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Cerebral hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#1
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540180/hemoglobin-and-mean-platelet-volume-predicts-diffuse-t1-mri-white-matter-volume-decrease-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#2
Soyoung Choi, Adam M Bush, Matthew T Borzage, Anand A Joshi, William J Mack, Thomas D Coates, Richard M Leahy, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a life-threatening genetic condition. Patients suffer from chronic systemic and cerebral vascular disease that leads to early and cumulative neurological damage. Few studies have quantified the effects of this disease on brain morphometry and even fewer efforts have been devoted to older patients despite the progressive nature of the disease. This study quantifies global and regional brain volumes in adolescent and young adult patients with SCD and racially matched controls with the aim of distinguishing between age related changes associated with normal brain maturation and damage from sickle cell disease...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536391/glioma-fmiso-pet-mr-imaging-concurrent-with-antiangiogenic-therapy-molecular-imaging-as-a-clinical-tool-in-the-burgeoning-era-of-personalized-medicine
#3
Ramon F Barajas, Kenneth A Krohn, Jeanne M Link, Randall A Hawkins, Jennifer L Clarke, Miguel H Pampaloni, Soonmee Cha
The purpose of this article is to provide a focused overview of the current use of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging in the burgeoning era of personalized medicine in the treatment of patients with glioma. Specifically, we demonstrate the utility of PET imaging as a tool for personalized diagnosis and therapy by highlighting a case series of four patients with recurrent high grade glioma who underwent 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET/MR (magnetic resonance) imaging through the course of antiangiogenic therapy...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536255/neuroprotective-effect-of-electroacupuncture-and-upregulation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-during-acute-ischaemic-stroke-in-rats
#4
Ce Li, Tingting Zhang, Kewei Yu, Hongyu Xie, Yulong Bai, Li Zhang, Yi Wu, Nianhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a traditional method that has been widely used in various fields of medicine with therapeutic effect. However, evidence of effectiveness to support the application of electroacupuncture (EA) during the process of ischaemia is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate dynamic changes in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression as well as its association with neurological status in rats subjected to acute ischaemic stroke and EA intervention...
May 23, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534652/a-review-of-the-evidence-of-zolpidem-efficacy-in-neurological-disability-after-brain-damage-due-to-stroke-trauma-and-hypoxia-a-justification-of-further-clinical-trials
#5
J A Sutton, R P Clauss
During 15 years, 23 clinical reports and 6 studies have demonstrated associations between sub-sedative doses of zolpidem and recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. Clinical findings include unexpected awakenings from vegetative states and regressions of stroke symptoms after dosing that disappear during elimination and reappear on repeat dosing. Initially single-photon emission computed tomography scans showed improved perfusion within, around and distant from infarctions. Then positron emission tomography scans and electroencephalography detected renewed metabolic and neuronal activity...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523963/brain-hypoxia-mapping-in-acute-stroke-back-to-back-t2-mr-versus-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rodents
#6
Ulf Jensen-Kondering, Roido Mavanaki, Sohail Ejaz, Stephen J Sawiak, T Adrian Carpenter, Tim D Fryer, Franklin I Aigbirhio, David J Williamson, Jean-Claude Baron
Background Mapping the hypoxic brain in acute ischemic stroke has considerable potential for both diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PET using (18)F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO) is the reference method; however, it lacks clinical accessibility and involves radiation exposure. MR-based T2' mapping may identify tissue hypoxia and holds clinical potential. However, its validation against FMISO imaging is lacking. Here we implemented back-to-back FMISO-PET and T2' MR in rodents subjected to acute middle cerebral artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518065/transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-neonatal-stroke-in-p10-rats
#7
Amara Larpthaveesarp, Fernando F Gonzalez
A number of animal models have been used to study hypoxic-ischemic injury, traumatic injury, global hypoxia, or permanent ischemia in both the immature and mature brain. Stroke occurs commonly in the perinatal period in humans, and transient ischemia-reperfusion is the most common form of stroke in neonates. The reperfusion phase is a critical component of injury progression, which occurs over a period of days to weeks, and of the endogenous response to injury. This postnatal day 10 (p10) rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) creates a unilateral, non-hemorrhagic focal ischemia-reperfusion injury that can be utilized to study the mechanisms of focal injury and repair in the full-term-equivalent brain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508731/submitting-medico-legal-intra-partum-ctg-i-p-ctg-monitoring-to-the-bolam-and-bolitho-principles
#8
George G Buttigieg
The article analyses some of the seeming weaknesses of the Bolam and Bolitho tests as applied to electronic foetal monitoring in labour, in the form of intra-partum CTG monitoring. Homing on to such aspects as confirmation of foetal hypoxia/acidosis, it evaluates the Bolam and Bolitho tests in the context of evidence-based medicine versus traditionally held views, which still hold their own in medical jurisprudence. Case law examples are quoted to illustrate various points. The discussion is of practical relevance both to the individual obstetrician as well as to national budgetary implications, bearing in mind, that, for example, in 2011, 'birth asphyxia' comprised 50% of the UK NHS litigation costs, and in the 2000-2010 decade, the same NHS forked out £3...
June 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499835/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-increases-in-cerebral-cortex-slices-after-the-transiently-enhanced-metabolic-activity
#9
Toru Sasaki, Takuji Awaji, Kazuyoshi Shimada, Haruyo Sasaki
Under certain conditions such as hypoxia-reoxygenation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases following hypoxia caused by a decreased oxygen supply. As another hypoxic condition, an excess neural activity status including epileptic seizure induces a decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) caused by enhanced oxygen utilization; however, whether ROS generation increases following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism in brain tissue currently remains unknown...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496495/cortical-alpha-activity-in-schizoaffective-patients
#10
Mahdi Moeini, Ali Khaleghi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Hadi Zarafshan, Rachel L Fazio, Hamid Majidi
Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT) receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA), a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA. Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492551/haploinsufficiency-in-the-mitochondrial-protein-chchd4-reduces-brain-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#11
Yanyan Sun, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yiran Xu, Kai Zhou, Juan Rodriguez, Wei Han, Xiaoyang Wang, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Mitochondria contribute to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by releasing potentially toxic proteins into the cytosol. CHCHD4 is a mitochondrial intermembrane space protein that plays a major role in the import of intermembrane proteins and physically interacts with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CHCHD4 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and brain injury after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. CHCHD4(+/-) and wild-type littermate mouse pups were subjected to unilateral cerebral HI on postnatal day 9...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487967/comparative-analysis-of-the-beneficial-effects-of-treadmill-training-and-electroacupuncture-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#12
Ha Neui Kim, Malk Eun Pak, Myung Jun Shin, Soo Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Young Ju Yun, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill training and electroacupuncture (EA) have autonomous or synergistic beneficial effects on deficits caused by neonatal hypoxia‑ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this purpose, rats subjected to hypoxia-ischemia underwent treadmill training and EA stimulation from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Conventional EA (CEA) and scalp EA (SEA) were delivered by electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1 mA) at traditional acupoints and at the scalp to the primary motor area, respectively...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481626/retinal-hemorrhage-in-a-high-altitude-aid-post-volunteer-doctor-a-case-report
#13
Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Pranawa Koirala, Nirajan Regmi, Sushil Pant
Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan, Pranawa Koirala, Nirajan Regmi, and Sushil Pant. Retinal hemorrhage in a high-altitude aid post volunteer doctor: a case report. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-High-altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARHs) are seen at altitudes more than 3000 m, are usually multiple, flame shaped, and adjacent to blood vessels. Development near the macula causes blurring of vision, otherwise, they are symptomless and self-limiting. They often develop during the first few days after ascent to high altitude and subjects often suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS) or high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE)...
May 8, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473286/characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-for-spontaneous-hemorrhagic-stroke-using-in-vivo-pet-and-mr-multiparametric-imaging
#14
Salvador Castaneda Vega, Christine Weinl, Carsten Calaminus, Lisa Wang, Maren Harant, Walter Ehrlichmann, Dennis Thiele, Ursula Kohlhofer, Gerald Reischl, Johann-Martin Hempel, Ulrike Ernemann, Leticia Quintanilla Martinez, Alfred Nordheim, Bernd J Pichler
The clinical use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be a strong diagnostic tool in the field of neurology. The reliability of these methods to confirm clinical diagnoses has guided preclinical research to utilize these techniques for the characterization of animal disease models. Previously, we demonstrated that an endothelial cell-specific ablation of the murine Serum Response Factor (Srf(iECKO)) results in blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and hemorrhagic stroke...
May 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472725/cerebral-hypoxia-during-immediate-transition-after-birth-and-short-term-neurological-outcome
#15
Jasmin Pansy, Nariae Baik, Bernhard Schwaberger, Anna Scheuchenegger, Elisabeth Pichler-Stachl, Alexander Avian, Georg M Schmölzer, Berndt Urlesberger, Gerhard Pichler
In preterm neonates we investigated cerebral hypoxia assessed with near-infrared-spectroscopy during immediate transition after birth and general movement optimality score assessed before discharge. General movement optimality score decreased with increasing cerebral hypoxia. Burden of cerebral hypoxia during immediate transition might be associated with impaired short-term neurological outcome in preterm neonates.
May 1, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469655/electroacupuncture-reduces-apoptotic-index-and-inhibits-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Xiao Lan, Xin Zhang, Guo-Ping Zhou, Chun-Xiao Wu, Chun Li, Xiu-Hong Xu
Electroacupuncture attenuates cerebral hypoxia and neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. To further identify the involved mechanisms, we assumed that electroacupuncture used to treat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was associated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. We established rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using the modified Zea-Longa's method. At 30 minutes before model establishment, p38 MAPK blocker SB20358 was injected into the left lateral ventricles...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469478/spatiotemporal-changes-in-p-glycoprotein-levels-in-brain-and-peripheral-tissues-following-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#17
Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Kimberly E Hawkins, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to transport a diverse array of xenobiotics, including therapeutic drugs. A member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, P-gp is a protein encoded by the gene Mdr1 in humans and Abcb1 in rodents (represented by 2 isoforms Abcb1a and Abcb1b). Lining the luminal and abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells, P-gp is a promiscuous efflux pump extruding a variety of exogenous toxins and drugs. In this study, we measured dynamic changes in Abcb1a and Abcb1b transcripts and P-gp protein in the brain, liver, and kidney after experimental stroke...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467985/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-treatment-on-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-an-ovine-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#18
Margie Castillo-Melendez, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Suzanne L Miller
Chronic moderate hypoxia, such as occurs in fetal growth restriction (FGR) during gestation, compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and results in structural abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature. We have previously determined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of maternal administration of melatonin (MLT) on growth-restricted newborn lambs. The potential of maternal MLT therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction-associated developmental hypoxia has also been demonstrated in newborn lambs...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453332/long-term-intermittent-exposure-to-high-altitude-elevates-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-first-exposed-young-adults
#19
Nicole Lüneburg, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Juan José De La Cruz, Fabiola León-Velarde, Juliane Hannemann, Cristian Ibanez, Rainer H Böger
Lüneburg, Nicole, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Juan José De La Cruz, Fabiola León-Velarde, Juliane Hannemann, Cristian Ibanez, and Rainer Böger. Long-term intermittent exposure to high altitude elevates asymmetric dimethylarginine in first exposed young adults. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Hypoxia-induced dysregulation of pulmonary and cerebral circulation may be related to an impaired nitric oxide (NO) pathway. We investigated the effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIH) on metabolites of the NO pathway...
April 28, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448965/neuroprotective-treatments-after-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-evaluated-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#20
Hester Rijkje Berger, Eva Brekke, Marius Widerøe, Tora Sund Morken
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
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