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Stem cell metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149079/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-signaling-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur, Sandra Bien-Möller, Sascha Marx, Henry Schroeder, Bernhard H Rauch
The multifunctional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid signaling molecule and central regulator in the development of several cancer types. In recent years, intriguing information has become available regarding the role of S1P in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common brain tumor in adults. S1P modulates numerous cellular processes in GBM, such as oncogenesis, proliferation and survival, invasion, migration, metastasis and stem cell behavior. These processes are regulated via a family of five G-protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and may involve mainly unknown intracellular targets...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148239/metabolic-signature-of-microvescicles-from-umbilical-cord-mesenchimal-stem-cells-of-preterm-and-term-infants
#2
Maurizio Bruschi, Laura Santucci, Silvia Ravera, Martina Bartolucci, Andrea Petretto, Daniela Calzia, Gianmarco Ghiggeri, Luca A Ramenghi, Giovanni Candiano, Isabella Panfoli
PURPOSE: Microvesicles, 200-1000 nm bodies budding from the cell plasma membrane, are a promising source of biomarkers. This study aimed at comparing the proteome of Microvesicles collected by ultracentrifugation from cultured Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Umbilical Cord of Preterm newborns(<34-weeks gestational age) in comparison to infants at Term(≥37 weeks). This discovery study was designed to establish the signature of prematurity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Orbitrap mass spectrometry, statistical, bioinformatics and biochemical analyses were employed...
November 16, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146005/bone-marrow-adipocytes-in-haematological-malignancies
#3
Ewa Frączak, Mateusz Olbromski, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Natalia Glatzel-Plucińska, Piotr Dzięgiel, Jarosław Dybko, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Tomasz Wróbel
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are an active and significant element of the bone marrow microenvironment. They are involved in metabolic functions, complex interactions with other stromal cells, and in the development and progression of tumours. Currently, there is little data regarding the role of BMAs in haematological malignancies. Due to this, we have attempted to characterise the BMAs in these malignancies in terms of quantity and morphology. Our study included 30 patients aged 22-76 with myelo- (n=17) and lymphoproliferative malignancies (n=13), both with and without bone marrow infiltration...
November 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139087/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-adipogenic-differentiation
#4
Danielle de Villiers, Marnie Potgieter, Melvin A Ambele, Ladislaus Adam, Chrisna Durandt, Michael S Pepper
Interest in reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation/adipose tissue function is steadily increasing. This is due in part to a search for alternative avenues for combating obesity, which results from the excess accumulation of adipose tissue. Obesity is a major risk factor for complex disorders such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The ability of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes is often used as a model for studying adipogenesis in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137422/pkm2-can-enhance-pluripotency-in-escs-and-promote-somatic-cell-reprogramming-to-ipscs
#5
Shengtang Qin, Danli Yang, Kang Chen, Haolan Li, Liqiang Zhang, Yuan Li, Rongrong Le, Xiaojie Li, Shaorong Gao, Lan Kang
Aerobic glycolysis is one of the most important common characteristics in both cancer cells and stem cells. Metabolism switch has been discovered as an important early event in the process of reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). As a rate limiting kinase in glycolysis, Pkm2 has been reported playing critical roles in many tumors, yet its role in stem cells and iPSCs induction is poorly defined. In the present study, we showed that Pkm2 is a predominant pyruvate kinase in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and its expression increases many pluripotent genes...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137155/identification-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-cassava
#6
Yuan Yao, Meng-Ting Geng, Xiao-Hui Wu, Chong Sun, Yun-Lin Wang, Xia Chen, Lu Shang, Xiao-Hua Lu, Zhan Li, Rui-Mei Li, Shao-Ping Fu, Rui-Jun Duan, Jiao Liu, Xin-Wen Hu, Jian-Chun Guo
Fructokinase (FRK) proteins play important roles in catalyzing fructose phosphorylation and participate in the carbohydrate metabolism of storage organs in plants. To investigate the roles of FRKs in cassava tuber root development, seven FRK genes (MeFRK1-7) were identified, and MeFRK1-6 were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MeFRK family genes can be divided into α (MeFRK1, 2, 6, 7) and β (MeFRK3, 4, 5) groups. All the MeFRK proteins have typical conserved regions and substrate binding residues similar to those of the FRKs...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136956/antagonistic-effect-of-oxytocin-and-tacrolimus-combination-on-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-antagonistic-effect-of-oxytocin-and-tacrolimus-antagonistic-effect-of-oxytocin-and-tacrolimus
#7
Gozde Sir, Bakiye Goker Bagca, Gurkan Yigitturk, Turker Cavusoglu, Cigir Biray Avci, Cumhur Gunduz, Yigit Uyanikgil
Tacrolimus (FK506) is a chemotherapeutic agent, which uses calcineurin pathway via inhibiting the stimulation of T cells to prevent the formation of immune response in the recipient individual in organ transplants. FK506 is mainly metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzyme system and is known that it has high toxic effects on different cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently gained importance since their potential to be used in cellular therapy and tissue regeneration. In some clinical cases, MSCs are transferred into the patient after the organ transplantations in order to support the treatment...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#8
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#9
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131150/neurologic-complications-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-risk-factors-and-impact
#10
M R Dowling, S Li, B R Dey, S L McAfee, H R Hock, T R Spitzer, Y-B Chen, K K Ballen
Neurologic complications (NCs) may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We performed a retrospective study of 263 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic HCT for hematological malignancies to determine the incidence, risk factors and clinical impact of NCs in the first 5 years after HCT. We determined the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, metabolic encephalopathy, posterior reversal encephalopathy syndrome, seizure and peripheral neuropathy...
November 13, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130076/crispr-correction-of-a-homozygous-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-mutation-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Linda Omer, Elizabeth A Hudson, Shirong Zheng, James B Hoying, Yuan Shan, Nolan L Boyd
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a hereditary disease primarily due to mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that lead to elevated cholesterol and premature development of cardiovascular disease. Homozygous FH patients (HoFH) with two dysfunctional LDLR alleles are not as successfully treated with standard hypercholesterol therapies, and more aggressive therapeutic approaches to control cholesterol levels must be considered. Liver transplant can resolve HoFH, and hepatocyte transplantation has shown promising results in animals and humans...
November 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127275/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-fully-mhc-matched-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques-recapitulates-diverse-human-clinical-outcomes
#12
Benjamin J Burwitz, Helen L Wu, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Christine Shriver-Munsch, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Katherine B Hammond, Stephanie L Junell, Jason S Reed, Benjamin N Bimber, Justin M Greene, Gabriela M Webb, Mina Northrup, Wolfram Laub, Paul Kievit, Rhonda MacAllister, Michael K Axthelm, Rebecca Ducore, Anne Lewis, Lois M A Colgin, Theodore Hobbs, Lauren D Martin, Betsy Ferguson, Charles R Thomas, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Gabrielle Meyers, Jeffrey J Stanton, Richard T Maziarz, Jonah B Sacha
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a critically important therapy for hematological malignancies, inborn errors of metabolism, and immunodeficiency disorders, yet complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) limit survival. Development of anti-GvHD therapies that do not adversely affect susceptibility to infection or graft-vs.-tumor immunity are hampered by the lack of a physiologically relevant, preclinical model of allogeneic HSCT. Here we show a spectrum of diverse clinical HSCT outcomes including primary and secondary graft failure, lethal GvHD, and stable, disease-free full donor engraftment using reduced intensity conditioning and mobilized peripheral blood HSCT in unrelated, fully MHC-matched Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126914/targeting-immuno-metabolism-to-improve-anti-cancer-therapies
#13
Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer
The immunology community has made significant strides in recent years in using the immune system to target and eliminate cancer. Therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the standard of care treatment for several malignancies, while therapies incorporating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells or checkpoint molecule blockade have been revolutionary. However, these approaches are not optimal for all cancers and in some cases, have failed outright. The greatest obstacle to making these therapies more effective may be rooted in one of the most basic concepts of cell biology, metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121650/flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-fmo3-role-in-busulphan-metabolic-pathway
#14
Ibrahim El-Serafi, Ylva Terelius, Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi, Seán Naughton, Maryam Saghafian, Ali Moshfegh, Jonas Mattsson, Zuzana Potácová, Moustapha Hassan
Busulphan (Bu) is an alkylating agent used in the conditioning regimen prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Bu is extensively metabolized in the liver via conjugations with glutathione to form the intermediate metabolite (sulfonium ion) which subsequently is degraded to tetrahydrothiophene (THT). THT was reported to be oxidized forming THT-1-oxide that is further oxidized to sulfolane and finally 3-hydroxysulfolane. However, the underlying mechanisms for the formation of these metabolites remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120753/mitochondrial-oxphos-induced-by-rb1-deficiency-in-breast-cancer-implications-for-anabolic-metabolism-stemness-and-metastasis
#15
REVIEW
Eldad Zacksenhaus, Mariusz Shrestha, Jeff C Liu, Ioulia Vorobieva, Philip E D Chung, YoungJun Ju, Uri Nir, Zhe Jiang
A switch from catabolic to anabolic metabolism, a major hallmark of cancer, enables rapid cell duplication, and is driven by multiple oncogenic alterations, including PIK3CA mutation, MYC amplification, and TP53 loss. However, tumor growth requires active mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Recently, loss of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor in breast cancer was shown to induce mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) and OXPHOS. Here, we discuss how increased OXPHOS can enhance anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation, as well as cancer stemness and metastasis...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118813/the-leukemic-stem-cell-niche-adaptation-to-hypoxia-versus-oncogene-addiction
#16
Giulia Cheloni, Martina Poteti, Silvia Bono, Erico Masala, Nathalie M Mazure, Elisabetta Rovida, Matteo Lulli, Persio Dello Sbarba
Previous studies based on low oxygen concentrations in the incubation atmosphere revealed that metabolic factors govern the maintenance of normal hematopoietic or leukemic stem cells (HSC and LSC). The physiological oxygen concentration in tissues ranges between 0.1 and 5.0%. Stem cell niches (SCN) are placed in tissue areas at the lower end of this range ("hypoxic" SCN), to which stem cells are metabolically adapted and where they are selectively hosted. The data reported here indicated that driver oncogenic proteins of several leukemias are suppressed following cell incubation at oxygen concentration compatible with SCN physiology...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118330/molecular-spectrum-of-secretome-regulates-the-relative-hepatogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-bone-marrow-and-dental-tissue
#17
Ajay Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Vidya Rattan, Vivekananda Jha, Arnab Pal, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya
Liver regeneration is a spontaneous process that occurs after liver injury, but acute liver failure is a complex and fatal disease which is difficult to treat. Cell-based therapies are promising alternative therapeutic approach for liver failure and different cell sources have been tested in this regard. We investigated the comparative hepatogenic potential of human bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) with stem cells derived from human dental pulp (DPSC), apical papilla (SCAP) and follicle (DFSC) during this study...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117561/ronin-governs-early-heart-development-by-controlling-core-gene-expression-programs
#18
Jun Fujita, Pablo Freire, Cristian Coarfa, Ashley L Benham, Preethi Gunaratne, Michael D Schneider, Marion Dejosez, Thomas P Zwaka
Ronin (THAP11), a DNA-binding protein that evolved from a primordial DNA transposon by molecular domestication, recognizes a hyperconserved promoter sequence to control developmentally and metabolically essential genes in pluripotent stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether Ronin or related THAP proteins perform similar functions in development. Here, we present evidence that Ronin functions within the nascent heart as it arises from the mesoderm and forms a four-chambered organ. We show that Ronin is vital for cardiogenesis during midgestation by controlling a set of critical genes...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117513/mechanisms-of-dietary-flavonoid-action-in-neuronal-function-and-neuroinflammation
#19
REVIEW
Baptiste N Jaeger, Sarah L Parylak, Fred H Gage
Flavonoids are a class of plant-derived dietary polyphenols that have attracted attention for their pro-cognitive and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity of flavonoids and their extensive in vivo metabolism suggest that a variety of cellular targets in the brain are likely to be impacted by flavonoid consumption. Initially characterized as antioxidants, flavonoids are now believed to act directly on neurons and glia via the interaction with major signal transduction cascades, as well as indirectly via interaction with the blood-brain barrier and cerebral vasculature...
November 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117122/abc-transporters-in-cancer-stem-cells-beyond-chemoresistance
#20
REVIEW
Romana-Rea Begicevic, Marco Falasca
The efficacy of chemotherapy is one of the main challenges in cancer treatment and one of the major obstacles to overcome in achieving lasting remission and a definitive cure in patients with cancer is the emergence of cancer resistance. Indeed, drug resistance is ultimately accountable for poor treatment outcomes and tumour relapse. There are various molecular mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance, such as the change in the activity of membrane transporters primarily belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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