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Stem cell metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819366/paracrine-potential-of-the-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-to-modulate-balance-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-in-the-osteoarthritic-cartilage-in-vitro
#1
Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Ilona Kusleviciute, Zygmunt Mackiewicz, Ausra Unguryte, Narunas Porvaneckas, Sandrine Fleury, Algirdas Venalis, Christian Jorgensen, Eiva Bernotiene
Adipose tissue represents an abundant source of stem cells. Along with anti-inflammatory effects, ASC secrete various factors that may modulate metabolism of extracellular matrix in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, suggesting that the presence of ASC could be advantageous for OA cartilage due to the recovery of homeostasis between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). To evaluate these effects, cartilage explants (CE) were cocultured with ASC for 3 and 7 days under stimulation with or without IL-1β...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819274/distinct-carbon-sources-affect-structural-and-functional-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Cláudia Correia, Alexey Koshkin, Patrícia Duarte, Dongjian Hu, Ana Teixeira, Ibrahim Domian, Margarida Serra, Paula M Alves
The immature phenotype of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) constrains their potential in cell therapy and drug testing. In this study, we report that shifting hPSC-CMs from glucose-containing to galactose- and fatty acid-containing medium promotes their fast maturation into adult-like CMs with higher oxidative metabolism, transcriptional signatures closer to those of adult ventricular tissue, higher myofibril density and alignment, improved calcium handling, enhanced contractility, and more physiological action potential kinetics...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819231/in-vitro-micropatterned-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-test-%C3%A2%C2%B5p-hpst-for-morphometric-based-teratogen-screening
#3
Jiangwa Xing, Yue Cao, Yang Yu, Huan Li, Ziwei Song, Hanry Yu
Exposure to teratogenic chemicals during pregnancy may cause severe birth defects. Due to high inter-species variation of drug responses as well as financial and ethical burdens, despite the widely use of in vivo animal tests, it's crucial to develop highly predictive human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based in vitro assays to identify potential teratogens. Previously we have shown that the morphological disruption of mesoendoderm patterns formed by geometrically-confined cell differentiation and migration using hPSCs could potentially serve as a sensitive morphological marker in teratogen detection...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818857/modeling-inborn-errors-of-hepatic-metabolism-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Behshad Pournasr, Stephen A Duncan
Inborn errors of hepatic metabolism are because of deficiencies commonly within a single enzyme as a consequence of heritable mutations in the genome. Individually such diseases are rare, but collectively they are common. Advances in genome-wide association studies and DNA sequencing have helped researchers identify the underlying genetic basis of such diseases. Unfortunately, cellular and animal models that accurately recapitulate these inborn errors of hepatic metabolism in the laboratory have been lacking...
August 17, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817955/redox-signaling-mechanisms-in-nervous-system-development
#5
Mauricio Olguín-Albuerne, Julio Morán
SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as regulators of several physiological processes. Here we discuss how the redox signaling mechanisms operate to control different processes such as neuronal differentiation, oligodendrocyte differentiation, dendritic growth, and axonal growth. Recent Advances: Redox homeostasis regulates the physiology of neural stem cells (NSCs). Notably, the neuronal differentiation process of NSCs is determined by a change towards an oxidative metabolism, increased levels of mitochondrial ROS, increased activity of NOX enzymes, decreased levels of Nrf2, and a differential regulation of different redoxins...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816507/arthroscopic-harvest-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad
#6
Jason L Dragoo, Wenteh Chang
BACKGROUND: The successful isolation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) from the arthroscopically harvested infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) would provide orthopaedic surgeons with an autologous solution for regenerative procedures. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the quantity and viability of the mesenchymal stem cell population arthroscopically harvested from the IFP as well as the surrounding synovium. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813658/ccctc-binding-factor-translates-interleukin-2-and-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-sensitive-metabolic-changes-in-t%C3%A2-cells-into-context-dependent-gene-programs
#7
Danielle A Chisolm, Daniel Savic, Amanda J Moore, Andre Ballesteros-Tato, Beatriz León, David K Crossman, Cornelis Murre, Richard M Myers, Amy S Weinmann
Despite considerable research connecting cellular metabolism with differentiation decisions, the underlying mechanisms that translate metabolite-sensitive activities into unique gene programs are still unclear. We found that aspects of the interleukin-2 (IL-2)-sensitive effector gene program in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in type 1 conditions (Th1) were regulated by glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG)-induced events, in part through changes in DNA and histone methylation states. We further identified a mechanism by which IL-2- and αKG-sensitive metabolic changes regulated the association of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) with select genomic sites...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812582/control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-function-and-proliferation-by-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#8
John C Schell, Dona R Wisidagama, Claire Bensard, Helong Zhao, Peng Wei, Jason Tanner, Aimee Flores, Jeffrey Mohlman, Lise K Sorensen, Christian S Earl, Kristofor A Olson, Ren Miao, T Cameron Waller, Don Delker, Priyanka Kanth, Lei Jiang, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Mary P Bronner, Dean Y Li, James E Cox, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry, Carl S Thummel, Jared Rutter
Most differentiated cells convert glucose to pyruvate in the cytosol through glycolysis, followed by pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria. These processes are linked by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is required for efficient mitochondrial pyruvate uptake. In contrast, proliferative cells, including many cancer and stem cells, perform glycolysis robustly but limit fractional mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. We sought to understand the role this transition from glycolysis to pyruvate oxidation plays in stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812580/lactate-dehydrogenase-activity-drives-hair-follicle-stem-cell-activation
#9
Aimee Flores, John Schell, Abigail S Krall, David Jelinek, Matilde Miranda, Melina Grigorian, Daniel Braas, Andrew C White, Jessica L Zhou, Nicholas A Graham, Thomas Graeber, Pankaj Seth, Denis Evseenko, Hilary A Coller, Jared Rutter, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry
Although normally dormant, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#10
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811332/de-novo-lipid-synthesis-facilitates-gemcitabine-resistance-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Saber Tadros, Surendra K Shukla, Ryan J King, Venugopal Gunda, Enza Vernucci, Jaime Abrego, Nina CHaika, Fang Yu, Audrey J Lazenby, Lyudmyla Berim, Jean L Grem, Aaron Sasson, Pankaj K Singh
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is moderately responsive to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, the most widely used single agent therapy for pancreatic cancer. While the prognosis in pancreatic cancer remains grim in part due to poor response to therapy, previous attempts at identifying and targeting the resistance mechanisms have not been very successful. By leveraging TCGA dataset, we identified lipid metabolism as the metabolic pathway that most significantly correlated with poor gemcitabine response in pancreatic cancer patients...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809393/ythdc2-is-an-n-6-methyladenosine-binding-protein-that-regulates-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#12
Phillip J Hsu, Yunfei Zhu, Honghui Ma, Yueshuai Guo, Xiaodan Shi, Yuanyuan Liu, Meijie Qi, Zhike Lu, Hailing Shi, Jianying Wang, Yiwei Cheng, Guanzheng Luo, Qing Dai, Mingxi Liu, Xuejiang Guo, Jiahao Sha, Bin Shen, Chuan He
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA. It is dynamically installed and removed, and acts as a new layer of mRNA metabolism, regulating biological processes including stem cell pluripotency, cell differentiation, and energy homeostasis. m(6)A is recognized by selective binding proteins; YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 work in concert to affect the translation of m(6)A-containing mRNAs, YTHDF2 expedites mRNA decay, and YTHDC1 affects the nuclear processing of its targets. The biological function of YTHDC2, the final member of the YTH protein family, remains unknown...
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807877/cryptotanshinone-promotes-commitment-to-the-brown-adipocyte-lineage-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-ampk-and-p38-mapk-signaling
#13
Khan Mohammad Imran, Naimur Rahman, Dahyeon Yoon, Miso Jeon, Byong-Taek Lee, Yong-Sik Kim
Although white adipose tissue (WAT) stores triglycerides and contributes to obesity, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat. Therefore, browning of WAT is regarded as an attractive way to counteract obesity. Our previous studies have revealed that treatment with cryptotanshinone (CT) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells inhibits their differentiation. Here, we found that pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with CT before exposure to adipogenic hormonal stimuli promotes the commitment of these mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocyte lineage as confirmed by increased triglyceride accumulation...
August 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807770/gsta1-genetic-variants-and-conditioning-regimen-missing-key-factors-in-dosing-guidelines-of-busulfan-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
T Nava, M A Rezgui, Crs Uppugunduri, P Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Y Théoret, M Duval, L E Daudt, M Ansari, M Krajinovic, H Bittencourt
Busulfan (Bu) is a key component of conditioning regimens used prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in children. Different predictive methods have been used to calculate the Bu first-dose. To evaluate the necessity of further improvements, we retrospectively analyzed the currently available weight- and age-based guidelines to calculate the first doses in 101 children who underwent allogenic SCT in CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, following an intravenous Bu-containing conditioning regimen according to genetic and clinical factors...
August 11, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807156/metabolic-factors-and-adult-neurogenesis-impacts-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-brain-repair-in-neurological-diseases
#15
Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen
Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#16
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804813/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-applications-and-complications-of-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-in-management-of-bone-defects-and-nonunions
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed A Imam, James Holton, Lukas Ernstbrunner, Wojciech Pepke, Florian Grubhofer, Ali Narvani, Martyn Snow
PURPOSE: Fracture healing encompasses a succession of dynamic multifactorial metabolic events, which ultimately re-establishes the integrity of the biomechanical properties of the bone. Up to 10% of the fractures occurring annually will need additional surgical procedures because of impaired healing. The aim of this article is to review the current literature regarding the use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and its effectiveness in the management of bone defects. METHODS: We have included all published clinical literature investigating the development, techniques and applications of BMAC...
August 13, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804610/naringin-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-through-the-activation-of-erk-signaling-in-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Huichao Wang, Chunbo Li, Jianming Li, Yingjie Zhu, Yudong Jia, Ying Zhang, Xiaodong Zhang, Wenlong Li, Lei Cui, Wuyin Li, Youwen Liu
OBJECTIVES: Naringin has been reported to regulate bone metabolism. However, its effect on osteogenesis remains unclear. The aim was to investigate the effect of naringin on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway in osteogenic differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Annexin V-FITC assay and MTT assay were used to measure the effect of naringin on cytotoxicity and proliferation of hBMSCs, respectively...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804500/pluripotent-stem-cell-metabolism-and-mitochondria-beyond-atp
#19
REVIEW
Jarmon G Lees, David K Gardner, Alexandra J Harvey
Metabolism is central to embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and differentiation, with distinct profiles apparent under different nutrient milieu, and conditions that maintain alternate cell states. The significance of altered nutrient availability, particularly oxygen, and metabolic pathway activity has been highlighted by extensive studies of their impact on preimplantation embryo development, physiology, and viability. ESC similarly modulate their metabolism in response to altered metabolite levels, with changes in nutrient availability shown to have a lasting impact on derived cell identity through the regulation of the epigenetic landscape...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802717/chronic-d609-treatment-interferes-with-cell-cycle-and-targets-the-expression-of-olig2-in-glioma-stem-like-cells
#20
Haviryaji S G Kalluri, John S Kuo, Robert J Dempsey
Glioma Stem-like Cells (GSCs) isolated from patient derived tumors have high metabolic activity and survive in the absence of exogenous growth factors. We recently demonstrated that acute D609 (Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate), a PC-PLC inhibitor with anti-oxidative property, can decrease the ATP content & GADD45β protein in GSCs cultured without growth factors, but not in the presence of growth factors. In this study we examined the effect of chronic D609 treatment on GSCs cultured in complete medium containing growth factors...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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