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Australian immunisation

J F Reyes, J G Wood, P Beutels, K Macartney, P McIntyre, R Menzies, N Mealing, A T Newall
BACKGROUND: Universal vaccination against rotavirus was included in the funded Australian National Immunisation Program in July 2007. Predictive cost-effectiveness models assessed the program before introduction. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective economic evaluation of the Australian rotavirus program using national level post-implementation data on vaccine uptake, before-after measures of program impact and published estimates of excess intussusception cases...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
Craig Thompson, Aditi Dey, Emily Fearnley, Benjamin Polkinghorne, Frank Beard
In November 2005, hepatitis A vaccine was funded under the Australian National Immunisation Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) children aged 12-24months in the targeted jurisdictions of Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. We reviewed the epidemiology of hepatitis A from 2000 to 2014 using data from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, the National Hospital Morbidity Database, and Australian Bureau of Statistics causes-of-death data...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
James P Newcombe, Rajneesh Kaur, Nicholas Wood, Holly Seale, Pamela Palasanthiran, Thomas L Snelling
AIM: The uptake of influenza vaccination in children with high-risk medical conditions continues to be low in Australia and internationally. We aimed to determine Australian paediatricians' beliefs and practices around the influenza vaccination of children. METHODS: This was conducted as a cross sectional survey of paediatricians from two tertiary paediatric hospitals in Sydney. RESULTS: There were 101 participants. Influenza vaccination was not prioritised compared with other vaccines and clinical issues, with fewer than half of respondents strongly agreeing that influenza vaccination was useful...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yolanda G Lovie-Toon, Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
BACKGROUND: To evaluate immunisation coverage, timeliness and predictors of delayed receipt in urban Australian Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of data collected from 140 Australian Indigenous children aged < 5 years at the time of enrolment in a prospective cohort study on respiratory illness between 14 February 2013 and 28 January 2015. Children were recruited through an urban community primary health care centre in the Northern suburbs of Brisbane, Queensland...
November 14, 2016: BMC Public Health
M Tashani, M Alfelali, O Barasheed, A S Alqahtani, L Heron, M Wong, H Rashid, R Booy
Sequential or co-administration of vaccines has potential to alter the immune response to any of the antigens. Existing literature suggests that prior immunisation of tetanus/diphtheria-containing vaccines can either enhance or suppress immune response to conjugate pneumococcal or meningococcal vaccines. We examined this interaction among adult Australian travellers before attending the Hajj pilgrimage 2014. We also investigated tolerability of these vaccines separately and concomitantly. We randomly assigned each participant to one of three vaccination schedules...
October 22, 2016: Vaccine
Megan K Young, Joseph Bertolini, Pushpa Kotharu, Darryl Maher, Allan W Cripps
The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titre of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2)...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Alice C Fraser, Sarah E Williams, Sarah X Kong, Lucy E Wells, Louise S Goodall, Sabrina Pit, Vibeke Hansen, Marianne Trent
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the impact of implementation of the Public Health Amendment (Vaccination of Children Attending Child Care Facilities) Act 2013 on child-care centres in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales (NSW), from the perspective of child-care centre directors. Importance of study: Immunisation is an effective public health intervention, but more than 75 000 Australian children are not fully vaccinated. A recent amendment to the NSW Public Health Act 2010 asks child-care facilities to collect evidence of complete vaccination or approved exemption before allowing enrolment...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Amalie Dyda, Surendra Karki, Andrew Hayen, C Raina MacIntyre, Robert Menzies, Emily Banks, John M Kaldor, Bette Liu
BACKGROUND: In the absence of an adult vaccination register, coverage estimates for influenza and pneumococcal vaccination come from surveys and other data sources. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining vaccination coverage in Australian adults from 1990 to 2015, focusing on groups funded under the National Immunisation Program, and intervals prior to and following the introduction of universal funding. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria; 18 used self-report to determine vaccination status...
September 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
H Laetitia Hattingh, T Fei Sim, R Parsons, P Czarniak, A Vickery, S Ayadurai
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the uptake of Western Australian (WA) pharmacist vaccination services, the profiles of consumers being vaccinated and the facilitators and challenges experienced by pharmacy staff in the preparation, implementation and delivery of services. DESIGN: Mixed-methods methodology with both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys, pharmacy computer records and immuniser pharmacist interviews. SETTING: Community pharmacies in WA that provided pharmacist vaccination services between March and October 2015...
2016: BMJ Open
Julie L Dutton, Wai-Ping Woo, Janin Chandra, Yan Xu, Bo Li, Neil Finlayson, Paul Griffin, Ian H Frazer
This paper describes a single site, open-label Phase I clinical trial evaluating the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers of a herpes simplex polynucleotide vaccine that has previously been shown to enhance immunogenicity and protect against lethal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) challenge in mice. Five escalating doses of the vaccine, COR-1, were given by intradermal injection to HSV-1 and 2 seronegative healthy individuals. COR-1 was found to be safe and well-tolerated; the only vaccine-related adverse events were mild...
August 31, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Elizabeth Halcomb, Louise Hickman
BACKGROUND: Despite the decline in vaccine-preventable diseases, immunisation rates remain important. Nurses working in general practice (GPN) are often the first contact for childhood and adult immunisations and so impact vaccine provision. AIM: This study sought to describe the current immunisation practices and attitudes of GPN prior to attending the Nurse Immuniser Training Program. METHODS: Prior to undertaking a Nurse Immuniser Training Program, registered nurses completed a survey describing their demographics, immunisation practice and attitudes to immunisation...
August 2016: Contemporary Nurse
Alexandra Hendry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Cindy Toms, Rachel de Kluyver
In Australia, there were 1,883 cases (8.3 per 100,000 population) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) in 2011 and 1,823 cases (8.0 per 100,000) in 2012. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 9 times the rate of IPD in non-Indigenous Australians in 2011 and 7 times in 2012. Following the July 2011 introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13vPCV) to the National Immunisation Program, rates of IPD in children aged less than 5 years decreased from 19...
2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Surendra Karki, Anthony T Newall, C Raina MacIntyre, Anita E Heywood, Peter McIntyre, Emily Banks, Bette Liu
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition that increases in incidence with older age but vaccines are available to prevent the disease. However, there are limited data estimating the health system burden attributable to herpes zoster by age. METHODS: In this study, we quantified excess healthcare resource usage associated with HZ during the acute/sub-acute period of disease (21days before to 90 days after onset) in 5952 cases and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and prior healthcare resource usage...
2016: PloS One
Natalia Krzyzaniak, Beata Bajorek
OBJECTIVES: To describe pharmacist practice and roles performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) worldwide and to map these findings along the medicines management pathway (MMP). METHOD: Quasi-systematic review. SEARCH STRATEGY: Google Scholar, Medline/PubMed and Embase were searched utilising the selected MeSH terms. RESULTS: Thirty sources of information were reviewed. Overall, pharmacist practice in the NICU involves a wide-range of roles, with the most commonly reported involving patient medication chart review, therapeutic drug monitoring and the provision of medication information...
June 21, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Patrick M Cashman, Natalie A Allan, Katrina K Clark, Michelle T Butler, Peter D Massey, David N Durrheim
BACKGROUND: Improving timely immunisation is key to closing the inequitable gap in immunisation rates between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers were employed in Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD), New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to telephone the families of all Aboriginal infants prior to the due date for their first scheduled vaccination. METHODS: Aboriginal Immunisation Officers contacted the families of Aboriginal children born in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD) by telephone before their due immunisation date (pre-call) to provide the rationale for timely immunisation, and to facilitate contact with culturally safe local immunisation services if this was required...
2016: BMC Public Health
Nigel W Crawford, Kate Hodgson, Mike Gold, Jim Buttery, Nicholas Wood
OBJECTIVE: To formalise a collaborative national Adverse Events Following Immunisation Clinical Assessment Network (AEFI-CAN) following the expansion of the Australian Human Papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation program to boys in 2013. METHODS: AEFI-CAN linked state-based vaccine safety clinics and the Department of Health including the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Monthly teleconferences held to discuss HPV related cases. AEFI conditions of interest recorded in a centralised database...
June 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Darren W Westphal, Stephanie A Williams, Alan Leeb, Paul V Effler
INTRODUCTION: On-going post-licensure surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is critical to detecting and responding to potentially serious adverse events in a timely manner. SmartVax is a vaccine safety monitoring tool that uses automated data extraction from existing practice management software and short message service (SMS) technology to follow-up vaccinees in real-time. We report on childhood vaccine safety surveillance using SmartVax at a medical practice in Perth, Western Australia...
June 17, 2016: Vaccine
Alexandra Hendry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Frank H Beard, Brynley P Hull, Julie Leask, Aditi Dey, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: To examine geographic and demographic trends in objection to vaccination in Australia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data (2002-2013) for children aged 1-6 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunisation status according to whether an objection had been registered, and remoteness and socio-economic status of area of residence. Registration of children with Medicare after 12 months of age was used as a proxy indicator of being overseas-born...
April 18, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
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