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Australian immunisation

Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Sanjay Jayasinghe, Clayton Chiu, Helen Quinn, Rob Menzies, Robin Gilmour, Peter McIntyre
Background: Uniquely among high income countries, Australia uses a 3+0 schedule (3 primary doses; no booster) for infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine since January 2005, initially 7-valent (PCV7) then 13-valent (PCV13) from July 2011. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of both PCVs against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by two methods. Method: Cases were IPD notifications to national surveillance system in children eligible for respective PCVs. For the case-control method, up to ten age-matched controls were derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Laurence Don Wai Luu, Sophie Octavia, Ling Zhong, Mark Raftery, Vitali Sintchenko, Ruiting Lan
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough. The predominant strains in Australia changed to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster I (pertussis toxin promoter allele ptxP3/pertactin gene allele prn2) from cluster II (non-ptxP3/non-prn2). Cluster I were mostly responsible for the 2008-2012 Australian epidemic and were found to have higher fitness compared to cluster II using an in vivo mouse competition assay, regardless of host's immunisation status. This study aimed to identify proteomic differences that explain higher fitness in cluster I using iTRAQ, and high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-hr)...
February 21, 2018: Proteomics
J Homel, B Edwards
BACKGROUND: Many children in developed countries do not receive recommended vaccines on time. However, knowledge about factors related to timeliness remains limited. Quantifying the relative impact of parental attitudes compared with socio-demographic factors for delayed immunization would inform policy responses. METHODS: Participants in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were matched with their vaccination histories in the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (N = 4,121)...
February 20, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Marie J Estcourt, Julie A Marsh, Dianne E Campbell, Michael S Gold, Katrina J Allen, Peter Richmond, Claire S Waddington, Thomas L Snelling
INTRODUCTION: Atopic diseases, including food allergy, have become a predominant cause of chronic illness among children in developed countries. In Australia, a rise in hospitalisations among infants coded as anaphylaxis to foods coincided with the replacement of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine with subunit acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine on the national immunisation schedule in the late 1990s. Atopy is characterised by a tendency to mount T helper type 2 (Th2) responses to otherwise innocuous environmental antigens...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Marie Rauter, Anagha Jayakar, Tom Clemens, Zaharenia Galanos, Louise Newbery, Andrew Whelan
AIM: To compare the health of 4- to 6-year-old children in out-of-home care (OOHC) in Southern Tasmania with their peers. METHODS: Demographic and health data collection and prospective health assessment of all 4- to 6-year olds in OOHC in Southern Tasmania on 30 August 2011 was undertaken. Data were compared to Tasmanian and/or Australian peers. RESULTS: A total of 109 of 129 children aged 4 to 6 years were included in the study. Time in OOHC was on average 38 (range 0-76) months...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ruby Biezen, Danilla Grando, Danielle Mazza, Bianca Brijnath
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i...
January 5, 2018: Vaccine
Karen M Kiang, Sonja Elia, Georgia A Paxton
International Health and Medical Services (IHMS) are contracted to provide health services, including catch-up vaccination, for individuals in immigration detention. Our audit of catch-up vaccination in asylum seeker children who spent time in held detention demonstrates inadequate and suboptimal vaccine delivery in this setting, and no evidence that IHMS recorded vaccines on the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register at the time. We also found substantial shortfalls in vaccination for these children after they were released from detention...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Al-Mamoon Badahdah, Ameneh Khatami, Mohamed Tashani, Harunor Rashid, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccines in the United Kingdom and Australia led to an impressive decline in the incidence of invasive disease. This study examined bactericidal antibody titers over time in the UK and Australian children who received a MenC conjugate vaccine in early childhood to test the hypothesis that ongoing boosting of immunity in the absence of further doses of vaccine in some children may contribute to ongoing protection from disease...
March 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jessica C Costa-Pinto, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask, Monsurul Hoq, Tibor Schuster, Alice Ghazarian, Jacinta O'Keefe, Margie H Danchin
AIM: Despite Australia's high vaccination rates, an estimated 3.3% of children are under-vaccinated due to vaccine refusal and the proportion of parents with concerns is unclear. Amongst Australian parents, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vaccine concerns, resources and health-care providers (HCPs) accessed and satisfaction with these resources in two different settings. We also aimed to identify relationships between the level of vaccine concern, socio-economic status and vaccine uptake...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Kennia Lotter, Annette K Regan, Tyra Thomas, Paul V Effler, Donna B Mak
BACKGROUND: Antenatal influenza and pertussis vaccination prevent serious disease in mothers and infants. Aboriginal individuals are at increased risk of infection yet little is known about vaccine coverage among Aboriginal mothers. AIMS: To estimate the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccination among pregnant Aboriginal women in Western Australia and identify barriers and enablers to vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred Aboriginal women, aged ≥18 years, who gave birth to a live infant between April and October 2015, were randomly selected and invited to participate in telephone interviews...
November 14, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Alexis Pillsbury, Helen Quinn, Patrick Cashman, Alan Leeb, Kristine Macartney
INTRODUCTION: Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration. METHODS: Parent/carer reports of AEFI occurring within 3 days of their child receiving an influenza vaccine in sentinel immunisation clinics were solicited by Short Message Service (SMS) and/or email-based survey...
December 18, 2017: Vaccine
Gulam Khandaker, Nguyen Van Bang, Trịnh Quang Dũng, Nguyen Thi Huong Giang, Cao Minh Chau, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Van Thuong, Nadia Badawi, Elizabeth J Elliott
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Open
J Kevin Yin, Sanjay H Jayasinghe, Patrick G Charles, Catherine King, Clayton K Chiu, Robert I Menzies, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the proportion and severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in Australians aged 18 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with unpublished data from the largest study. DATA SOURCES: Multiple key bibliographic databases to June 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Australian studies on the aetiology of CAP in adults. DATA SYNTHESIS: In the 12 studies identified, pneumococcus was the most common cause of CAP...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Brett N Archer, Clayton K Chiu, Sanjay H Jayasinghe, Peter C Richmond, Jodie McVernon, Monica M Lahra, Ross M Andrews, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the age-specific incidence of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Australia, 1999-2015. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Analysis in February 2017 of de-identified notification data from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System of all notifications of IMD in Australia with a recorded diagnosis date during 1999-2015.Major outcomes: IMD notification rates in Australia, 1999-2015, by age, serogroup, Indigenous status, and region...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Parveen Fathima, Christopher C Blyth, Deborah Lehmann, Faye J Lim, Tasnim Abdalla, Nicholas de Klerk, Hannah C Moore
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was included in Australia's National Immunisation Program for all children from 2005. We assessed the impact of PCV on all-cause and pathogen-specific pneumonia hospitalisations in Western Australian (WA) children aged ≤16 years. Methods: All hospitalisations with pneumonia-related ICD-10AM diagnosis codes occurring in WA-born children (1996-2012) were linked to pathology records. Age-specific incidence rate ratios and temporal trends for all-cause and pathogen-specific pneumonia hospitalisations were calculated pre- and post-PCV introduction...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Fernanda Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Angus P R Johnston, P Mark Hogarth, Bruce D Wines, Ian Barr, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Globally the most commonly utilised immunisation against influenza is the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) derived from an A/H1N1, an A/H3N2 and aB type influenza virus. Vaccine effectiveness of TIV varies year to year, depending on how well antigenically matched the strains in the vaccine are compared to circulating strains [1,2]. Moreover, vaccine effectiveness can vary within certain subpopulations such as HIV-positive, young children and the elderly. Decreased vaccine effectiveness in the elderly is associated with impaired Ab production, as measured by standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
Esther T L Lau, Michelle E Rochin, Megan DelDot, Beverley D Glass, Lisa M Nissen
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a safe, efficient, and cost-effective means of preventing, controlling, and eradicating many life-threatening infections and diseases. Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that vaccination saves between 2 million and 3 million lives annually. However, low immunization rates are a significant public health concern. Individual factors, along with the vaccination process and system, have been reported as perceived barriers and challenges to immunization...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
M H Danchin, J Costa-Pinto, K Atwell, H Willaby, K Wiley, M Hoq, J Leask, K P Perrett, Jacinta O'Keefe, M L Giles, H Marshall
INTRODUCTION: Maternal and childhood vaccine decision-making begins prenatally. Amongst pregnant Australian women we aimed to ascertain vaccine information received, maternal immunisation uptake and attitudes and concerns regarding childhood vaccination. We also aimed to determine any correlation between a) intentions and concerns regarding childhood vaccination, (b) concerns about pregnancy vaccination, (c) socioeconomic status (SES) and (d) uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy and routine vaccines during childhood...
August 12, 2017: Vaccine
Bing Wang, Gang Chen, Julie Ratcliffe, Hossein Haji Ali Afzali, Lynne Giles, Helen Marshall
OBJECTIVES: The importance of adolescent engagement in health decisions and public health programs such as immunisation is becoming increasingly recognised. Understanding adolescent preferences and further identifying barriers and facilitators for immunisation acceptance is critical to the success of adolescent immunisation programs. This study applied a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess vaccination preferences in adolescents. METHODS: This study was conducted as a cross-sectional, national online survey in Australian adolescents...
2017: PloS One
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