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Hypertonic saline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627628/early-administration-of-hypertonic-hyperoncotic-hydroxyethyl-starch-hyperhes-improves-cerebral-blood-flow-and-outcome-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#1
Nadine Lilla, Christoph Rinne, Judith Weiland, Thomas Linsenmann, Thomas Westermaier
OBJECTIVE: Early cytotoxic brain edema may be one decisive factor which maintains a vicious of cerebral malperfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, endothelial cell swelling may be an independent factor restricting cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a very early stage after SAH. Immediate and aggressive treatment may be able to restore CBF in this critical period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH by the endovascular filament model and treated by a bolus of hyperoncotic-hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch (HyperHES 4 ml/kg body weight) immediately after vessel perforation and 150 min later (n = 12) or by the same amount of normal saline (n = 9)...
April 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626547/repurposing-excipients-as-active-inhalation-agents-the-mannitol-story
#2
Sandra D Anderson, Evangelia Daviskas, John D Brannan, Hak Kim Chan
The story of how we came to use inhaled mannitol to diagnose asthma and to treat cystic fibrosis began when we were looking for a surrogate for exercise as a stimulus to identify asthma. We had proposed that exercise-induced asthma was caused by an increase in osmolarity of the periciliary fluid. We found hypertonic saline to be a surrogate for exercise but an ultrasonic nebuliser was required. We produced a dry powder of sodium chloride but it proved unstable. We developed a spray dried preparation of mannitol and found that bronchial responsiveness to inhaling mannitol identified people with currently active asthma...
April 4, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605191/a-quality-improvement-intervention-to-reduce-emergency-department-radiography-for-bronchiolitis
#3
Joel Reiter, Adin Breuer, Oded Breuer, Saar Hashavya, David Rekhtman, Eitan Kerem, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that a chest X-ray (CXR) should not be routinely obtained in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis, as studies have shown that they do not affect clinical outcomes, but rather lead to overuse of pharmacological agents and a longer length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether active institution of bronchiolitis practice guidelines as part of a quality improvement project decreased the use of CXRs in the Pediatric Emergency Department (ED)...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605030/effect-of-hypertonic-saline-in-the-pretreatment-of-lung-donors-with-hemorrhagic-shock
#4
Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira-Braga, Liliane Moreira Ruiz, Aristides Tadeu Correia, Eduardo Zinoni Silva Pato, Luiz Fernando da Silva, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Marcos Naoyuki Samano
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock-induced lung edema and inflammation are two of the main reasons for the rejection of lungs donated for transplantation. Hypertonic saline (HS) induces intravascular volume expansion and has considerable immunomodulating effects that might minimize edema. Our hypothesis is based on the use of a hypertonic solution for treatment of donors who are in shock in an attempt to increase the supply of lungs for transplantation. METHODS: A total of 80 rats were allocated to four groups: one group was given an infusion of normal saline (NS; n = 20), one group received HS; n = 20, a sham group (n = 20), and a Shock group (n = 20)...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600800/hypertonic-saline-alleviates-brain-edema-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-downregulation-of-aquaporin-4-in-rats
#5
Jian Yin, Haixiao Zhang, Huai Chen, Qingping Lv, Xuhong Jin
BACKGROUND Hypertonic saline (HS) has been successfully used for treatment of various forms of brain edema. Decreased expression of aquaporin (AQP)4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1b have been linked to edema pathogenesis. This study examined the effect of 3% HS on brain edema in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impactor. The HS group was injected with 3% NaCl until the end of the study period...
March 30, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599187/the-in-vitro-effect-of-nebulised-hypertonic-saline-on-human-bronchial-epithelium
#6
Jennifer L Goralski, Dan Wu, William R Thelin, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button
RATIONALE: Inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) is an effective therapy for muco-obstructive lung diseases. However, the mechanism of action and principles pertinent to HS administration remain unclear. METHODS: An in vitro system aerosolized HS to epithelial cells at rates comparable to in vivo conditions. Airway surface liquid (ASL) volume and cell height responses were measured by confocal microscopy under normal and hyperconcentrated mucus states. MAIN RESULTS: Aerosolized HS produced a rapid increase in ASL height and decrease in cell height...
March 29, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596288/management-of-intracranial-pressure-part-i-pharmacologic-interventions
#7
Tara L Sacco, Samantha A Delibert
Dangerous, sustained elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) is a risk for any patient following severe brain injury. Intracranial pressure elevations that do not respond to initial management are considered refractory to treatment, or rICP. Patients are at significant risk of secondary brain injury and permanent loss of function resulting from rICP. Both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are utilized to intervene when a patient experiences either elevation in ICP or rICP. In part 1 of this 2-part series, pharmacologic interventions are discussed...
May 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593879/the-role-of-desmopressin-in-the-management-of-severe-hypovolemic-hyponatremia-a-single-center-comparative-analysis
#8
Frank L Ward, Sheldon W Tobe, David M J Naimark
Background: The role of desmopressin (DDAVP) to prevent or treat rapid serum sodium concentration ([Na]s) correction during hyponatremia management remains unclear. Objective: To assess DDAVP use during the first 48 hours of severe, hypovolemic hyponatremia management. The primary study hypothesis was that the use of DDAVP would slow the rate of [Na]s correction compared with those not receiving DDAVP. Design: A retrospective, observational, comparison study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593709/hypertonic-saline-suppresses-nadph-oxidase-dependent-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-promotes-apoptosis
#9
Ajantha Nadesalingam, Jacky H K Chen, Armin Farahvash, Meraj A Khan
Tonicity of saline (NaCl) is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577903/hypertonic-saline-regulates-microglial-m2-polarization-via-mir-200b-klf4-in-cerebral-edema-treatment
#10
Miaoyun Wen, Jingkun Ye, Yongli Han, Linqiang Huang, Hui Yang, Wenqiang Jiang, Shenglong Chen, Wenhong Zhong, Hongke Zeng, Daniel Y Li
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HS) has been used clinically for treatment of cerebral edema for decades. Previously we have demonstrated that HS alleviates cerebral edema via regulating water/ion channel protein and attenuating neuroinflammation. However, whether HS treatment triggers microglia polarization and its regulatory mechanism during this process is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that underwent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were used for assessment of neuroinflammation and microglia functions...
March 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573212/medication-use-in-infants-admitted-with-bronchiolitis
#11
Ed Oakley, Trusha Brys, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Natalie Phillips, David Krieser, Stuart R Dalziel, Andrew Davidson, Susan Donath, Kim Jachno, Mike South, Amanda Williams, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: There are no medications known that improve the outcome of infants with bronchiolitis. Studies have shown the management of bronchiolitis to be varied. OBJECTIVES: To describe medication use at the seven study hospitals from a recent multi-centre randomised controlled trial on hydration in bronchiolitis (comparative rehydration in bronchiolitis [CRIB]). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of extant data of infants between 2 months (corrected for prematurity) and 12 months of age admitted with bronchiolitis identified through the CRIB trial...
March 23, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561496/effects-of-thickness-on-corneal-biomechanical-properties-using-optical-coherence-elastography
#12
Srilatha Vantipalli, Jiasong Li, Manmohan Singh, Salavat R Aglyamov, Kirill V Larin, Michael D Twa
SIGNIFICANCE: Measured corneal biomechanical properties are driven by intraocular pressure, tissue thickness, and inherent material properties. We demonstrate tissue thickness as an important factor in the measurement of corneal biomechanics that can confound short-term effects due to UV riboflavin cross-linking (CXL) treatment. PURPOSE: We isolate the effects of tissue thickness on the measured corneal biomechanical properties using optical coherence elastography by experimentally altering the tissue hydration state and stiffness...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556693/urinary-composition-predicts-diuretic-efficiency-of-hypertonic-saline-solution-with-furosemide-therapy-and-heart-failure-prognosis
#13
Tomotaka Ando, Yoshitaka Okuhara, Yoshiyuki Orihara, Koichi Nishimura, Kyoko Yamamoto, Tohru Masuyama, Shinichi Hirotani
Recently, we and other group have reported that furosemide administration along with hypertonic saline solution enhanced diuretic efficiency of furosemide. However, little is known about factors which associated with high diuretic efficiency by hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy. To identify predictors of diuretic efficiency in the hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy, we recruited 30 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients with volume overload (77 ± 10 years, systolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 ml/min/1...
March 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541532/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-coupled-changes-in-brain-activity-during-sustained-muscle-pain
#14
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538198/alveolar-echinococcosis-in-the-head-of-pancreas-a-case-report
#15
Rong-Xing Zhou, Hai-Jie Hu, Wen-Jie Ma, Yong Jiang, Fu-Yu Li
RATIONALE: Pancreatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an exceptionally rare disease; no more than 10 cases have been published to date. It is characterized as extensive local tissue infringement and destruction; thus, extended surgical resection, such as duodenopancreatectomy, is often needed to obtain a negative resection margin so as to improve the long-term outcome and prognosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A middle-aged Tibetan man was admitted due to a 16-year history of recurrent pain in the right upper abdomen...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525234/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-a-mini-breed-puppy-associated-with-aspiration-pneumonia
#16
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520237/expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-is-upregulated-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-dahl-salt-sensitive-hypertensive-rats
#17
Enshe Jiang, Andrew D Chapp, Yuanyuan Fan, Robert A Larson, Taija Hahka, Michael J Huber, Jianqun Yan, Qing-Hui Chen, Zhiying Shan
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation is implicated in hypertension. However, the role of brain proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in salt sensitive hypertension remains to be determined. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high salt (HS) diet increases PICs expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and leads to PVN neuronal activation. Eight-week-old male Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl S) rats, and age and sex matched normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a HS (4% NaCl) or normal salt (NS, 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519275/-effect-of-different-concentrations-of-hypertonic-sodium-fluid-resuscitation-on-intestine-injury-in-rats-at-the-early-stage-of-severe-burn
#18
Yexiang Sun, Chunyu Yuan, Xulin Chen, Fei Wang, Congsong Sun, Zhi Gao, Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different concentrations of hypertonic saline solution (HS) on intestine injury in rats at the early stage of severe burn. METHODS: 104 adult healthy female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group (n = 8), lactated Ringer solution (LR) group (n = 24) and 200, 300, 400 mmol/L HS group (HS200 group, HS300 group, HS400 group, all n = 24). All the rats in LR group and different concentrations of HS groups were scalded for 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with III degree, after immediately, the rats were given burn resuscitation therapy by LR or corresponding concentrations of HS through the tail vein...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500794/the-art-and-science-of-using-diuretics-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-in-diverse-clinical-settings
#19
Md Shahidul Islam
It is important to understand the rationale for appropriate use of different diuretics, alone or in combination, in different heart failure patients, under diverse clinical settings. Clinicians and nurses engaged in heart failure care, must be familiar with different diuretics, their appropriate doses, methods of administration, monitoring of the responses, and the side-effects. Inappropriate use of diuretics, both under-treatment and overtreatment, and poor follow-up can lead to failures, and adverse outcomes...
March 3, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496373/major-publications-in-the-critical-care-pharmacotherapy-literature-january-december-2017
#20
REVIEW
Drayton A Hammond, Laura Baumgartner, Craig Cooper, Elisabeth Donahey, Serena A Harris, Jessica M Mercer, Mandy Morris, Mona K Patel, Angela M Plewa-Rusiecki, Alia A Poore, Ryan Szaniawski, Deanna Horner
PURPOSE: To summarize selected meta-analyses and trials related to critical care pharmacotherapy published in 2017. The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group screened 32 journals monthly for impactful articles and reviewed 115 during 2017. Two meta-analyses and eight original research trials were reviewed here from those included in the monthly CCPLU. Meta-analyses on early, goal-directed therapy for septic shock and statin therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome were summarized...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
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