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Autism endocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331572/environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-an-evidence-based-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#1
REVIEW
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. FINDINGS: Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#2
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#3
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#4
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#6
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984170/autism-genes-are-selectively-targeted-by-environmental-pollutants-including-pesticides-heavy-metals-bisphenol-a-phthalates-and-many-others-in-food-cosmetics-or-household-products
#7
REVIEW
C J Carter, R A Blizard
The increasing incidence of autism suggests a major environmental influence. Epidemiology has implicated many candidates and genetics many susceptibility genes. Gene/environment interactions in autism were analysed using 206 autism susceptibility genes (ASG's) from the Autworks database to interrogate ∼1 million chemical/gene interactions in the comparative toxicogenomics database. Any bias towards ASG's was statistically determined for each chemical. Many suspect compounds identified in epidemiology, including tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides, particulate matter, benzo(a)pyrene, heavy metals, valproate, acetaminophen, SSRI's, cocaine, bisphenol A, phthalates, polyhalogenated biphenyls, flame retardants, diesel constituents, terbutaline and oxytocin, inter alia showed a significant degree of bias towards ASG's, as did relevant endogenous agents (retinoids, sex steroids, thyroxine, melatonin, folate, dopamine, serotonin)...
October 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983596/estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-influencing-nrf1-regulated-gene-networks-in-the-development-of-complex-human-brain-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Mark Preciados, Changwon Yoo, Deodutta Roy
During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692925/behavioral-difficulties-in-7-year-old-children-in-relation-to-developmental-exposure-to-perfluorinated-alkyl-substances
#9
Youssef Oulhote, Ulrike Steuerwald, Frodi Debes, Pal Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are suspected endocrine disruptors that are highly persistent and neurotoxic in animals. Human epidemiological studies of exposure-related deviations of children's behaviors are sparse. We assessed the associations between prenatal, 5- and 7-year PFAS exposures and behavioral problem scores in 7-year Faroese children. METHODS: Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were measured in maternal serum and in serum from children at ages 5 and 7years (n=539, 508, and 491, respectively)...
December 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513883/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-psychiatric-disorders-co-morbidity-and-heritability-in-a-nationwide-swedish-cohort
#10
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477860/the-endocrine-society-centennial-no-longer-a-surprise-estrogenic-chemicals-in-a-multitude-of-places
#11
Emilie F Rissman
Nowadays, we are bombarded with information on a large number of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hear and read about endocrine-disrupting chemicals on blogs, the web, news stories, television specials, advertisements, and of course scientific articles. Reports claim these ubiquitous compounds are responsible for increased rates of cancer, autism, obesity, hypospadias, and infertility, just to name a few. But it was not always this way. In fact, the scientific study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is relatively new: a recent PubMed search found a total of 6184 hits for the term, 739 articles in 2015 as compared with 4, 20 years ago in 1995...
August 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473827/the-relationship-between-mercury-and-autism-a-comprehensive-review-and-discussion
#12
REVIEW
Janet K Kern, David A Geier, Lisa K Sykes, Boyd E Haley, Mark R Geier
The brain pathology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) indicates marked and ongoing inflammatory reactivity with concomitant neuronal damage. These findings are suggestive of neuronal insult as a result of external factors, rather than some type of developmental mishap. Various xenobiotics have been suggested as possible causes of this pathology. In a recent review, the top ten environmental compounds suspected of causing autism and learning disabilities were listed and they included: lead, methyl-mercury, polychorinated biphenyls, organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, endocrine disruptors, automotive exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds...
September 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391253/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-reproductive-health
#13
REVIEW
Marya G Zlatnik
This review discusses the evidence linking industrial chemicals to a variety of health and reproductive outcomes. Industrial chemical production has increased over the past 30 to 40 years. Basic science, animal models, and epidemiologic data suggest that certain chemicals may act as endocrine disruptors (substances that interfere with normal hormonal action) and may play an etiologic role in a number of conditions whose incidence has also increased during this same period. These include low birth weight, gestational diabetes, obesity, certain cancers, certain birth defects, and neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder and autism...
July 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187441/epigenetic-effect-of-environmental-factors-on-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Takeo Kubota, Kazuki Mochizuki
Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181180/associations-between-cytokines-endocrine-stress-response-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Bradley J Ferguson, Sarah Marler, Lily L Altstein, Evon Batey Lee, Micah O Mazurek, Aaron McLaughlin, Eric A Macklin, Erin McDonnell, Daniel J Davis, Anthony M Belenchia, Catherine H Gillespie, Catherine A Peterson, Margaret L Bauman, Kara Gross Margolis, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, David Q Beversdorf
Many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the etiology is currently unknown. Some individuals with ASD show altered reactivity to stress and altered immune markers relative to typically-developing individuals, particularly stress-responsive cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Acute and chronic stress is associated with the onset and exacerbation of GI symptoms in those without ASD. The present study examined whether GI symptoms in ASD were associated with increases in cortisol, a stress-associated endocrine marker, and TNF-α and IL-6 in response to stress...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147957/chemicals-nutrition-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-mini-review
#16
REVIEW
Takeo Fujiwara, Naho Morisaki, Yukiko Honda, Makiko Sampei, Yukako Tani
The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003928/burden-of-disease-and-costs-of-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-the-european-union-an-updated-analysis
#17
L Trasande, R T Zoeller, U Hass, A Kortenkamp, P Grandjean, J P Myers, J DiGangi, P M Hunt, R Rudel, S Sathyanarayana, M Bellanger, R Hauser, J Legler, N E Skakkebaek, J J Heindel
A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency...
July 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994593/deficits-in-voice-and-multisensory-processing-in-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#18
Juliette Salles, Kuzma Strelnikov, Mantoulan Carine, Thuilleaux Denise, Virginie Laurier, Catherine Molinas, Maïthé Tauber, Pascal Barone
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurodevelopmental and genetic disorder that is characterized by various expression of endocrine, cognitive and behavioral problems, among which a true obsession for food and a deficit of satiety that leads to hyperphagia and severe obesity. Neuropsychological studies have reported that PWS display altered social interactions with a specific weakness in interpreting social information and in responding to them, a symptom closed to that observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)...
May 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613405/the-plausibility-of-maternal-toxicant-exposure-and-nutritional-status-as-contributing-factors-to-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Johnathan R Nuttall
Recent research suggests the maternal environment may be especially important for the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular maternal infections, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity, and toxicant exposures are likely to interact with genetic risk factors to disrupt fetal brain development. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to investigate the plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as causal factors in the development of ASD. METHODS: This paper reviews current research investigating the hypothesis that maternal toxicant exposure and prenatal micronutrient intake are important modifiable risk factors for ASD...
May 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26541950/acetylcysteine-for-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms
#20
Danielle Stutzman, Julie Dopheide
PURPOSE: Successful use of acetylcysteine to control irritability and aggressive behaviors in a hospitalized adolescent patient with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is described. SUMMARY: A 17-year-old Hispanic male with ASD and intellectual disability was hospitalized for inpatient psychiatric treatment due to impulsive and violent behavior. Despite receiving various medications in the initial weeks of hospitalization, including intramuscular lorazepam and diphenhydramine injections (four days a week on average), the patient continued to exhibit aggressive and unpredictable behaviors...
November 15, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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