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Autism androgen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460795/evidence-the-u-s-autism-epidemic-initiated-by-acetaminophen-tylenol-is-aggravated-by-oral-antibiotic-amoxicillin-clavulanate-augmentin-and-now-exponentially-by-herbicide-glyphosate-roundup
#1
Peter Good
Because certain hereditary diseases show autistic behavior, and autism often runs in families, researchers seek genes underlying the pathophysiology of autism, thus core behaviors. Other researchers argue environmental factors are decisive, citing compelling evidence of an autism epidemic in the United States beginning about 1980. Recognition that environmental factors influence gene expression led to synthesis of these views - an 'epigenetic epidemic' provoked by pervasive environmental agents altering expression of vulnerable genes, inducing characteristic autistic biochemistries in many mothers and infants...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452340/congenital-abnormalities-of-the-male-reproductive-system-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Michael Davidovitch, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Marc G Weisskopf
Androgens have an extensive influence on brain development in regions of the brain that are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their etiological involvement remains unclear. Hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening) and cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are 2 relatively common male birth defects that are strongly associated with prenatal androgen deficiencies. Having either disorder is a proxy indicator of atypical gestational androgen exposure, yet the association between these disorders and autism has not been extensively studied...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428674/genes-and-pathways-regulated-by-androgens-in-human-neural-cells-potential-candidates-for-the-male-excess-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Angélique Quartier, Laure Chatrousse, Claire Redin, Céline Keime, Nicolas Haumesser, Anne Maglott-Roth, Laurent Brino, Stéphanie Le Gras, Alexandra Benchoua, Jean-Louis Mandel, Amélie Piton
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to androgens during brain development in male individuals may participate to increase their susceptibility to develop neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the action of androgens in human neural cells. METHODS: We used human neural stem cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells to investigate targets of androgens. RESULTS: RNA sequencing revealed that treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) leads to subtle but significant changes in the expression of about 200 genes, encoding proteins of extracellular matrix or involved in signal transduction of growth factors (e...
January 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039174/-long-term-effects-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-on-the-offspring
#4
Dan Shen, Fangfang Wang, Zhou Jiang, Fan Qu
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder with reproductive dysfunction and abnormal metabolic syndrome. However, its etiology is unknown yet. Androgen hypersecretion is one of the main features of PCOS. It has been found that PCOS has various effects on the offspring in reproductive, metabolic and nervous systems, including:increasing secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone, ovarian morphological changes and abnormal secretion of sex hormones, leading to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, and increasing the risks of depression and autism...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#5
REVIEW
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
July 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383189/maternal-hirsutism-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-offspring
#6
Brian K Lee, Stefan Arver, Linnea Widman, Renee M Gardner, Cecilia Magnusson, Christina Dalman, Kyriaki Kosidou
Because animal and human studies indicate that androgen exposure can influence neurodevelopment, it has been hypothesized that prenatal exposure to excess androgens may predispose to disorders with male-skewed ratio such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, maternal conditions characterized by hyperandrogenism such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hirsutism may be relevant to child ASD. We previously found in a large Swedish case-control study of 23,748 ASD cases and 208,796 matched controls that PCOS in mothers is associated with increased offspring risk of ASD...
April 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208851/2d-4d-ratio-and-its-implications-in-medicine
#7
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, Prathibha K Muthu
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163867/umbilical-cord-blood-androgen-levels-and-asd-related-phenotypes-at-12-and-36-months-in-an-enriched-risk-cohort-study
#8
Bo Y Park, Brian K Lee, Igor Burstyn, Loni P Tabb, Jeff A Keelan, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Lisa A Croen, Margaret D Fallin, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Owen Montgomery, Craig J Newschaffer
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects more than 1% of children in the USA. The male-to-female prevalence ratio of roughly 4:1 in ASD is a well-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. An explicit focus on potential etiologic pathways consistent with this sex difference, such as those involving prenatal androgen exposure, may help elucidate causes of ASD. Furthermore, the multi-threshold liability model suggests that the genetic mechanisms in females with ASD may be distinct and may modulate ASD risk in families with female ASD in the pedigree...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889187/maternal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-offspring
#9
Kyriaki Kosidou, Christina Dalman, Linnea Widman, Stefan Arver, Brian K Lee, Cecilia Magnusson, Renee M Gardner
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, and boys are two to three times more likely to develop ADHD. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common metabolic disorder associated with excess circulating androgens, has been associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether maternal PCOS increases the risk for ADHD in the offspring...
November 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859346/commentary-are-we-expecting-too-much-from-the-extreme-male-brain-theory-of-autism-a-reflection-on-kung-et-al-2016
#10
Andrew J O Whitehouse
Kung et al. (2016) contribute further evidence demonstrating no clear link between prenatal androgen exposure and the autism phenotype. Do these findings represent a nail in the coffin for the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism, or are we simply asking too much of the hypothesis? This commentary highlights the inconsistent findings that have appeared to undermine the EMB theory, but presents an argument that the data may not present an adequate test of the hypothesis. A research agenda is then outlined - the investigation of simple behavioural traits rather than the full combination of ASD behaviours - which may provide greater clarity as to how prenatal androgen exposure relates to developmental psychopathology...
December 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513883/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-psychiatric-disorders-co-morbidity-and-heritability-in-a-nationwide-swedish-cohort
#11
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460188/no-relationship-between-prenatal-androgen-exposure-and-autistic-traits-convergent-evidence-from-studies-of-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-and-of-amniotic-testosterone-concentrations-in-typically-developing-children
#12
Karson T F Kung, Debra Spencer, Vickie Pasterski, Sharon Neufeld, Vivette Glover, Thomas G O'Connor, Peter C Hindmarsh, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Melissa Hines
BACKGROUND: There is a marked male preponderance in autism spectrum conditions. The extreme male brain theory and the fetal androgen theory of autism suggest that elevated prenatal testosterone exposure is a key contributor to autistic traits. The current paper reports findings from two separate studies that test this hypothesis. METHODS: A parent-report questionnaire, the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST), was employed to measure autistic traits in both studies...
December 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423376/prenatal-exposure-to-sodium-valproate-alters-androgen-receptor-expression-in-the-developing-cerebellum-in-a-region-and-age-specific-manner-in-male-and-female-rats
#13
Miguel Perez-Pouchoulen, Marta Miquel, Paul Saft, Brenda Brug, Rebeca Toledo, Maria Elena Hernandez, Jorge Manzo
Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenicity activity that has been related to autism. In rodents, exposure to VPA in utero leads to brain abnormalities similar than those reported in the autistic brain. Particularly, VPA reduces the number of Purkinje neurons in the rat cerebellum parallel to cerebellar abnormalities found in autism. Thus, we injected pregnant females on embryonic day 12 either with VPA (600mg/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution and obtained the cerebellum from their offspring at different postnatal time points...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930261/further-investigations-of-the-relation-between-polymorphisms-in-sex-steroid-related-genes-and-autistic-like-traits
#14
Anna Zettergren, Sara Karlsson, Daniel Hovey, Lina Jonsson, Jonas Melke, Henrik Anckarsäter, Paul Lichtenstein, Sebastian Lundström, Lars Westberg
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more prevalent in boys than in girls, indicating that high levels of testosterone during early development may be a risk factor. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from studies showing associations between fetal testosterone levels, as well as indirect measures of prenatal androgenization, and ASDs and autistic-like traits (ALTs). In a recent study we reported associations between ALTs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), steroid-5-alpha-reductase, type 2 (SRD5A2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in a subset (n=1771) from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS)...
June 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910733/testosterone-and-androgen-receptor-sensitivity-in-relation-to-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Anna Pivovarciova, Jaroslava Durdiakova, Katarina Babinska, Aneta Kubranska, Lenka Vokalova, Gabriel Minarik, Peter Celec, Marianna Murin, Daniela Ostatnikova
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and hyperactivity symptoms exhibit an incidence that is male-biased. Thus androgen activity can be considered a plausible biological risk factor for these disorders. However, there is insufficient information about the association between increased androgen activity and hyperactivity symptoms in children with ASD. METHODS: In the present study, the relationship between parameters of androgenicity (plasmatic testosterone levels and androgen receptor sensitivity) and hyperactivity in 60 boys (age 3-15) with ASD is investigated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26781567/developmental-neurogenetics-and-multimodal-neuroimaging-of-sex-differences-in-autism
#16
REVIEW
Christina Chen, John Darrell Van Horn
Examining sex differences in the brain has been historically contentious but is nonetheless important for advancing mental health for both girls and boys. Unfortunately, females in biomedical research remain underrepresented in most mental health conditions including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), even though equal inclusion of females would improve treatment for girls and yield benefits to boys. This review examines sex differences in the relationship between neuroanatomy and neurogenetics of ASD. Recent findings reveal that girls diagnosed with ASD exhibit more intellectual and behavioral problems compared to their male counterparts, suggesting that girls may be less likely diagnosed in the absence of such problems or that they require a higher mutational load to meet the diagnostic criteria...
February 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643539/maternal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-the-offspring-a-population-based-nationwide-study-in-sweden
#17
K Kosidou, C Dalman, L Widman, S Arver, B K Lee, C Magnusson, R M Gardner
Although many studies indicate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms hampers the development of effective ways of detecting and preventing the disorder. Recent studies support the hypothesis that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to the development of ASD. This would suggest that maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with excess androgens, would increase the risk of ASD in the offspring...
October 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26622154/autistic-trait-empathy-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-women-with-idiopathic-hirsutism
#18
Ayhan Bilgiç, Özlem Bilgiç, Sabri Hergüner, Hilmi Cevdet Altınyazar
AIM: Many psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavioral disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and some psychiatric characteristics, such as poor empathizing, are regarded to be related to elevated levels of androgens or androgen sensitivity. Thus, numerous studies have investigated the potential association between androgen-related physical diseases and these psychiatric conditions. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is a disease characterized by an increased sensitivity of the pilosebaceous unit to circulating androgens in women...
July 2015: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495967/can-sibling-sex-ratios-be-used-as-a-valid-test-for-the-prenatal-androgen-hypothesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Keely Cheslack-Postava, Ezra Susser, Kayuet Liu, Peter S Bearman
BACKGROUND: Sibling sex ratios have been applied as an indirect test of a hypothesized association between prenatal testosterone levels and risk for autism, a developmental disorder disproportionately affecting males. Differences in sibling sex ratios between those with and without autism would provide evidence of a shared risk factor for autism and offspring sex. Conclusions related to prenatal testosterone, however, require additional assumptions. Here, we used directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to clarify the elements required for a valid test of the hypothesis that sibling sex ratios differ between children with and without autism...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356360/postnatal-testosterone-may-be-an-important-mediator-of-the-association-between-prematurity-and-male-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-hypothesis
#20
REVIEW
Timothy R Rice
Children born premature are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. This piece advances the hypothesis that altered androgen exposure observed in premature infants is an important mediator of the neurodevelopmental risk in males associated with prematurity. Specifically, the alterations of normative physiologic postnatal activations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that occur in preterm males are hypothesized to contribute to the risk of neuropsychiatric pathology of prematurity through altered androgen-mediated organizational effects on the developing brain...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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