Torisu, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shouichi Ohga
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection...
April 13, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411485/cerebral-and-muscle-microvascular-oxygenation-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-influence-of-hematology-hemorheology-and-vasomotion
#16
Keyne Charlot, Sophie Antoine-Jonville, Berenike Moeckesch, Stéphane Jumet, Marc Romana, Xavier Waltz, Lydia Divialle-Doumdo, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Marie Petras, Benoît Tressières, Vanessa Tarer, Olivier Hue, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Philippe Connes
The present study investigated cerebral and muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation (tissue oxygen index, TOI) in children with sickle cell anemia (SS), sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SC) and healthy children (AA). TOI was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and spectral analysis of the TOI variability was used to assess flowmotion and vasomotion. Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), hemorheological and hematological parameters were also measured in SS and SC children. Both TOI were lower in SS compared to both AA and SC children, with SC exhibiting lower values than AA children...
April 4, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408467/isolated-mild-sleep-associated-hypoventilation-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#17
Wai Wong, Dennis Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that is often associated with hypoventilation. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of sleep-associated hypoventilation independent of OSA in these children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all children with DS under 18 years of age undergoing polysomnography at a tertiary care paediatric hospital during a 2-year period. Exclusion criteria were as follow: those requiring oxygen or positive-pressure ventilation; with tracheostomy, baseline hypoxia, unrepaired cyanotic heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, and cerebral palsy; or OSA with >5 obstructions/hour...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407836/-role-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-mediated-foxo3a-nuclear-translocation-in-neuronal-apoptosis-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#18
De-Yuan Li, Jin-Lin Wu, Li-Li Luo, Li-Na Qiao, Zhong-Qiang Liu, Guo-Yan Lu, Yang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/FOXO3a transcription factor signaling pathway inhibition on hypoxic-ischemic neuronal apoptosis in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). METHODS: Sixty-four 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: hypoxia-ischemia (HI), sham-operated, JNK specific inhibitor AS601245-treated, and DMSO vehicle. Rats' cerebral cortexes were collected at 24 hours after HI...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406931/a-model-of-periventricular-leukomalacia-pvl-in-neonate-mice-with-histopathological-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-mimicking-human-pvl-in-neonates
#19
Nahla Zaghloul, Hardik Patel, Mohamed Nagy Ahmed
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a brain injury affecting premature infants is commonly associated with cerebral palsy. PVL results from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) with or without infection and is characterized by white matter necrotic lesions, hypomyelination, microglial activation, astrogliosis, and neuronal death. It is important to study a PVL mouse model that mimics human PVL in symptomatology, anatomic and molecular basis. In our neonate mice model, bilateral carotid arteries were temporary ligated at P5 followed by hypoxic exposure (FiO2 of 8% for 20 min...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398880/cerebrovascular-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-is-a-late-effect-of-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-non-human-primates
#20
Rachel N Andrews, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ann M Peiffer, David B Hanbury, Janet A Tooze, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with intracranial neoplasia; however late-delayed radiation-induced normal tissue injury remains a major adverse consequence of treatment, with deleterious effects on quality of life for affected patients. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular injury and remodeling after fWBI results in ischemic injury to dependent white matter, which contributes to the observed cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate molecular effectors of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 46), hippocampus and temporal white matter of 4 male Rhesus macaques (age 6-10 years), which had received 40 Gray (Gy) fWBI (8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice per week), and 3 control comparators...
March 6, 2017: Radiation Research
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