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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922129/sex-differences-in-psychiatric-disease-a-focus-on-the-glutamate-system
#1
REVIEW
Megan M Wickens, Debra A Bangasser, Lisa A Briand
Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913137/memantine-rescues-prenatal-citalopram-exposure-induced-striatal-and-social-abnormalities-in-mice
#2
Aqeela Zahra, Jinxiang Jiang, Yunan Chen, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Prenatal exposure to citalopram (CTM), an antidepressant drug, has been associated with altered behavior, including autism-like symptoms in both human and rodent offspring. However, the neurological basis underlying these abnormal behaviors is not well understood. Here, we examined behavioral, morphological, and biochemical alterations in the male and female offspring of C57BL/6 mouse mothers that had been exposed to CTM during the last trimester of gestation. We observed abnormal behavior such as anxiety, altered locomotion and disordered social interactions in 2-5 month old offspring with prenatal CTM exposure...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910682/the-prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-china-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis
#3
Fei Wang, Li Lu, Shi-Bin Wang, Ling Zhang, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Xiao-Lan Cao, Jian-Ping Lu, Cai-Lan Hou, Fu-Jun Jia, Yu-Tao Xiang
There are conflicting prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainland China (China thereafter). This study is a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of ASDs in the general population in China. Study investigators independently conducted a systematic literature search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese biomedical literature service system, and Wan Fang. Studies reporting prevalence of ASDs and autism in Chinese population were identified and analysed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program with the random effects model...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902186/no-relationship-between-autistic-traits-and-salivary-testosterone-concentrations-in-men-from-the-general-population
#4
Diana Weiting Tan, Murray T Maybery, Michael W Clarke, Renata Di Lorenzo, Melissa O Evans, Michael Mancinone, Christina Panos, Andrew J O Whitehouse
It is suggested that testosterone may play a part in the higher prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in males compared to females. Previous studies have reported elevated postnatal testosterone levels in children and women with ASD but not in men. We compared levels of salivary testosterone across 67 undergraduate males (Mage 19.5 yrs, SD 1.92) selected for low, mid-range and high levels of autistic traits assessed using the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Analyses revealed no significant differences in testosterone concentrations across the three groups...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900238/rna-seq-data-on-prefrontal-cortex-in-valproic-acid-model-of-autism-and-control-rats
#5
Zhaoqiang Qian, Ruoxin Zhang, Jinlong Zhou, Siqi Sun, Yuanyuan Di, Wei Ren, Yingfang Tian
The transcriptome sequencing data of valproic acid (VPA) model of autism and control rats are presented. VPA model of autism was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproic acid to female rats at day 12.5 post-conception, and the control rats were injected with saline. Male offspring of VPA- or saline-injected dams from different litters were sacrificed on PND 35 ( n = three rats/three litters/group). Prefrontal cortex was dissected from both hemispheres, and RNA was isolated...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893661/individuals-seeking-gender-reassignment-marked-increase-in-demand-for-services
#6
Josephine Fielding, Christopher Bass
Aims and methodTo describe the pattern of referrals and characteristics of people aged over 18 seeking gender reassignment in Oxfordshire over a 6-year period (2011-2016). RESULTS: A total of 153 individuals attended for assessment (of 162 referred); 97 (63.4%) were natal males and 56 (36.6%) were natal females. Mean age at referral was markedly different between the two groups, with females being younger. The number of referral significantly increased over the time period, by an average of 18% per year (95% CI 1...
June 12, 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882460/sickness-absence-recommendation-among-outpatients-with-adhd-and-comorbidity-a-latent-class-analysis
#7
Aikatarini Trantou, Hanne K Carlsen, Christina Anderson, Steinn Steingrimsson
OBJECTIVE: Determine sickness absence recommendation (SAR) prevalence for treatment-seeking patients with ADHD depending on comorbidity. METHOD: Population-based patient chart review of ADHD outpatients aged 19 to 29 years. The outcome, SAR, included both available financial benefit forms; activity compensation and sickness benefit. Latent class analyses (LCA) of demography and psychiatric comorbidities were performed both with and without SAR as an outcome variable...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873078/attention-to-faces-in-social-context-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#8
Amelia K Lewis, Melanie A Porter, Tracey A Williams, Samantha Bzishvili, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
AIM: To examine visual attention to faces within social scenes in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and typically developing peers. METHOD: Using eye-tracking technology we investigated the time taken to fixate on a face and the percentage of time spent attending to faces relative to the rest of the screen within social scenes in 24 children with NF1 (17 females, seven males; mean age 10y 4mo [SD 1y 9mo]). Results were compared with those of 24 age-matched typically developing controls (11 females, 13 males; mean age 10y 3mo [SD 2y])...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870399/antioxidants-and-autism-teachers-perceptions-of-behavioral-changes
#9
Amy Sadek, Lee S Berk, Karen Mainess, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND- Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate a physiological imbalance between free radicals, resultant from oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathogenesis of this neurocognitive disorder. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effect of consumption of high concentration antioxidant cacao on behavior of children with ASD. METHODS- This was a 4-week pre-test post-test experimental pilot study of high antioxidant cacao and children with ASD...
June 5, 2018: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858515/comorbid-epilepsy-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-implications-of-postnatal-inflammation-for-brain-excitability
#10
Megan Leigh Lewis, Mitchell Kesler, Sydney A Candy, Jong M Rho, Quentin J Pittman
OBJECTIVE: In different cohorts, 5%-30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also have epilepsy. The high co-occurrence of these disorders suggests that a common mechanistic link may exist. The underlying pathophysiology of this comorbidity remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the pathogenesis of ASD and epilepsy, we developed and validated a novel mouse model that concurrently exhibits hallmark features of both disorders. METHODS: We utilized inbred BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice that exhibit the core behavioral characteristics of ASD (ie, impaired sociability, altered vocalizations, and restricted interests)...
June 2, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843508/dexmedetomidine-and-propofol-sedation-requirements-in-an-autistic-rat-model
#11
Soha A Elmorsy, Ghada F Soliman, Laila A Rashed, Hamed Elgendy
Background: Autism is a challenging neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous clinical observations suggest altered sedation requirements for autistic children. Our study aimed to test this observation experimentally with an animal model and, to explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Eight adult pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly selected into two groups. Four were injected with intraperitoneal sodium valproate on the gestational day 12 and four were injected with normal saline...
May 30, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801922/association-of-developing-childhood-epilepsy-subsequent-to-febrile-seizure-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Lin-Mei Chiang, Go-Shine Huang, Chi-Chin Sun, Ying-Li Hsiao, Chung Kun Hui, Mei-Hua Hu
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is an important neurological condition that frequently associated with neurobehavioral disorders in childhood. Our aim was to identify the risk of developing epilepsy subsequent to febrile seizure and the association between epilepsy risk factors and neurobehavioral disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This longitudinal population-based cohort data included 952 patients with a febrile seizure diagnosis and 3808 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants were recruited for the study from 1996 to 2011, and all patients were followed up for maximum 12...
May 22, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800075/a-duck-wearing-boots-pragmatic-language-strategies-for-repairing-communication-breakdowns-across-genetically-based-neurodevelopmental-disabilities
#13
Jamie Barstein, Gary E Martin, Michelle Lee, Molly Losh
Purpose: The ability to repair breakdowns in communication is an important pragmatic language skill that helps to maintain clear and meaningful interactions. Examining this ability in genetically based neurodevelopmental disabilities in which pragmatics are affected can provide important information about the precise pragmatic skills impacted across different populations and also help to identify core mechanisms underlying pragmatic impairment that may inform tailored interventions. Method: Individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD-O; n = 40), fragile X syndrome with comorbid autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD; n = 62), FXS without ASD (FXS-O; n = 38), Down syndrome (DS; n = 43), and typical development (TD; n = 42) completed a picture description task in which an examiner prompted for clarification repeatedly to elicit communication repair attempts...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796237/self-reported-sex-differences-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-a-meta-analysis
#14
R L Moseley, R Hitchiner, J A Kirkby
Background: Sex differences in autistic symptomatology are believed to contribute to the mis- and missed diagnosis of many girls and women with an autism spectrum condition (ASC). Whilst recent years have seen the emergence of clinical and empirical reports delineating the profile of young autistic girls, recognition of sex differences in symptomatology in adulthood is far more limited. Methods: We chose here to focus on symptomatology as reported using a screening instrument, the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R)...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787855/dysbiosis-of-microbiome-and-probiotic-treatment-in-a-genetic-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Laure Tabouy, Dimitry Getselter, Oren Ziv, Marcela Karpuj, Timothée Tabouy, Iva Lukic, Rasha Maayouf, Nir Werbner, Hila Ben-Amram, Meital Nuriel-Ohayon, Omry Koren, Evan Elliott
Recent studies have determined that the microbiome has direct effects on behavior, and may be dysregulated in neurodevelopmental conditions. Considering that neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, have a strong genetic etiology, it is necessary to understand if genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Shank3, can influence the gut microbiome, and if probiotics can be a therapeutic tool. In this study, we have identified dysregulation of several genera and species of bacteria in the gut and colon of both male and female Shank3 KO mice...
May 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777472/circumscribed-interests-and-attention-in-autism-the-role-of-biological-sex
#16
Clare Harrop, Desiree Jones, Shuting Zheng, Sallie Nowell, Brian A Boyd, Noah Sasson
Recent studies suggest that circumscribed interests (CI) in females with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may align more closely with interests reported in typical female development than those typically reported for ASD males. We used eye-tracking to quantify attention to arrays containing combinations of male, female and neutral images in elementary-aged males and females with and without ASD. A number of condition × sex effects emerged, with both groups attending to images that corresponded with interests typically associated with their biological sex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#17
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762671/motor-impairments-correlate-with-social-deficits-and-restricted-neuronal-loss-in-an-environmental-model-of-autism
#18
Tareq Al Sagheer, Obelia Haida, Anais Balbous, Maureen Francheteau, Emmanuel Matas, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Mohamed Jaber
Background: Motor impairments are amongst the earliest and most consistent signs of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but are not used as diagnostic criteria. In addition, the relationship between motor and cognitive impairments and their respective neural substrates remain unknown. Methods: Here, we aimed at determining whether a well-acknowledged animal model of ASD, the valproic acid (VPA) model, displays motor impairments and whether they may correlate with social deficits and neuronal loss within motor brain areas...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758565/clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-a-rare-syndrome-associated-with-neoteny
#19
Richard F Walker, Serban Ciotlos, Qing Mao, Robert Chin, Snezana Drmanac, Nina Barua, Misha R Agarwal, Rebecca Yu Zhang, Zhenyu Li, Michelle Ka Yan Wu, Kevin Sun, Katharine Lee, Staci Nguyen, Jia Sophie Liu, Paolo Carnevali, Radoje Drmanac, Brock A Peters
PurposeWe describe a novel syndrome in seven female patients with extreme developmental delay and neoteny.MethodsAll patients in this study were female, aged 4 to 23 years, were well below the fifth percentile in height and weight, had failed to develop sexually, and lacked the use of language. Karyotype and array chromosome genomic hybridization analysis failed to identify large-scale structural variations. To further understand the underlying cause of disease in these patients, whole-genome sequencing was performed...
April 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752658/cytoplasmic-fmrp-interacting-protein-1-2-cyfip1-2-expression-analysis-in-autism
#20
Rezvan Noroozi, Mir Davood Omrani, Arezou Sayad, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting proteins 1 and 2 (CYFIP1/2) have been previously shown to be associated with central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Moreover, dysregulation of their expression levels results in disturbances in CNS maturation and neuronal interconnections. In the present study, we compared expression levels of CYFIP1/2 in peripheral blood of 30 ASD patients and 41 healthy subjects by means of real time PCR. Expression analysis showed significant over-expression of CYFIP1/2 in ASD patients compared with healthy subjects (Fold change = 3...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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