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Antimicrobial peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231019/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-impair-vitamin-d-induced-host-defense-in-cultured-airway-epithelial-cells
#1
Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Gimano D Amatngalim, Joris B Veldkamp, Renate M Verhoosel, Dennis K Ninaber, Soledad R Ordonez, Anne M van der Does, Henk P Haagsman, Pieter S Hiemstra
Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230992/novel-design-of-heptad-amphiphiles-to-enhance-cell-selectivity-salt-resistance-anti-biofilm-properties-and-their-membrane-disruptive-mechanism
#2
Xiujing Dou, Xin Zhu, Jiajun Wang, Na Dong, Anshan Shan
Coiled-coil, a basic folding pattern of native proteins, was previously demonstrated to be associated with the specific spatial recognition, association, and dissociation of proteins and can be used to perfect engineering peptide model. Thus, in this study, a series of amphiphiles composed of heptads repeats with coiled-coil structures was constructed, and the designed peptides exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Circular dichroism and biological assays showed that the heptad repeats and length of the linker between the heptads largely influenced the amphiphile's helical propensity and cell selectivity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230084/highly-potent-antimicrobial-peptides-from-n-terminal-membrane-binding-region-of-e-coli-mreb
#3
Karabi Saikia, Yalavarthi Durga Sravani, Vibin Ramakrishnan, Nitin Chaudhary
Microbial pathogenesis is a serious health concern. The threat escalates as the existing conventional antimicrobials are losing their efficacy against the evolving pathogens. Peptides hold promise to be developed into next-generation antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides adopt amphipathic structures that could selectively bind to and disrupt the microbial membranes. Interaction of proteins with membranes is central to all living systems and we reasoned that the membrane-binding domains in microbial proteins could be developed into efficient antimicrobials...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229435/design-and-pharmacodynamics-of-recombinant-nz2114-histidine-mutants-with-improved-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Huixian Chen, Ruoyu Mao, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ya Hao, Xingjun Feng, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 is a promising candidate for therapeutic application owing to its potent activity to Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to identify NZ2114 derivatives with improved activity through substitution of His16 and His18 with residues Arginine and Lysine. Eight mutants were designed and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 via pPICZαA. Five of them exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus at low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.057-0.454 μM. Among them, H1, H2, and H3 showed ideal pharmacodynamic effects on methicillin-resistant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228596/antimicrobials-from-human-skin-commensal-bacteria-protect-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-are-deficient-in-atopic-dermatitis
#5
Teruaki Nakatsuji, Tiffany H Chen, Saisindhu Narala, Kimberly A Chun, Aimee M Two, Tong Yun, Faiza Shafiq, Paul F Kotol, Amina Bouslimani, Alexey V Melnik, Haythem Latif, Ji-Nu Kim, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Gloria David, Patricia Taylor, Joanne Streib, Pieter C Dorrestein, Alex Grier, Steven R Gill, Karsten Zengler, Tissa R Hata, Donald Y M Leung, Richard L Gallo
The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects...
February 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228075/challenges-in-dermal-delivery-of-therapeutic-antimicrobial-protein-and-peptides
#6
Rohan Aminbhai Lalani, Ambikanandan Misra, Jitendra Amrutiya, Hinal Patel, Priyanka Bhatt, Vivek Patel
BACKGROUND: Protein and peptides in biological system form an important part of innate immune system and are being explored for potential use in various diseases as therapeutics. Importance of proteins and peptides as a new class of antimicrobial agents have boosted research in the field of biotechnology as potential alternative to antibiotic agents. OBJECTIVE: Protein and peptides antimicrobial as a therapeutics class are structurally diverse and exhibit potent activity against microbes by various mechanisms...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228017/adsorption-mechanism-of-an-antimicrobial-peptide-on-carbonaceous-surfaces-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#7
Danilo Roccatano, Edita Sarukhanyan, Ronen Zangi
Peptides are versatile molecules with applications spanning from biotechnology to nanomedicine. They exhibit a good capability to unbundle carbon nanotubes (CNT) by improving their solubility in water. Furthermore, they are a powerful drug delivery system since they can easily be uptaken by living cells, and their high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the adsorption of molecules of different natures. Therefore, understanding the interaction mechanism between peptides and CNT is important for designing novel therapeutical agents...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226206/exploration-of-the-innate-immune-system-of-styela-clava-zn-2-binding-enhances-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-tunicate-peptide-clavanin-a
#8
Samuel A Juliano, Scott Pierce, James A DeMayo, Marcy J Balunas, Alfredo M Angeles-Boza
Tunicates have been used as primitive models for understanding cell mediated and humoral immunity. Clavanin A (ClavA) is a potent antimicrobial peptide produced by the solitary tunicate Styela clava. In this work, we demonstrate that ClavA utilizes Zn(2+) ions to potentiate its antimicrobial activity. A reduced concentration at which the peptide inhibits the growth of bacteria and an increase in the rate of killing is observed in the presence of Zn(2+). Membrane depolarization, β-galactosidase leakage and potassium leakage assays indicate that ClavA is membrane active, forms small pores, but induces cell death by targeting an intracellular component...
February 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223859/histatin-peptides-pharmacological-functions-and-their-applications-in-dentistry
#9
REVIEW
Zohaib Khurshid, Shariq Najeeb, Maria Mali, Syed Faraz Moin, Syed Qasim Raza, Sana Zohaib, Farshid Sefat, Muhammad Sohail Zafar
There are many human oral antimicrobial peptides responsible for playing important roles including maintenance, repairing of oral tissues (hard or soft) and defense against oral microbes. In this review we have highlighted the biochemistry, physiology and proteomics of human oral histatin peptides, secreted from parotid and submandibular salivary glands in human. The significance of these peptides includes capability for ionic binding that can kill fungal Candida albicans. They have histidine rich amino acid sequences (7-12 family members; corresponding to residues 12-24, 13-24, 12-25, 13-25, 5-11, and 5-12, respectively) for Histatin-3...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223110/h2a-and-ca-l-hipposin-gene-characteristic-analysis-and-expression-responses-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection-in-carassius-aurutus
#10
Xianghui Kong, Xiangmin Wu, Chao Pei, Jie Zhang, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li, Guoxing Nie, Xuejun Li
Antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the host innate immune system and thus serves a crucial function in host defense against microbial invasion. In this study, H2A and derived antimicrobial peptide Ca-L-hipposin were cloned and characterized in Carassius aurutus. The gene H2A full-length cDNA is 908 bp and includes a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp and a 3'-terminal UTR of 466 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAA, as well as an open reading frame (ORF) of 387 bp encoding a polypeptide of 128 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 13...
February 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218580/circulating-cathelicidin-ll-37-in-adult-patients-with-pulmonary-infectious-diseases
#11
Karol Majewski, Paulina Żelechowska, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
PURPOSE: The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37 plays a role in the immune response in the course of lung infections; however, the exact role of LL-37 in defense mechanisms against bacteria within the respiratory tract is has not been precisely described. The aim of our study was to evaluate LL-37 concentrations in the serum of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients, patients with pneumonia caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to compare them with those of healthy subjects...
February 19, 2017: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218451/specific-inulin-type-fructan-fibers-protect-against-autoimmune-diabetes-by-modulating-gut-immunity-barrier-function-and-microbiota-homeostasis
#12
Kang Chen, Hao Chen, Marijke M Faas, Bart J de Haan, Jiahong Li, Ping Xiao, Hao Zhang, Julien Diana, Paul de Vos, Jia Sun
SCOPE: Dietary fibers capable of modifying gut barrier and microbiota homeostasis, affect the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we aim to compare modulatory effects of inulin-type fructans (ITFs), natural soluble dietary fibers with different degrees of fermentability from chicory root, on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female NOD mice were weaned to long and short chain ITFs [ITF(l) and ITF(s), 5%] supplemented diet up to 24 weeks...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217557/regulation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-aedes-aegypti-aag2-cells
#13
Rudian Zhang, Yibin Zhu, Xiaojing Pang, Xiaoping Xiao, Renli Zhang, Gong Cheng
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important group of immune effectors that play a role in combating microbial infections in invertebrates. Most of the current information on the regulation of insect AMPs in microbial infection have been gained from Drosophila, and their regulation in other insects are still not completely understood. Here, we generated an AMP induction profile in response to infections with some Gram-negative, -positive bacteria, and fungi in Aedes aegypti embryonic Aag2 cells. Most of the AMP inductions caused by the gram-negative bacteria was controlled by the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway; nonetheless, Gambicin, an AMP gene discovered only in mosquitoes, was combinatorially regulated by the Imd, Toll and JAK-STAT pathways in the Aag2 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217373/update-on-clinical-and-research-application-of-fecal-biomarkers-for-gastrointestinal-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Imran Siddiqui, Hafsa Majid, Shahab Abid
Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases comprise a large spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from indigestion to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and carcinomas. Endoscopy is the usual method employed to diagnose these condition. Another noninvasive way to assess and diagnose GI conditions are fecal biomarkers. Fecal biomarkers provide information regarding a specific disease process and are perhaps more acceptable to clinicians and patients alike because of their non-invasivity compared to endoscopy. Aim of this review was to evaluate the current status of the fecal biomarkers in clinical and research for in GI diseases...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216428/antimicrobial-potency-of-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-can-be-predicted-from-their-amino-acid-composition-application-to-the-detection-of-cryptic-antimicrobial-peptides
#15
Katia Pane, Lorenzo Durante, Orlando Crescenzi, Valeria Cafaro, Elio Pizzo, Mario Varcamonti, Anna Zanfardino, Viviana Izzo, Alberto Di Donato, Eugenio Notomista
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are essential components of innate immunity. Here we show that antimicrobial potency of CAMPs is linearly correlated to the product C(m)H(n)L where C is the net charge of the peptide, H is a measure of its hydrophobicity and L its length. Exponents m and n define the relative contribution of charge and hydrophobicity to the antimicrobial potency. Very interestingly the values of m and n are strain specific. The ratio n/(m+n) can vary between ca. 0.5 and 1, thus indicating that some strains are sensitive to highly charged peptides, whereas others are particularly susceptible to more hydrophobic peptides...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216008/computational-tools-for-exploring-sequence-databases-as-a-resource-for-antimicrobial-peptides
#16
REVIEW
W F Porto, A S Pires, O L Franco
Data mining has been recognized by many researchers as a hot topic in different areas. In the post-genomic era, the growing number of sequences deposited in databases has been the reason why these databases have become a resource for novel biological information. In recent years, the identification of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in databases has gained attention. The identification of unannotated AMPs has shed some light on the distribution and evolution of AMPs and, in some cases, indicated suitable candidates for developing novel antimicrobial agents...
February 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214598/three-stats-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-the-triangle-sail-mussel-hyriopsis-cumingii
#17
Yun-Jia Dai, Kai-Min Hui, Ying-Hao Zhang, Yan Liu, Yu-Qing Wang, Li-Juan Zhao, Li Lin, Lian-Qin Chai, Shun Wei, Jiang-Feng Lan
Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is associated in antiviral and antibacterial immune response. Previous studies primarily investigated the function of STATs in mammals. For most invertebrates, only one STAT was found in each species, such as STAT92E was found in Drosophila melanogaster. The studies, which focus on the functional difference between various STATs in the same species of invertebrate, are limited. In the present study, three STATs (HcSTAT1, HcSTAT2 and HcSTAT3) were identified in triangle shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii...
February 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214100/nlrp6-a-multifaceted-innate-immune-sensor
#18
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213041/newly-identified-pctoll4-regulates-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-intestine-of-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#19
Ying Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Kai-Min Hui, Qian Ren
Tolls or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an essential role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. In this study, a novel Toll gene, PcToll4, was first identified from the intestinal transcriptome of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The PcToll4 cDNA is 4849bp long with a 3036bp open reading frame that encodes a 1011-amino acid protein. PcToll4 contains a signal peptide, 13 LRR domains, 3 LRR TYP domains, 2 LRR CT domains, an LRR NT domain, a transmembrane region, and a TIR domain...
February 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212948/the-importance-of-the-glycosylation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-natural-and-synthetic-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Natalia G Bednarska, Brendan W Wren, Sam J Willcocks
Glycosylation is one of the most prevalent post-translational modifications of a protein, with a defining impact on its structure and function. Many of the proteins involved in the innate or adaptive immune response, including cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are glycosylated, contributing to their myriad activities. The current availability of synthetic coupling and glycoengineering technology makes it possible to customise the most beneficial glycan modifications for improved AMP stability, microbicidal potency, pathogen specificity, tissue or cell targeting, and immunomodulation...
February 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
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