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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701997/early-intranasal-vasopressin-administration-impairs-partner-preference-in-adult-male-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#1
Trenton C Simmons, Jessica F Balland, Janeet Dhauna, Sang Yun Yang, Jason L Traina, Jessica Vazquez, Karen L Bales
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP) as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701294/self-directed-telehealth-parent-mediated-intervention-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-examination-of-the-potential-reach-and-utilization-in-community-settings
#2
Brooke Ingersoll, Katherine Shannon, Natalie Berger, Katherine Pickard, Bree Holtz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for strategies to increase access to evidence-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One novel approach is to train parents to use evidence-based interventions for their child with ASD via telehealth. Pilot work examining the efficacy of one such program, ImPACT Online, demonstrated a high rate of parent program engagement, low attrition, and associated gains in parent learning and child social communication. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct an open trial of ImPACT Online to better understand its dissemination potential...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697590/prevalence-of-fragile-x-syndrome-among-children-receiving-special-education-and-carrier-states-in-first-degree-relatives
#3
B Chandrasekara, S Wijesundera, S S Chong, H N Perera
Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetically determined developmental disorder. Underlying genotype is cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeat expansions with over 200 repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Children with FXS are most accessible in special education institutions in Sri Lanka, with a total of approximately 6000 registered attendees. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of FXS among special school attendees and to screen first degree relatives of affected children...
June 30, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690234/-pcdh19-gene-mutations-lead-to-epilepsy-with-mental-retardation-limited-to-females-in-2-cases-and-literature-review
#4
Li Yang, Ahmed Arafat, Jing Peng, Chen Chen, Yuping Ma, Fei Yin
Epilepsy with mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a syndrome characterized by early onset heat-sensitive epilepsy of infancy or early childhood and generally limited to females, which previously reported that the cadherin gene superfamily subtype protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene is its pathogenic gene. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 2 cases of EFMR patients with PCDH19 mutation diagnosed by Department of Pediatric Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2015. Literature on PubMed, OMIM and HGMD relevant to this syndrome was reviewed, and the clinical characteristics were summarized accordingly...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689816/a-novel-role-for-dopamine-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bone-loss-from-the-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-in-female-mice
#5
Katherine J Motyl, Megan Beauchemin, Deborah Barlow, Phuong T Le, Kenichi Nagano, Annika Treyball, Anisha Contractor, Roland Baron, Clifford J Rosen, Karen L Houseknecht
Atypical antipsychotic (AA) drugs, including risperidone (RIS), are used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, and are prescribed off-label for other mental health issues. AA drugs are associated with severe metabolic side effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data also show that risperidone causes bone loss and increases fracture risk in both men and women. There are several potential mechanisms of bone loss from RIS. One is hypogonadism due to hyperprolactinemia from dopamine receptor antagonism...
July 6, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688078/differences-in-neural-correlates-of-speech-perception-in-3-month-olds-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Laura A Edwards, Jennifer B Wagner, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
In this study, we investigated neural precursors of language acquisition as potential endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 3-month-old infants at high and low familial ASD risk. Infants were imaged using functional near-infrared spectroscopy while they listened to auditory stimuli containing syllable repetitions; their neural responses were analyzed over left and right temporal regions. While female low risk infants showed initial neural activation that decreased over exposure to repetition-based stimuli, potentially indicating a habituation response to repetition in speech, female high risk infants showed no changes in neural activity over exposure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685102/autism-like-behaviours-and-memory-deficits-result-from-a-western-diet-in-mice
#7
Ekaterina Veniaminova, Raymond Cespuglio, Chi Wai Cheung, Alexei Umriukhin, Nataliia Markova, Elena Shevtsova, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, induced by a Western diet (WD), evokes central and peripheral inflammation that is accompanied by altered emotionality. These changes can be associated with abnormalities in social behaviour, hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, and metabolism. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or with a WD containing 0.2% of cholesterol and 21% of saturated fat for three weeks. WD-treated mice exhibited increased social avoidance, crawl-over and digging behaviours, decreased body-body contacts, and hyperlocomotion...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685060/22q12-3-microduplication-overlapping-the-large-gene-as-a-male-only-affected-loci-responsible-for-increasing-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Xuan Huang, Yingjun Xie, Qun Fang
The present study describes a three-generation Chinese family with one male who was diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) disease. The male proband presented with features of an autism spectrum disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an abnormal high-intensity zone in the frontal white matter. Whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism-microarray demonstrated an interstitial 575-kb duplication of chromosome 22p12.3 that involved the LARGE gene among the six family members, which included three healthy female carriers, the affected boy and two male fetuses...
July 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678216/public-awareness-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Matar A Alsehemi, Mahmoud M Abousaadah, Razan A Sairafi, Mohammed M Jan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. METHODS: A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being <30 years of age and 57% being females...
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670439/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-increases-mir-132-levels-in-the-mouse-embryonic-brain
#10
Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Erika Takano, Shigeru Hasebe, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, are highly expressed in the mammalian brain, and the dysregulation of microRNA levels may be involved in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the present study, we examined whether prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure affects levels of microRNAs, especially the brain specific and enriched microRNAs, in the mouse embryonic brain. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to VPA at E12.5 immediately increased miR-132 levels, but not miR-9 or miR-124 levels, in the male embryonic brain...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655626/differential-effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-antidepressants-on-learning-and-memory-acoustic-startle-anxiety-and-open-field-activity-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Jenna L N Sprowles, Jillian R Hufgard, Arnold Gutierrez, Rebecca A Bailey, Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Most antidepressants inhibit monoamine reuptake. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act on the 5-HT transporter (SERT) whereas norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) act on the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters. Epidemiological reports link SSRI use during pregnancy to an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously showed that perinatal exposure to the SSRI citalopram (CIT) results in rodent offspring that exhibit a number of behaviors consistent with an ASD-like phenotype...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649313/the-eu-aims-longitudinal-european-autism-project-leap-clinical-characterisation
#12
Tony Charman, Eva Loth, Julian Tillmann, Daisy Crawley, Caroline Wooldridge, David Goyard, Jumana Ahmad, Bonnie Auyeung, Sara Ambrosino, Tobias Banaschewski, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sarah Baumeister, Christian Beckmann, Sven Bölte, Thomas Bourgeron, Carsten Bours, Michael Brammer, Daniel Brandeis, Claudia Brogna, Yvette de Bruijn, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Ineke Cornelissen, Flavio Dell' Acqua, Guillaume Dumas, Sarah Durston, Christine Ecker, Jessica Faulkner, Vincent Frouin, Pilar Garcés, Lindsay Ham, Hannah Hayward, Joerg Hipp, Rosemary J Holt, Johan Isaksson, Mark H Johnson, Emily J H Jones, Prantik Kundu, Meng-Chuan Lai, Xavier Liogier D'ardhuy, Michael V Lombardo, David J Lythgoe, René Mandl, Luke Mason, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Carolin Moessnang, Nico Mueller, Laurence O'Dwyer, Marianne Oldehinkel, Bob Oranje, Gahan Pandina, Antonio M Persico, Barbara Ruggeri, Amber N V Ruigrok, Jessica Sabet, Roberto Sacco, Antonia San Jóse Cáceres, Emily Simonoff, Roberto Toro, Heike Tost, Jack Waldman, Steve C R Williams, Marcel P Zwiers, Will Spooren, Declan G M Murphy, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study on biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper describes the clinical characteristics of the LEAP cohort and examines age, sex and IQ differences in ASD core symptoms and common co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. A companion paper describes the overall design and experimental protocol and outlines the strategy to identify stratification biomarkers...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647593/features-of-emotional-and-social-behavioral-phenotypes-of-calsyntenin2-knockout-mice
#13
S V Ranneva, K S Pavlov, A V Gromova, T G Amstislavskaya, T V Lipina
Calsyntenin-2 (Clstn2) is the synaptic protein that belongs to the super family of cadherins, playing an important role in learning and memory. We recently reported that Clstn2 knockout mice (Clstn2-KO) have a deficit of GABAergic interneurons coupled with hyperactivity and deficient spatial memory. Given, that impaired functioning of GABA receptors is linked to several psychopathologies, including anxiety and autism, we sought to further characterize Clstn2-KO mice with respect to emotional and social behavior...
June 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647010/social-skills-training-for-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Nora Choque Olsson, Oskar Flygare, Christina Coco, Anders Görling, Anna Råde, Qi Chen, Katarina Lindstedt, Steve Berggren, Eva Serlachius, Ulf Jonsson, Kristiina Tammimies, Lars Kjellin, Sven Bölte
OBJECTIVE: Social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is widely applied, but effectiveness in real-world practice has not yet been properly evaluated. This study sought to bridge this gap. METHOD: This 12-week pragmatic randomized controlled trial of SSGT compared to standard care alone was conducted at 13 child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient units in Sweden. Twelve sessions of manualized SSGT ("KONTAKT") were delivered by regular clinical staff...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638324/stochastic-signatures-of-involuntary-head-micro-movements-can-be-used-to-classify-females-of-abide-into-different-subtypes-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
Elizabeth B Torres, Sejal Mistry, Carla Caballero, Caroline P Whyatt
Background: The approximate 5:1 male to female ratio in clinical detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prevents research from characterizing the female phenotype. Current open access repositories [such as those in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE I-II)] contain large numbers of females to help begin providing a new characterization of females on the autistic spectrum. Here we introduce new methods to integrate data in a scale-free manner from continuous biophysical rhythms of the nervous systems and discrete (ordinal) observational scores...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620892/a-prospective-study-of-the-concordance-of-dsm-iv-and-dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Micah O Mazurek, Frances Lu, Heather Symecko, Eric Butter, Nicole M Bing, Rachel J Hundley, Marie Poulsen, Stephen M Kanne, Eric A Macklin, Benjamin L Handen
The transition from DSM-IV to DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sparked considerable concern about the potential implications of these changes. This study was designed to address limitations of prior studies by prospectively examining the concordance of DSM-IV and final DSM-5 criteria on a consecutive sample of 439 children referred for autism diagnostic evaluations. Concordance and discordance were assessed using a consistent diagnostic battery. DSM-5 criteria demonstrated excellent overall specificity and good sensitivity relative to DSM-IV criteria...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#17
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618077/generation-of-a-microglial-developmental-index-in-mice-and-in-humans-reveals-a-sex-difference-in-maturation-and-immune-reactivity
#18
Richa Hanamsagar, Mark D Alter, Carina S Block, Haley Sullivan, Jessica L Bolton, Staci D Bilbo
Evidence suggests many neurological disorders emerge when normal neurodevelopmental trajectories are disrupted, i.e., when circuits or cells do not reach their fully mature state. Microglia play a critical role in normal neurodevelopment and are hypothesized to contribute to brain disease. We used whole transcriptome profiling with Next Generation sequencing of purified developing microglia to identify a microglial developmental gene expression program involving thousands of genes whose expression levels change monotonically (up or down) across development...
September 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612411/deficits-in-temporal-processing-in-mice-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#19
Julieta Acosta, Marcos A Campolongo, Christian Höcht, Amaicha M Depino, Diego A Golombek, Patricia V Agostino
Temporal processing in the seconds-to-minutes range, known as interval timing, is a crucial cognitive function that requires activation of cortico-striatal circuits via dopaminergic-glutamatergic pathways. In humans, both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present alterations in their estimation of time intervals. At present, there are no records of interval timing studies in animal models of ASD. Hence, the objective of the present work was to evaluate interval timing in a mouse model of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) - a treatment used to induce human-like autistic features in rodent models...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609577/cerebrolysin-prevents-deficits-in-social-behavior-repetitive-conduct-and-synaptic-inhibition-in-a-rat-model-of-autism
#20
Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Swagata Roychowdhury, Anwesha Banerjee, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, María Elena Bringas, Michael P Kilgard, Gonzalo Flores, Marco Atzori
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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