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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754466/temporal-trends-in-paediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-tropical-australian-region-1992-2014
#1
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720076/paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-paeds-annual-report-2015-prospective-hospital-based-surveillance-for-serious-paediatric-conditions
#2
Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Kristine Macartney
Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS data is used to better understand these conditions, inform policy and practice under the National Immunisation Program, and enable rapid public health responses for certain conditions of public health importance...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720075/surveillance-of-adverse-events-following-immunisation-in-australia-2015
#3
Aditi Dey, Han Wang, Helen Quinn, Jane Cook, Kristine Macartney
This report summarises Australian passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) for 2015 reported to the Therapeutic Goods Administration and compares them to long-term trends. There were 2,924 AEFI records for vaccines administered in 2015; an annual AEFI reporting rate of 12.3 per 100,000 population. There was a decline of 7% in the overall AEFI reporting rate in 2015 compared with 2014. This decline in reported adverse events in 2015 compared to the previous year was mainly attributable to fewer reports following the HPV vaccine and replacement of monovalent vaccines (Hib, MenCCV and varicella) with combination vaccines such as Hib-MenC, and MMRV...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716556/vaccination-hesitancy-in-the-antenatal-period-a-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Paul Corben, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Recent reports of childhood vaccination coverage in Australia have shown steadily improving vaccination coverage and narrowing differences between highest and lowest coverage regions, yet the NSW North Coast consistently has the lowest coverage rates nationally. Better understanding of parents' vaccination attitudes and actions within this region may guide strategies to improve uptake. The antenatal period is when many parents explore and consolidate vaccination attitudes and so is pivotal for study...
May 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709773/midwives-knowledge-attitudes-and-learning-needs-regarding-antenatal-vaccination
#5
Annette K Regan, Yvonne Hauck, Lisa Nicolaou, Danielle Engelbrecht, Janice Butt, Donna B Mak, Rikki Priest, Ronit Cukierman, Paul V Effler
OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and learning needs of midwives regarding antenatal vaccination. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional, paper-based survey of midwives employed at the only public tertiary maternity hospital in the Australian state of Western Australia between November 2015 and July 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 252 midwives providing care in antepartum, intrapartum, and/or postpartum settings. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported responses to a 41-item survey...
April 10, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661586/australian-rubella-serosurvey-2012-2013-on-track-for-elimination
#6
Chathura Edirisuriya, Frank H Beard, Alexandra J Hendry, Aditi Dey, Heather F Gidding, Linda Hueston, Dominic E Dwyer, James G Wood, Kristine K Macartney, Peter B McIntyre
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has targeted rubella virus for elimination regionally. Australia was one of the first countries to implement a nationally funded rubella immunisation program, in 1971, and conducts regular national rubella serosurveillance studies. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the Australian population by age and sex in 2012-2013, to compare the results with three previous serosurveys conducted in 1996-1999, 2002 and 2007 and to estimate the effective reproduction numbers (Rn )...
April 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609640/is-there-an-association-between-the-use-of-complementary-medicine-and-vaccine-uptake-results-of-a-pilot-study
#7
Jane E Frawley, Erica McIntyre, Jon Wardle, Debra Jackson
OBJECTIVE: Despite the incredible success of paediatric immunisation, support is not universal. It has been suggested that complementary medicine practitioners enable vaccine rejection and his study aims to explore the relationship between complementary medicine use and paediatric vaccination. A total of 149 Australian parents were recruited via a parenting website and Facebook groups to complete an online questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority of parents (66.4%) stated that their children's vaccination status was up-to-date...
April 2, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549211/role-of-viral-and-bacterial-pathogens-in-causing-pneumonia-among-western-australian-children-a-case-control-study-protocol
#8
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471432/effectiveness-of-seven-and-thirteen-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-a-schedule-without-a-booster-dose-a-ten-year-observational-study
#9
Sanjay Jayasinghe, Clayton Chiu, Helen Quinn, Rob Menzies, Robin Gilmour, Peter McIntyre
Background: Uniquely among high income countries, Australia uses a 3+0 schedule (3 primary doses; no booster) for infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine since January 2005, initially 7-valent (PCV7) then 13-valent (PCV13) from July 2011. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of both PCVs against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by two methods. Method: Cases were IPD notifications to national surveillance system in children eligible for respective PCVs. For the case-control method, up to ten age-matched controls were derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464899/proteomic-adaptation-of-australian-epidemic-bordetella-pertussis
#10
Laurence Don Wai Luu, Sophie Octavia, Ling Zhong, Mark J Raftery, Vitali Sintchenko, Ruiting Lan
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough. The predominant strains in Australia changed to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster I (pertussis toxin promoter allele ptxP3/pertactin gene allele prn2) from cluster II (non-ptxP3/non-prn2). Cluster I was mostly responsible for the 2008-2012 Australian epidemic and was found to have higher fitness compared to cluster II using an in vivo mouse competition assay, regardless of host's immunization status. This study aimed to identify proteomic differences that explain higher fitness in cluster I using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), and high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-hr)...
April 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460321/factors-associated-with-delayed-infant-immunization-in-a-nationally-representative-cohort-study
#11
J Homel, B Edwards
BACKGROUND: Many children in developed countries do not receive recommended vaccines on time. However, knowledge about factors related to timeliness remains limited. Quantifying the relative impact of parental attitudes compared with socio-demographic factors for delayed immunization would inform policy responses. METHODS: Participants in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were matched with their vaccination histories in the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (N = 4,121)...
February 20, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391374/protocol-for-pertussis-immunisation-and-food-allergy-pifa-a-case-control-study-of-the-association-between-pertussis-vaccination-in-infancy-and-the-risk-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy-among-australian-children
#12
Marie J Estcourt, Julie A Marsh, Dianne E Campbell, Michael S Gold, Katrina J Allen, Peter Richmond, Claire S Waddington, Thomas L Snelling
INTRODUCTION: Atopic diseases, including food allergy, have become a predominant cause of chronic illness among children in developed countries. In Australia, a rise in hospitalisations among infants coded as anaphylaxis to foods coincided with the replacement of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine with subunit acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine on the national immunisation schedule in the late 1990s. Atopy is characterised by a tendency to mount T helper type 2 (Th2) responses to otherwise innocuous environmental antigens...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341395/health-of-southern-tasmanian-4-to-6-year-old-children-in-out-of-home-care-compared-to-peers
#13
Marie Rauter, Anagha Jayakar, Tom Clemens, Zaharenia Galanos, Louise Newbery, Andrew Whelan
AIM: To compare the health of 4- to 6-year-old children in out-of-home care (OOHC) in Southern Tasmania with their peers. METHODS: Demographic and health data collection and prospective health assessment of all 4- to 6-year olds in OOHC in Southern Tasmania on 30 August 2011 was undertaken. Data were compared to Tasmanian and/or Australian peers. RESULTS: A total of 109 of 129 children aged 4 to 6 years were included in the study. Time in OOHC was on average 38 (range 0-76) months...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310901/why-do-we-not-want-to-recommend-influenza-vaccination-to-young-children-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-parents-and-primary-care-providers
#14
Ruby Biezen, Danilla Grando, Danielle Mazza, Bianca Brijnath
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i...
February 1, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297206/no-jab-no-record-catch-up-vaccination-of-children-in-immigration-detention
#15
Karen M Kiang, Sonja Elia, Georgia A Paxton
International Health and Medical Services (IHMS) are contracted to provide health services, including catch-up vaccination, for individuals in immigration detention. Our audit of catch-up vaccination in asylum seeker children who spent time in held detention demonstrates inadequate and suboptimal vaccine delivery in this setting, and no evidence that IHMS recorded vaccines on the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register at the time. We also found substantial shortfalls in vaccination for these children after they were released from detention...
April 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227467/evidence-for-rise-in-meningococcal-serogroup-c-bactericidal-antibody-titers-in-the-absence-of-booster-vaccination-in-previously-vaccinated-children
#16
Al-Mamoon Badahdah, Ameneh Khatami, Mohamed Tashani, Harunor Rashid, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccines in the United Kingdom and Australia led to an impressive decline in the incidence of invasive disease. This study examined bactericidal antibody titers over time in the UK and Australian children who received a MenC conjugate vaccine in early childhood to test the hypothesis that ongoing boosting of immunity in the absence of further doses of vaccine in some children may contribute to ongoing protection from disease...
March 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168910/parental-immunisation-needs-and-attitudes-survey-in-paediatric-hospital-clinics-and-community-maternal-and-child-health-centres-in-melbourne-australia
#17
Jessica C Costa-Pinto, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask, Monsurul Hoq, Tibor Schuster, Alice Ghazarian, Jacinta O'Keefe, Margie H Danchin
AIM: Despite Australia's high vaccination rates, an estimated 3.3% of children are under-vaccinated due to vaccine refusal and the proportion of parents with concerns is unclear. Amongst Australian parents, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vaccine concerns, resources and health-care providers (HCPs) accessed and satisfaction with these resources in two different settings. We also aimed to identify relationships between the level of vaccine concern, socio-economic status and vaccine uptake...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139107/antenatal-influenza-and-pertussis-vaccine-uptake-among-aboriginal-mothers-in-western-australia
#18
Kennia Lotter, Annette K Regan, Tyra Thomas, Paul V Effler, Donna B Mak
BACKGROUND: Antenatal influenza and pertussis vaccination prevent serious disease in mothers and infants. Aboriginal individuals are at increased risk of infection yet little is known about vaccine coverage among Aboriginal mothers. AIMS: To estimate the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccination among pregnant Aboriginal women in Western Australia and identify barriers and enablers to vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred Aboriginal women, aged ≥18 years, who gave birth to a live infant between April and October 2015, were randomly selected and invited to participate in telephone interviews...
November 14, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128379/active-sms-based-influenza-vaccine-safety-surveillance-in-australian-children
#19
Alexis Pillsbury, Helen Quinn, Patrick Cashman, Alan Leeb, Kristine Macartney
INTRODUCTION: Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration. METHODS: Parent/carer reports of AEFI occurring within 3 days of their child receiving an influenza vaccine in sentinel immunisation clinics were solicited by Short Message Service (SMS) and/or email-based survey...
December 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127227/protocol-for-hospital-based-surveillance-of-cerebral-palsy-cp-in-hanoi-using-the-paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-mechanism-paeds-vietnam-a-study-towards-developing-hospital-based-disease-surveillance-in-vietnam
#20
Gulam Khandaker, Nguyen Van Bang, Trịnh Quang Dũng, Nguyen Thi Huong Giang, Cao Minh Chau, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Van Thuong, Nadia Badawi, Elizabeth J Elliott
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Open
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