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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438818/small-and-large-airway-reactions-to-osmotic-stimuli-in-asthma-and-chronic-idiopathic-cough
#1
Ewa-Lena Johansson, Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Per Gustafsson, Teet Pullerits, Monica Arvidsson, Eva Millqvist
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is a common symptom and related to several pulmonary, airway and heart diseases. When all likely medical explanations for the coughing are excluded, there remains a large group of patients with chronic coughing, which is mostly a cough reflex easily triggered by environmental irritants and noxious stimuli. The main aim of this study was to improve the diagnostic ability to differentiate chronic idiopathic cough (CIC) from asthma. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CIC, 16 patients with mild asthma and 21 control participants were included...
February 10, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437746/from-renal-salt-wasting-to-siadh
#2
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430670/the-effect-of-3-resuscitative-fluid-therapies-on-hemostasis-as-measured-by-rotational-thromboelastometry-in-dogs
#3
Sunita Seshia, M Casey Gaunt, Beverly A Kidney, Marion L Jackson
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that administration of intravenous fluids impairs hemostasis. Thromboelastometry (TEM) may provide a more sensitive measure of the fluid effects on hemostasis than traditional coagulation tests. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to determine if resuscitative fluid therapy affects hemostasis, as measured by TEM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, 6 healthy dogs were administered intravenous colloid, crystalloid, and hypertonic saline at therapeutic doses...
February 11, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424930/inhaled-mannitol-for-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Judith Thornton, Clare S Murray, Tiffany Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415185/induced-sputum-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-pneumonia-in-under-five-children-a-hospital-based-study
#5
Aditya Kurade, Sara Dhanawade, Sachin Shetti
Objective: The objective of this articlewas to study the success, tolerability of sputum induction and the bacterial isolates of induced sputum in children aged <5 years. Methods: The cross-sectional study included 120 hospitalized children aged 1-59 months meeting WHO criteria for pneumonia. Sputum induction was performed using hypertonic (3%) saline. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 19.5 months (2-59 months). Overall success of sputum induction was 53...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405103/case-report-a-case-of-severe-cerebral-malaria-managed-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-and-other-modalities-for-brain-edema
#6
AbdAllah Gad, Sajjad Ali, Talal Zahoor, Nick Azarov
Malarial infections are uncommon in the United States and almost all reported cases stem from recent travelers coming from endemic countries. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe form of the disease usually affecting children and individuals with limited immunity. Despite proper management, mortality from CM can reach up to 25%, especially when it is associated with brain edema. Inefficient management of the edema may result in brain herniation and death. Uniform guidelines for management of CM-associated brain edema are lacking...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391896/perfused-hypertonic-saline-augmented-needle-enlarges-ablation-zones-in-ex-vivo-porcine-livers
#7
Caoye Wang, Qi Wang, Dachuan Zhang, Zhongming He, Wenhua Chen
There is a great clinical requirement to improve radiofrequency ablation (RFA) efficacy and create larger coagulation necrotic areas. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of a hypertonic-saline (HS)-enhanced multipolar RFA technique using a perfused electrode to increase RF-created coagulation necrosis, and to compare that technique with natural saline-augmented needle and conventional multipolar RFA. A total of 18 ablations were performed in explanted porcine livers. A total of 6 thermal ablation zones were created in each of 3 groups treated with the conventional multipolar mode, the multipolar mode with 0...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388676/network-meta-analysis-comparing-the-efficacy-of-therapeutic-treatments-for-bronchiolitis-in-children
#8
Caili Guo, Xiaomin Sun, Xiaowen Wang, Qing Guo, Dan Chen
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare placebo (PBO) and 7 therapeutic regimens-namely, bronchodilator agents (BAs), hypertonic saline (HS), BA ± HS, corticosteroids (CS), epinephrine (EP), EP ± CS, and EP ± HS-to determine the optimal bronchiolitis treatment. METHODS: We plotted networks using the curative outcome of several studies and specified the relations among the experiments by using mean difference, standardized mean difference, and corresponding 95% credible interval...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384965/the-association-of-hypernatremia-and-hypertonic-saline-irrigation-in-hepatic-hydatid-cysts-a-case-report-and-retrospective-study-erratum
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371133/hypertonic-saline-has-a-prolonged-effect-on-mucociliary-clearance-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Aaron T Trimble, A Whitney Brown, Beth L Laube, Noah Lechtzin, Kirby L Zeman, Jihong Wu, Agathe Ceppe, David Waltz, William D Bennett, Scott H Donaldson
BACKGROUND: Inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) has been shown to increase mucociliary clearance (MCC) and improve clinical outcomes in adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, in younger children with CF, a large study failed to demonstrate clinical benefits. This discrepancy could reflect pharmacodynamic differences in the MCC response to HS in different populations. We previously demonstrated the absence of a sustained effect of HS on MCC in healthy adults and in this study sought to characterize the durability of the MCC response to HS in adults with CF...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369834/oral-hypertonic-saline-is-effective-in-reversing-acute-mild-to-moderate-symptomatic-exercise-associated-hyponatremia
#11
Eileen Bridges, Tawfeeq Altherwi, José A Correa, Tamara Hew-Butler
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether oral administration of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) is as efficacious as intravenous (IV) 3% saline in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in athletes during and after a long-distance triathlon. DESIGN: Noninferiority, open-label, parallel-group, randomized control trial to IV or oral HTS. We used permuted block randomization with sealed envelopes, containing the word either "oral" or "IV...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369218/the-association-of-hypernatremia-and-hypertonic-saline-irrigation-in-hepatic-hydatid-cysts-a-case-report-and-retrospective-study-erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365179/collapse-in-the-heat-from-overhydration-to-the-emergency-room-three-cases-of-exercise-associated-hyponatremia-associated-with-exertional-heat-illness
#13
Robert C Oh, Bryan Malave, Justin D Chaltry
Exertional heat illness and exercise-associated hyponatremia continue to be a problem in military and recreational events. Symptoms of hyponatremia can be mistaken for heat exhaustion or heat stroke. We describe three cases of symptomatic hyponatremia initially contributed to heat illnesses. The first soldier was a 31-yr-old female who "took a knee" at mile 6 of a 12-mile foot march. She had a core temperature of 100.9°F, a serum sodium level of 129 mmol/L, and drank approximately 4.5 quarts of water in 2 h...
January 22, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364700/angiotensin-at1a-receptors-expressed-in-vasopressin-producing-cells-of-the-supraoptic-nucleus-contribute-to-the-osmotic-control-of-vasopressin
#14
Jeremy A Sandgren, Danny W Linggonegoro, Shao Yang Zhang, Sarah A Sapouckey, Kristin E Claflin, Nicole A Pearson, Mariah R Leidinger, Gary L Pierce, Mark K Santillan, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Curt D Sigmund, Justin L Grobe
Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulates the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the neurohypophysis through activation of AT1 receptors within the brain, though it remains unclear whether AT1 receptors expressed on AVP-expressing neurons directly mediate this control. We explored the hypothesis that ANG acts through AT1A receptors expressed directly upon AVP-producing cells to regulate AVP secretion. In-situ hybridization and transgenic mice demonstrated localization of AVP and AT1A mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but co-expression of both AVP and AT1A mRNA was only observed in the SON...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364067/effect-of-experimental-muscle-pain-on-the-acquisition-and-retention-of-locomotor-adaptation-different-motor-strategies-for-a-similar-performance
#15
Jason Bouffard, Sauro Emerick Salomoni, Catherine Mercier, Kylie J Tucker, Jean-Sebastien Roy, Wolbert van den Hoorn, Paul W Hodges, Laurent J Bouyer
BACKGROUND: As individuals with musculoskeletal disorders often experience motor impairments, contemporary rehabilitation relies heavily on the use of motor learning principles. However, motor impairments are often associated with pain. While there is substantial evidence that muscle pain interferes with motor control, much less is known on its impact on motor learning, especially on locomotor learning. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of muscle pain on locomotor learning...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357474/the-influence-of-acute-elevations-in-plasma-osmolality-and-serum-sodium-on-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure-responses-to-exercise
#16
Michael S Brian, Evan L Matthews, Joseph Charles Watso, Matthew Charles Babcock, Megan M Wenner, William C Rose, Sean D Stocker, William B Farquhar
Elevated plasma osmolality (pOsm) has been shown to increase resting sympathetic nerve activity in animals and humans. The following study tested the hypothesis that increases in pOsm and serum sodium (sNa+) would exaggerate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) responses to handgrip (HG) exercise and post-exercise ischemia (PEI). BP and MSNA were measured during HG followed by PEI before and after a 23-min hypertonic saline infusion (HSI-3% NaCl). Eighteen participants (age 23{plus minus}1 yrs; BMI 24{plus minus}1 kg·(m2)-1) completed the protocol; pOsm and sNa increased from pre- to post-HSI (285{plus minus}1 to 291{plus minus}1 mOsm·kg H2O-1; 138...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350189/detection-of-thoracic-vascular-structures-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-a-systematic-assessment-of-prominence-peak-analysis-of-impedance-changes
#17
Karin Henriette Wodack, Sarah Buehler, Sarah A Nishimoto, Michael F Graessler, Christoph R Behem, Andreas Daniel Waldmann, Beat Mueller, Stephan H Böhm, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Florian Thürk, Alexander Maerz, Constantin J C Trepte, Daniel A Reuter
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive and radiation free bedside monitoring technology, primarily used to monitor lung function. First experimental data shows that the descending aorta can be detected at different thoracic heights and might allow the assessment of central hemodynamics, i.e. stroke volume and pulse transit time. Approach: First, the feasibility of localizing small non-conductive objects within a saline phantom model was evaluated. Second, this result was utilized for the detection of the aorta by EIT in ten anesthetized pigs in with comparison to thoracic computer tomography (CT)...
January 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344107/managing-hyponatremia-in-lung-cancer-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#18
REVIEW
Ilaria Fiordoliva, Tania Meletani, Maria Giuditta Baleani, Silvia Rinaldi, Agnese Savini, Marzia Di Pietro Paolo, Rossana Berardi
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in lung cancer patients. This condition may be related to many causes including incidental medications, concurrent diseases and side effects of antineoplastic treatments or the disease itself. Although not frequently life-threatening, it is usually associated with prolonged hospitalization, delays in scheduled chemotherapy, worsening of patient performance status and quality of life and may also negatively affect treatment response and survival. Most of the available data focus on thoracic tumors, especially small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), where hyponatremia is frequently related to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339984/functional-vs-traditional-analysis-in-biomechanical-gait-data-an-alternative-statistical-approach
#19
Jihong Park, Matthew K Seeley, Devin Francom, C Shane Reese, J Ty Hopkins
In human motion studies, discrete points such as peak or average kinematic values are commonly selected to test hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to describe a functional data analysis and describe the advantages of using functional data analyses when compared with a traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach. Nineteen healthy participants (age: 22 ± 2 yrs, body height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 73 ± 16 kg) walked under two different conditions: control and pain+effusion. Pain+effusion was induced by injection of sterile saline into the joint capsule and hypertonic saline into the infrapatellar fat pad...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337815/impact-of-moderate-hyperchloremia-on-clinical-outcomes-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-patients-is-there-still-room-for-continuous-infusion-of-3-hypertonic-saline
#20
Simon Poignant, Marc Laffon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
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