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Antimicrobial peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910930/design-of-a-hydroxyapatite-binding-antimicrobial-peptide-with-improved-retention-and-antibacterial-efficacy-for-oral-pathogen-control
#1
Zhi-Bin Huang, Xin Shi, Jing Mao, Shi-Qiang Gong
Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909427/biocombinatorial-synthesis-of-novel-lipopeptides-by-com-domain-mediated-reprogramming-of-the-plipastatin-nrps-complex
#2
Hongxia Liu, Ling Gao, Jinzhi Han, Zhi Ma, Zhaoxin Lu, Chen Dai, Chong Zhang, Xiaomei Bie
Both donors and acceptors of communication-mediating (COM) domains are essential for coordinating intermolecular communication within nonribosomal peptides synthetases (NRPSs) complexes. Different sets of COM domains provide selectivity, allowing NRPSs to utilize different natural biosynthetic templates. In this study, novel lipopeptides were synthesized by reprogramming the plipastatin biosynthetic machinery. A Thr-to-Asp point mutation was sufficient to shift the selectivity of the donor COM domain of ppsB toward that of ppsD...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#3
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#4
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907988/kr12-peptide-associated-with-cyclodextrin-antimicrobial-and-antitumor-activities
#5
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Flávio Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903451/fatty-acid-synthase-plays-a-positive-role-in-shrimp-immune-responses-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#6
Hongliang Zuo, Jiefeng Gao, Jia Yuan, Hengwei Deng, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids. In this study, the role of the FAS gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFAS) in immune responses against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was studied. The expression of LvFAS could be up-regulated upon infection of V. parahaemolyticus and stimulation of lipopolysaccharide and poly (I:C). The promoter of LvFAS was predicted to harbor a NF-κB binding site and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NF-κB family proteins Relish, sRelish and Dorsal could activate the transcription of LvFAS...
November 26, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903232/solution-structure-and-expression-profile-of-an-insect-cytokine-manduca-sexta-stress-response-peptide-2
#7
Lynn Goss Schrag, Xiaolong Cao, Alvaro Ivan Herrera, Yang Wang, Haobo Jiang, Om Prakash
Manduca sexta stress response peptide-2 (SRP2) is predicted to be a 25-residue peptide (FGVKDGKCPSGRVRRLGICVPDDDY), which may function as an insect cytokine to regulate immune responses. Produced as an inactive precursor, endogenous proSRP2 is probably converted to active SRP2 by limited proteolysis in response to invading pathogens, along with prophenoloxidase and pro-Spätzle activation. In addition to immunity, SRP2 may control head morphogenesis or other developmental processes in the lepidopteran insect...
November 21, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902417/lantibiotics-produced-by-actinobacteria-and-their-potential-applications-a-review
#8
Karen Gomes, Rafael Silva Duarte, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally-synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes...
November 22, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901075/membrane-core-specific-antimicrobial-action-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-peptide-switches-between-pore-and-nanofibre-formation
#9
Mahdi Shahmiri, Marta Enciso, Christopher G Adda, Brian J Smith, Matthew A Perugini, Adam Mechler
Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated phospholipids...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#10
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
November 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900727/antimicrobial-activity-and-stability-of-the-d-amino-acid-substituted-derivatives-of-antimicrobial-peptide-polybia-mpi
#11
Yanyan Zhao, Min Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jiayi Wang, Jinxiu Peng, Ping Zhao, Ranran Zhu, Hailin Wang, Yuan Li, Kairong Wang, Wenjin Yan, Rui Wang
Antimicrobial peptide has the potential to be developed as new kind of antimicrobial agents with novel action mechanism. However, the susceptibility to protease is a drawback for potential peptides to be clinical used. D-amino acid substitution can be one way to increase the proteolytic stability of peptides. In the present study, we synthesized the D-lysines substituted analog (D-lys-MPI) and the D-enantiomer of polybia-MPI (D-MPI) to improve the proteolytic resistance of polybia-MPI. Our results showed that, the stability of its D-amino acid partially substituted analog D-lys-MPI was increased...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899793/bacterial-proteases-untapped-antimicrobial-drug-targets
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth Culp, Gerard D Wright
Bacterial proteases are an extensive collection of enzymes that have vital roles in cell viability, stress response and pathogenicity. Although their perturbation clearly offers the potential for antimicrobial drug development, both as traditional antibiotics and anti-virulence drugs, they are not yet the target of any clinically used therapeutics. Here we describe the potential for and recent progress in the development of compounds targeting bacterial proteases with a focus on AAA+ family proteolytic complexes and signal peptidases (SPs)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898891/behavior-and-inflammation-of-the-rumen-and-cecum-in-holstein-bulls-fed-high-concentrate-diets-with-different-concentrate-presentation-forms-with-or-without-straw-supplementation
#13
M Devant, G B Penner, S Marti, B Quintana, F Fábregas, A Bach, A Arís
Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898727/biological-markers-for-pulpal-inflammation-a-systematic-review
#14
Dan-Krister Rechenberg, Johnah C Galicia, Ove A Peters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897200/lipid-ii-independent-antimicrobial-mechanism-of-nisin-depends-on-its-crowding-and-degree-of-oligomerization
#15
Ashutosh Prince, Padmani Sandhu, Pankaj Kumar, Eva Dash, Shingarika Sharma, Manoranjan Arakha, Suman Jha, Yusuf Akhter, Mohammed Saleem
Nisin inhibits bacterial growth by generating pores in cell membrane and interrupting cell-wall biosynthesis through specific lipid II interaction. However, the role of the hinge region and C-terminus residues of the peptide in antibacterial action of nisin is largely unknown. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and experimental approach, we report that at high concentration regimes of nisin, interaction with phospholipids may equally deform the bacterial cell membranes even under significantly varying amounts of lipid-II...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897110/identification-of-tyrosine-kinase-src-responsible-for-antimicrobial-peptides-production-in-bombyx-mori
#16
Xianyang Li, Xiaoting Hua, Liang Song, Qingyou Xia, Fei Wang
Src is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase ubiquitously expressed in animals. It is involved in various cellular processes, including the innate immune response in mammals. However, less is known about the function of insect Src. Here we presented a homologue of Src in silkworm (Bombyx mori), named as BmSrc by phylogenetic analysis, homologous comparison and domain prediction. BmSrc contains the conserved phosphorylation residues and possesses tyrosine kinase activity. The expression pattern of BmSrc mRNA was specific in stages and tissues...
November 29, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895639/netosis-as-source-of-autoantigens-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
Elisa Corsiero, Federico Pratesi, Edoardo Prediletto, Michele Bombardieri, Paola Migliorini
In neutrophils (but also in eosinophils and in mast cells), different inflammatory stimuli induce histone deimination, chromatin decondensation, and NET formation. These web-like structures that trap and kill microbes contain DNA, cationic granule proteins, and antimicrobial peptides, but the most abundant proteins are core histones. Histones contained in NETs have been deiminated, and arginines are converted in citrullines. While deimination is a physiological process amplified in inflammatory conditions, only individuals carrying genetic predisposition to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) make antibodies to deiminated proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895479/cationic-pegylated-liposomes-incorporating-an-antimicrobial-peptide-tilapia-hepcidin-2-3-an-adjuvant-of-epirubicin-to-overcome-multidrug-resistance-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#18
Vivian Juang, Hsin-Pin Lee, Anya Maan-Yuh Lin, Yu-Li Lo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recently evaluated as a new generation of adjuvants in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we designed PEGylated liposomes encapsulating epirubicin as an antineoplastic agent and tilapia hepcidin 2-3, an AMP, as a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter suppressor and an apoptosis/autophagy modulator in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with PEGylated liposomal formulation of epirubicin and hepcidin 2-3 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of epirubicin...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892871/phenotypic-modulation-of-porcine-cd14-monocytes-natural-killer-natural-killer-t-cells-and-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-by-an-antibody-derived-killer-peptide-kp
#19
Luca Ferrari, Paolo Borghetti, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Elena Canelli, Giulia Ogno, Alessia Catella, Tecla Ciociola, Walter Magliani, Paolo Martelli
An engineered killer peptide (KP) based on a recombinant anti-idiotypic antibody representing the functional image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) was demonstrated to mediate antimicrobial effects against fungi and viruses. KP binds to murine dendritic cells and macrophages and up-regulate co-receptor expression, thus sustaining CD4+ lymphocyte activation. No immunological data are available in domestic animals thus KP-induced immunomodulation was evaluated in porcine monocyte and lymphocyte subsets. PBMC from healthy adult pigs were stimulated with KP or a scramble peptide (SP), or kept unstimulated for 24, 48 and 72h, and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892584/a-short-history-of-phototherapy-vitamin-d-and-skin-disease
#20
Paul Jarrett, Robert Scragg
The earliest record between sun exposure and skin disease goes back five millennia to the ancient Egyptians. The modern scientific era of medical light therapy and skin diseases started in 1877 when Downs and Blunt reported that exposure to light inhibited fungal growth in test tubes. Continuing research generated a growing medical interest in the potential the effects of light to treat and cure skin diseases considered as parasitic. This culminated in the awarding of the 1903 Nobel Prize in Medicine to Niels Finsen for his pioneering work showing that light could successfully treat cutaneous mycobacterium tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), a disfiguring disorder common at the time...
November 28, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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