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Autism placenta

Christopher L Muller, Allison Mj Anacker, Tiffany D Rogers, Nick Goeden, Elizabeth H Keller, C Gunnar Forsberg, Travis M Kerr, Carly LA Wender, George M Anderson, Gregg D Stanwood, Randy D Blakely, Alexandre Bonnin, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Biomarker, neuroimaging, and genetic findings implicate the serotonin transporter (SERT) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, we found that adult male mice expressing the autism-associated SERT Ala56 variant have altered central serotonin (5-HT) system function, as well as elevated peripheral blood 5-HT levels. Early in gestation, before midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the cortex, peripheral sources supply 5-HT to the forebrain, suggesting that altered maternal or placenta 5-HT system function could impact the developing embryo...
August 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Asher Ornoy, Liza Weinstein-Fudim, Zivanit Ergaz
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marie-Julie Allard, Julie D Bergeron, Moogeh Baharnoori, Lalit K Srivastava, Louis-Charles Fortier, Claire Poyart, Guillaume Sébire
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium present in the lower genital tract of 15-30% of healthy pregnant women. GBS is the leading cause of chorioamnionitis and cerebral injuries in newborns, occurring most often in the absence of maternofetal pathogen translocation. Despite GBS being the most frequent bacterium colonizing pregnant women, no preclinical studies have investigated the impact of end-gestational maternal GBS exposure on the offspring's brain development and its behavioral correlates...
May 25, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Michel R Odent
We hypothesise that neonatal BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) might be used to adapt to a new phase in the history of human births. Among most mammals, the placenta is not effective at transferring antibodies to the fetus: antibodies are transferred immediately after birth via the colostrum. Among humans (and other mammals with hemochorial placentas) the transplacental transfer of antibodies (namely IgG) is effective. In humans, foetal concentrations of IgG sub-classes approximate to maternal concentrations at 38weeks and continue to increase thereafter...
June 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Mark M Gottlieb
The risk of Pitocin as a cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization in the brain of the fetus is evaluated in terms of a mathematical model. A composite unit, D, for oxytocin receptor desensitization levels is established with the form ((IU-h)/ml)E-3, where IU is the international unit for oxytocin. The desensitization values for oxytocin receptor desensitization at a concentration of 10 nmol of oxytocin per liter for 3, 4.2 and 6h corresponding to 0%, 50% and 100% desensitization are calculated to be 15 D, 21 D, and 30 D, respectively...
February 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Moriya Gamliel, K L Anderson, R P Ebstein, N Yirmiya, D Mankuta
OBJECTIVE: Oxytocin, a hypothalamic hormone secreted upon release of ectoenzyme CD38, plays a vital role in interpersonal bonding behaviors. Reduced plasma oxytocin characterizes autistic individuals. CD38 levels, which were found to be low in LBCs derived from autistic patients, is upregulated upon the addition of a vitamin A derivative. During pregnancy, oxytocin is also secreted by placenta. Recent controversial studies have suggested an increased risk for autism when oxytocin is used during induction and augmentation of labor...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Stefanie L Bronson, Tracy L Bale
Adversity experienced during gestation is a predictor of lifetime neuropsychiatric disease susceptibility. Specifically, maternal stress during pregnancy predisposes offspring to sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Animal models have demonstrated disease-relevant endophenotypes in prenatally stressed offspring and have provided unique insight into potential programmatic mechanisms. The placenta has a critical role in the deleterious and sex-specific effects of maternal stress and other fetal exposures on the developing brain...
January 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tsuyoshi Tsukada, Eriko Simamura, Hiroki Shimada, Takuma Arai, Nobuaki Higashi, Takuya Akai, Hideaki Iizuka, Toshihisa Hatta
Recent studies in rodents suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) by viral infection is associated with schizophrenia and autism in offspring. Although maternal IL-6 is though t to be a possible mediator relating MIA induced these neuropsychiatric disorders, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Previously, we reported that the maternal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-placental ACTH-fetal LIF signaling relay pathway (maternal-fetal LIF signal relay) promotes neurogenesis of fetal cerebrum in rats. Here we report that the maternal-fetal LIF signal relay in mice is suppressed by injection of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid into dams, which induces MIA at 12...
2015: PloS One
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are considered a heterogenous set of neurobehavioral diseases, with the rates of diagnosis dramatically increasing in the past few decades. As genetics alone does not explain the underlying cause in many cases, attention has turned to environmental factors as potential etiological agents. Gastrointestinal disorders are a common comorbidity in ASD patients. It was thus hypothesized that a gut-brain link may account for some autistic cases. With the characterization of the human microbiome, this concept has been expanded to include the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
October 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Omi Watanabe
Psychiatric disorders are equally common among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and many of these conditions are treated with psychotropic medications. The use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy, especially antidepressants, became increasingly prevalent in the early 2000's, although many physicians prefer not to prescribe drugs for pregnant women due to concerns about teratogenicity. Current data on the risks of in utero exposure to psychotropic medications are limited, leaving women and physicians to make difficult decisions regarding the initiation or maintenance of treatment during pregnancy without a complete knowledge of the risks...
2014: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Cheryl K Walker, Paula Krakowiak, Alice Baker, Robin L Hansen, Sally Ozonoff, Irva Hertz-Picciotto
IMPORTANCE: Increasing evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and many forms of developmental delay (DD) originate during fetal development. Preeclampsia may trigger aberrant neurodevelopment through placental, maternal, and fetal physiologic mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preeclampsia is associated with ASD and/or DD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study is a population-based, case-control investigation of ASD and/or DD origins...
February 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
Olena Babenko, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
Research efforts during the past decades have provided intriguing evidence suggesting that stressful experiences during pregnancy exert long-term consequences on the future mental wellbeing of both the mother and her baby. Recent human epidemiological and animal studies indicate that stressful experiences in utero or during early life may increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric disorders, arguably via altered epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications are prone to changes in response to stressful experiences and hostile environmental factors...
January 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
E Adler, R Madankumar, M Rosner, S E Reznik
INTRODUCTION: Trophoblast inclusions (TIs) are often found in placentas of genetically abnormal gestations. Although best documented in placentas from molar pregnancies and chromosomal aneuploidy, TIs are also associated with more subtle genetic abnormalities, and possibly autism. Less than 3% of non-aneuploid, non-accreta placentas have TIs. We hypothesize that placental genetics may play a role in the development of placenta accreta and aim to study TIs as a potential surrogate indicator of abnormal placental genetics...
December 2014: Placenta
Dan Ehninger
Dysregulated TSC/mTOR signaling may play a pathogenetic role in forms of syndromic autism, such as autism associated with tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder caused by heterozygous TSC1 or TSC2 mutations. Environmental risk factors, such as gestational viral infections, may, in some cases, also contribute to the pathogenesis of autism and related neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently found that a heterozygous Tsc2 mutation and the poly I:C model of maternal immune activation (MIA) interactively perturb fetal development and adult social behavior in mice, suggesting that these factors converge on shared pathways...
2014: Autism Research and Treatment
Corina Lesseur, Alison G Paquette, Carmen J Marsit
During fetal development and early-infancy, environmental signals can induce epigenetic changes that alter neurobehavioral development and later-life mental health. Several neurodevelopmental genetic diseases influence epigenetic regulatory genes and genomic imprinting. Recently, brain epigenetic marks have been involved in idiopathic neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The placenta is an important regulator of the intrauterine environment that links maternal and fetal nervous systems...
May 2014: Medical Epigenetics
Chelsea Lowther, Gregory Costain, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Rebecca Melvin, Candice K Silversides, Danielle M Andrade, Joyce So, Hanna Faghfoury, Anath C Lionel, Christian R Marshall, Stephen W Scherer, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE: Recurrent 15q13.3 deletions are enriched in multiple neurodevelopmental conditions including intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. However, the 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome remains ill-defined. METHODS: We systematically compiled all cases of 15q13.3 deletion published before 2014. We also examined three locally available cohorts to identify new adults with 15q13.3 deletions. RESULTS: We identified a total of 246 cases (133 children, 113 adults) with deletions overlapping or within the 15q13...
February 2015: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Elysia Poggi Davis, Donald Pfaff
During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the life cycle. For these reasons the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems...
November 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jeanette C Valleau, Elinor L Sullivan
Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed...
November 2014: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Stefanie L Bronson, Tracy L Bale
Adverse experiences during gestation such as maternal stress and infection are known risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The mechanisms by which these distinct exposures may confer similar psychiatric vulnerability remain unclear, although likely involve pathways common to both stress and immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that maternal stress-induced activation of immune pathways within the placenta, the sex-specific maternal-fetal intermediary, may contribute to prenatal stress programming effects on the offspring...
July 2014: Endocrinology
C-J Yang, H-P Tan, Y-J Du
Autism is a developmental disorder defined by the presence of a triad of communication, social and stereo typical behavioral characteristics with onset before 3years of age. In spite of the fact that there are potential environmental factors for autistic behavior, the dysfunction of serotonin during early development of the brain could be playing a role in this prevalence rise. Serotonin can modulate a number of developmental events, including cell division, neuronal migration, cell differentiation and synaptogenesis...
May 16, 2014: Neuroscience
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