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Antimicrobial peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334331/alterations-of-immune-parameters-on-trichoplusia-ni-lepidoptera-noctuidae-larvae-exposed-to-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields
#1
Jose A Valadez-Lira, Nahui O Medina-Chavez, Alonso A Orozco-Flores, J Antonio Heredia-Rojas, Abraham O Rodriguez-de la Fuente, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Juan M Alcocer-Gonzalez, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Worldwide mobile telephone and microwave use have resulted in an increasing presence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field radiations (ELF-EMFs) in ecosystems. ELF-EMFs have been associated with altered physiological processes that can adversely affect exposed organisms. In this study, Trichoplusia ni Hübner larvae were exposed for 24, 48, or 72 h to ELF-EMFs (60 Hz and 2.0 mT) to assess effects on immune response parameters and fertility. Trichoplusia ni life cycle and fertility were not affected by 24-h exposure...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333758/cutaneous-burn-injury-modulates-urinary-antimicrobial-peptide-responses-and-the-urinary-microbiome
#2
Jennifer K Plichta, Casey J Holmes, Vanessa Nienhouse, Michelle Puszynski, Xiang Gao, Qunfeng Dong, Huaiying Lin, James Sinacore, Michael Zilliox, Evelyn Toh, David E Nelson, Richard L Gamelli, Katherine A Radek
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of urinary bacterial microbiome and antimicrobial peptides after burn injury to identify potential mechanisms leading to urinary tract infections and associated morbidities in burn patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using human urine from control and burn subjects. SETTING: University research laboratory. PATIENTS: Burn patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Urine samples from catheterized burn patients were collected hourly for up to 40 hours...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333237/new-paenibacillus-strain-produces-a-family-of-linear-and-cyclic-antimicrobial-lipopeptides-cyclization-is-not-essential-for-their-antimicrobial-activity
#3
En Huang, Xu Yang, Liwen Zhang, Sun Hee Moon, Ahmed E Yousef
A new bacterial isolate, Paenibacillus sp. OSY-N, showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrobials produced by this strain were purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Structural analysis, using mass spectrometry (MS), of a single active HPLC fraction revealed two known cyclic lipopeptides, BMY-28160 and permetin A, a new cyclic lipopeptide, and the linear counterparts of these cyclic compounds. The latter were designated as paenipeptin A, B and C, respectively...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332637/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-chicken-nk-lysin-derived-peptide-cnk-2
#4
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330897/rip2-is-required-for-nod2-mediated-lysozyme-sorting-in-paneth-cells
#5
Haifang Wang, Xinwen Zhang, Zhanguang Zuo, Qin Zhang, Ying Pan, Benhua Zeng, Wenxia Li, Hong Wei, Zhihua Liu
Paneth cells play an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis by secreting a large number of antimicrobial peptides into the intestinal lumen. In this study, we found that Rip2 is required for lysozyme sorting in Paneth cells in a manner that is dependent on Nod2, LRRK2, and Rab2a. Rip2 deficiency in mouse led to lysosomal degradation of lysozyme in Paneth cells and prevented the recruitment of Rab2a onto dense core vesicles (DCVs). Like Nod2 and LRRK2, Rip2 localizes to DCVs in Paneth cells, and its DCV localization depends on Nod2 and LRRK2...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328161/synthesis-in-vitro-evaluation-and-68-ga-radiolabeling-of-cdp1-towards-pet-ct-imaging-of-bacterial-infection
#6
Jyotibon Dutta, Sooraj Baijnath, Anou M Somboro, Savania Nagiah, Fernando Albericio, Beatriz G de la Torre, Biljana Marjanovic-Painter, Jan Rijn Zeevaart, Mike Sathekge, Hendrik G Kruger, Anil Chuturgoon, Tricia Naicker, Thomas Ebenhan, Thavendran Govender
Bacterial infections are a major concern in the human health sector due to poor diagnosis and development of multi drug resistant strains. PET/CT provides a means for the noninvasive detection and localization of the infectious foci; however, the radiotracers available are either cumbersome to prepare or their exact contribution towards the imaging is not yet established. Human antimicrobial peptides are of interest for development as PET radiotracers as they are an integral component of the immune system, non-immunogenic towards the recipient and show selectivity towards pathogens such as bacteria...
March 22, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326334/bactericide-immunomodulating-and-wound-healing-properties-of-transgenic-kalanchoe-pinnata-synergize-with-antimicrobial-peptide-cecropin-p1-in-vivo
#7
A A Lebedeva, N S Zakharchenko, E V Trubnikova, O A Medvedeva, T V Kuznetsova, G A Masgutova, M V Zylkova, Y I Buryanov, A S Belous
Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1) from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration) was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326169/circulating-ll37-targets-plasma-extracellular-vesicles-to-immune-cells-and-intensifies-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-severity
#8
Tamer Kahraman, Gozde Gucluler, Ismail Simsek, Fuat Cem Yagci, Muzaffer Yildirim, Can Ozen, Ayhan Dinc, Mayda Gursel, Lolai Ikromzoda, Tolga Sutlu, Stephen Gay, Ihsan Gursel
Behçet's disease (BD) activity is characterised by sustained, over-exuberant immune activation, yet the underlying mechanisms leading to active BD state are poorly defined. Herein, we show that the human cathelicidin derived antimicrobial peptide LL37 associates with and directs plasma extracellular vesicles (EV) to immune cells, thereby leading to enhanced immune activation aggravating BD pathology. Notably, disease activity was correlated with elevated levels of circulating LL37 and EV plasma concentration...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323883/ubiquitously-expressed-human-beta-defensin-1-hbd1-forms-bacteria-entrapping-nets-in-a-redox-dependent-mode-of-action
#9
Judith Raschig, Daniela Mailänder-Sanchez, Anne Berscheid, Jürgen Berger, Adam A Strömstedt, Lioba F Courth, Nisar P Malek, Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Jan Wehkamp
Ever since the discovery of endogenous host defense antimicrobial peptides it has been discussed how these evolutionary conserved molecules avoid to induce resistance and to remain effective. An Human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is an ubiquitously expressed endogenous antimicrobial peptide that exhibits qualitatively distinct activities between its oxidized and reduced forms. Here, we explore these antimicrobial mechanisms. Surprisingly, using electron microscopy we detected a so far unknown net-like structure surrounding bacteria, which were treated with the reduced but not the oxidized form of hBD1...
March 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322925/il-22-suppresses-the-infection-of-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-and-rotavirus-by-activating-stat3-signal-pathway
#10
Mei Xue, Jing Zhao, Lan Ying, Fang Fu, Lin Li, Yanlong Ma, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 superfamily, plays essential roles in fighting against mucosal microbial infection and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. However, little knowledge exists on the ability of porcine IL-22 (pIL-22) to fight against viral infection in the gut. In this study, we found that recombinant mature pIL-22 (mpIL-22) inhibited the infection of multiple diarrhea viruses, including alpha coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PoRV), in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) cells...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322347/chronic-exposure-to-a-neonicotinoid-increases-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-the-bumblebee-bombus-impatiens
#11
William R Simmons, David R Angelini
Bumblebees are important pollinators in wild and agricultural settings. In recent decades pollinator declines have been linked to the effects of increased pesticide use and the spread of disease. Synergy between these factors has been suggested, but no physiological mechanism has been identified. This study examines the connection between neonicotinoid exposure and innate immune function in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens, which is an important wild and commercial pollinator in eastern North America. Experimental colonies in the field were enclosed and provided pollen and sugar syrup containing an agriculturally relevant range of imidacloprid concentrations...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322271/mechanistic-and-structural-basis-of-bioengineered-bovine-cathelicidin-5-with-optimized-therapeutic-activity
#12
Bikash R Sahoo, Kenta Maruyama, Jyotheeswara R Edula, Takahiro Tougan, Yuxi Lin, Young-Ho Lee, Toshihiro Horii, Toshimichi Fujiwara
Peptide-drug discovery using host-defense peptides becomes promising against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and cancer cells. Here, we customized the therapeutic activity of bovine cathelicidin-5 targeting to bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells. The membrane dependent conformational adaptability and plasticity of cathelicidin-5 is revealed by biophysical analysis and atomistic simulations over 200 μs in thymocytes, leukemia, and E. coli cell-membranes. Our understanding of energy-dependent cathelicidin-5 intrusion in heterogeneous membranes aided in designing novel loss/gain-of-function analogues...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319176/insight-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-temporin-sha-a-new-broad-spectrum-antiparasitic-and-antibacterial-agent
#13
Zahid Raja, Sonia André, Feten Abbassi, Vincent Humblot, Olivier Lequin, Tahar Bouceba, Isabelle Correia, Sandra Casale, Thierry Foulon, Denis Sereno, Bruno Oury, Ali Ladram
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drugs to kill resistant pathogens. In contrast to bacteria, protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, were little studied. Therefore, the antiparasitic mechanism of AMPs is still unclear. In this study, we sought to get further insight into this mechanism by focusing our attention on temporin-SHa (SHa), a small broad-spectrum AMP previously shown to be active against Leishmania infantum. To improve activity, we designed analogs of SHa and compared the antibacterial and antiparasitic mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317767/empirical-and-bioinformatic-characterization-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-colostrum-whey-peptides-their-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibition
#14
N R Ashok, H S Aparna
Whey based peptides are well known for their nutritional and multifunctional properties. In this context, whey proteins from buffalo colostrum & milk were digested by in vitro simulation digestion and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Functional protein association networks, gene annotations and localization of identified proteins were carried out. An ACE inhibitory peptide sorted from the library was custom synthesized and an in vitro ACE assay was performed. The study led to the identification of 74 small peptides which were clustered into 5 gene functional groups and majority of them were secretory proteins...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317483/a-critical-review-of-bioactive-food-components-and-of-their-functional-mechanisms-biological-effects-and-health-outcomes
#15
Rosa Pérez-Gregorio, Jesús Simal-Gándara
BACKGROUND: Eating behaviours are closely related to some medical conditions potentially leading to death such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Healthy eating practices, maintaining a normal weight, and regular physical activity could prevent up to 80% of coronary heart disease, 90% of type-2 diabetes and one-third of all cancers[1]. METHOD: Over the last two decades, the food industry has invested much effort in research and development of healthier, more nutritious foods...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316480/inducible-spy-transcription-acts-as-a-sensor-for-envelope-stress-of-salmonella-typhimurium
#16
Seon Mi Jeong, Hwa Jeong Lee, Yoon Mee Park, Jin Seok Kim, Sang Dae Lee, Iel Soo Bang
Salmonella enterica infects a broad range of host animals, and zoonostic infection threatens both public health and the livestock and meat processing industries. Many antimicrobials have been developed to target Salmonella envelope that performs essential bacterial functions; however, there are very few analytical methods that can be used to validate the efficacy of these antimicrobials. In this study, to develop a potential biosensor for Salmonella envelope stress, we examined the transcription of the S. enterica serovar typhimurium spy gene, the ortholog of which in Escherichia coli encodes Spy (spheroplast protein y)...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316379/high-fat-diet-alters-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptides-preceding-changes-of-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines
#17
Xiulan Guo, Jinchao Li, Renyong Tang, Guodong Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Richard J Wood, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316374/the-role-of-il-17-and-related-cytokines-in-inflammatory-autoimmune-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Taku Kuwabara, Fumio Ishikawa, Motonari Kondo, Terutaka Kakiuchi
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) induces the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokines such as CXCL1 and CXCL2 and is a cytokine that acts as an inflammation mediator. During infection, IL-17 is needed to eliminate extracellular bacteria and fungi, by inducing antimicrobial peptides such as defensin. This cytokine also plays an important role in chronic inflammation that occurs during the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergies such as human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for which a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is available...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314993/comparative-analysis-of-internalisation-haemolytic-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-effect-of-membrane-active-cationic-peptides-aspects-of-experimental-setup
#19
Kata Horváti, Bernadett Bacsa, Tamás Mlinkó, Nóra Szabó, Ferenc Hudecz, Ferenc Zsila, Szilvia Bősze
Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306723/the-redefinition-of-helicobacter-pylori-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-and-core-oligosaccharide-domains
#20
Hong Li, Tiandi Yang, Tingting Liao, Aleksandra W Debowski, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Alma Fulurija, Stuart M Haslam, Barbara Mulloy, Anne Dell, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide promotes chronic gastric colonisation through O-antigen host mimicry and resistance to mucosal antimicrobial peptides mediated primarily by modifications of the lipid A. The structural organisation of the core and O-antigen domains of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide remains unclear, as the O-antigen attachment site has still to be identified experimentally. Here, structural investigations of lipopolysaccharides purified from two wild-type strains and the O-antigen ligase mutant revealed that the H...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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