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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642841/strain-and-dose-dependent-reduction-of-toxoplasma-gondii-burden-in-pigs-is-associated-with-interferon-gamma-production-by-cd8-lymphocytes-in-a-heterologous-challenge-model
#1
Malgorzata Jennes, Stéphane De Craeye, Bert Devriendt, Katelijne Dierick, Pierre Dorny, Eric Cox
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite of humans and animals. The global infection burden exceeds yearly one million disability-adjusted life years (DALY's) in infected individuals. Therefore, effective preventive measures should be taken to decrease the risk of infection in humans. Although human toxoplasmosis is predominantly foodborne by ingestion of tissue cysts in meat from domestic animals such as pigs, the incidence risk is difficult to estimate due to the lack of screening of animals for infection and insights in location and persistence of the parasite in the tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640353/ecology-of-the-non-native-snail-sinotaia-cf-quadrata-caenogastropoda-viviparidae-a-study-in-a-lowland-stream-of-south-america-with-different-water-qualities
#2
Ana Clara Ferreira, Estefanía L Paz, Alejandra Rumi, Carolina Ocon, Paula Altieri, Alberto Rodrigues Capítulo
Sinotaia quadrata is a snail native from Asia recorded for the first time in South America in 2009 in central Argentina. In 2015, this species was also found in a lowland stream with different water qualities. Our aims were to contribute to the knowledge of its population ecology and to compare the individuals from the two locations anatomically. Snails were searched at 6 sites, where physicochemical and hydraulic parameters were measured. Biological samples were also taken at two sites (S3 and S4) to study the population traits of S...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639499/hiv-and-aids-related-stigma-and-discrimination-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-ethiopia
#3
Befekadu S Wodajo, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Oluwaseyi A Akpor
The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) and its associated factors in healthcare settings. Primary data were collected from June to September 2014 from two referral hospitals located in north-west Ethiopia. The study used pre-test/post-test design with a non-equivalent control group using a quantitative approach. Healthcare professionals were divided into strata and then, using the stratified random sampling technique, the study participants were selected from each stratum...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639212/surveillance-of-noroviruses-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-occurrence-of-new-giv-genotype-in-clinical-and-wastewater-samples
#4
Julia Monassa Fioretti, Tulio Machado Fumian, Mônica Simões Rocha, Ingrid de Arruda Lucena Dos Santos, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho-Costa, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Janaina de Souza Rodrigues, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years...
June 21, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637763/analysis-of-hsv-reactivation-in-explant-reveals-a-method-dependent-difference-in-measured-timing-of-reactivation
#5
Jessica R Doll, Nancy M Sawtell
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is widespread in the human population. Following orofacial infection, HSV establishes latency in innervating sensory neurons, primarily located in the trigeminal ganglia. A central feature of HSV pathogenesis is the ability to periodically reactivate in those neurons and transport back to the body surface. Both transmission and disease; such as keratitis, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, have been linked to reactivation. Despite invaluable insights obtained from model systems, interactions between viral and host functions that regulate reactivation are still incompletely understood...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637445/cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-in-children-with-brain-tumours-of-the-posterior-fossa
#6
Morten Wibroe, Johan Cappelen, Charlotte Castor, Niels Clausen, Pernilla Grillner, Thora Gudrunardottir, Ramneek Gupta, Bengt Gustavsson, Mats Heyman, Stefan Holm, Atte Karppinen, Camilla Klausen, Tuula Lönnqvist, René Mathiasen, Pelle Nilsson, Karsten Nysom, Karin Persson, Olof Rask, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Astrid Sehested, Harald Thomassen, Ingrid Tonning-Olsson, Barbara Zetterqvist, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined...
June 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637225/characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-commercial-farms-from-a-common-hatchery
#7
H Ozaki, Y Matsuoka, E Nakagawa, T Murase
To investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4 commercial farms mentioned above were genetically and bacteriologically characterized. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a total of 92 isolates were classified into 33 pulsotypes...
June 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636346/halogenated-flame-retardants-in-predator-and-prey-fish-from-the-laurentian-great-lakes-age-dependent-accumulation-and-trophic-transfer
#8
Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Daryl McGoldrick, Sean M Backus
The identification, persistence, accumulation and trophic transfer of 25 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, 23 non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants (NPHFRs), 4 polybrominated-diphenoxybenzenes (PB-DiPhOBzs) and 6 methoxylated (MeO-) PB-DiPhOBzs were investigated in predator and prey fish collected in 2010 from sites in the North American Great Lakes of Ontario (n=26) and Erie (n=39). Regardless of locations or species, 20 PBDEs and 12 NPHFRs were quantifiable in at least one of the 65 analyzed samples, and polybrominated-1,4-diphenoxybenzenes (PB-DiPhOBzs) and MeO-PB-DiPhOBzs were not detectable in any of analyzed samples...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#9
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#10
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634352/differences-in-sequences-between-hbv-relaxed-circular-dna-and-covalently-closed-circular-dna
#11
Magda Rybicka, Anna Woziwodzka, Tomasz Romanowski, Piotr Stalke, Marcin Dręczewski, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome exists in two forms: circular covalently closed DNA (cccDNA) and relaxed circular DNA (RCDNA). Here, we investigated the presence of differences in the sequences of both forms in paired samples of serum and liver tissue. The serum and liver biopsy samples were collected at the same time from 67 chronically infected patients. The genotyping of the RCDNA and cccDNA was performed using mass spectrometry analysis. The HBV mutations located in the HBV pol (P) and the HBV basal core promoter/pre-core (BCP/PC) regions were included...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634152/ensuring-inclusion-of-adolescent-key-populations-at-higher-risk-of-hiv-exposure-recommendations-for-conducting-biological-behavioral-surveillance-surveys
#12
Lisa Grazina Johnston, Justine Sass, Jeffry Acaba, Wing-Sie Cheng, Shirley Mark Prabhu
Ending acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) depends on greater efforts to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and prevent AIDS-related deaths among key populations at highest HIV risk, including males who have sex with males, sex workers, and people who inject drugs. Although adolescent key populations (AKP) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they have been largely ignored in HIV biological behavioral surveillance survey (BBSS) activities to date. This paper reviews current ethical and sampling challenges and provides suggestions to ensure AKP are included in surveillance activities, with the aim being to enhance evidence-informed, strategic, and targeted funding allocations and programs toward ending AIDS among AKP...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633108/bioactivity-and-quantitative-analysis-of-isohexenylnaphthazarins-in-root-periderm-of-two-echium-spp-e-%C3%A2-plantagineum-and-e-%C3%A2-gaditanum
#13
Alexandra G Durán, M Teresa Gutiérrez, Carlos Rial, Ascensión Torres, Rosa M Varela, Manuel M Valdivia, José M G Molinillo, Dominik Skoneczny, Leslie A Weston, Francisco A Macías
Isohexenylnaphthazarins are commonly found in the root periderm of several Boraginaceous plants and are known for their broad range of biological activities. The work described herein concerns the biological activity of compounds from the roots of Echium plantagineum L. and Echium gaditanum Boiss (Boraginaceae) collected from field sites in southern Spain and Australia. Bioactivity was assessed using etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay and in vitro growth inhibitory activity in HeLa and IGROV-1 cells. The quantification of four isohexenylnaphthazarins (shikonin/alkannin, deoxyshikonin/deoxyalkannin, acetylshikonin/acetylalkannin and dimethylacrylshikonin/dimethylacrylalkannin) was performed by LC-MS/MS using juglone as internal standard...
June 17, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632789/movement-and-contact-patterns-of-long-distance-free-grazing-ducks-and-avian-influenza-persistence-in-vietnam
#14
Anne Meyer, Tung Xuan Dinh, Thu Van Nhu, Long Thanh Pham, Scott Newman, Thuy Thi Thanh Nguyen, Dirk Udo Pfeiffer, Timothée Vergne
Presence of ducks, and in particular of free-grazing ducks, has consistently been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks which has compromised poultry production in South-East Asia since the early 2000s and continues to threaten public health, farmers' livelihood and food security. Although free-grazing duck production has been practised for decades in South-East Asia, there are few published studies describing this production system, which is suspected to play an important role in the maintenance of avian influenza viruses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632531/a-descriptive-survey-of-anesthesiology-residency-simulation-programs-how-are-programs-preparing-residents-for-the-new-american-board-of-anesthesiology-applied-certification-examination
#15
Robert S Isaak, Fei Chen, Harendra Arora, Susan M Martinelli, David A Zvara, Marjorie P Stiegler
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiology residency programs may need new simulation-based programs to prepare residents for the new Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) component of the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) Primary Certification process. The design of such programs may require significant resources, including faculty time, expertise, and funding, as are currently needed for structured oral examination (SOE) preparation. This survey analyzed the current state of US-based anesthesiology residency programs regarding simulation-based educational programming for SOE and OSCE preparation...
June 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631558/the-overexpression-and-prognostic-role-of-dcaf13-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Jianzhong Cao, Pengjiao Hou, Jiemin Chen, Penghui Wang, Wenqin Wang, Wei Liu, Changzheng Liu, Xiaodong He
DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 13 (DCAF13) is a protein coding gene located on chromosome 8q22.3, which is a hotspot amplified in various cancers. DCAF13 has been reported to be frequently amplified in breast cancer patients. However, the genetic alteration and potential role of DCAF13 in other cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, have not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that DCAF13 was amplified in 14.7% of the cases and its expression was upregulated (p < 0.001) in hepatocellular carcinoma samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627580/cation-distribution-and-vacancies-in-nickel-cobaltite
#17
Danilo Loche, Claudia Marras, Daniela Carta, Maria Francesca Casula, Gavin Mountjoy, Anna Corrias
Samples of nickel cobaltite, a mixed oxide occurring in the spinel structure which is currently extensively investigated because of its prospective application as ferromagnetic, electrocatalytic, and cost-effective energy storage material were prepared in the form of nanocrystals stabilized in a highly porous silica aerogel and as unsupported nanoparticles. Nickel cobaltite nanocrystals with average size 4 nm are successfully grown for the first time into the silica aerogel provided that a controlled oxidation of the metal precursor phases is carried out, consisting in a reduction under H2 flow followed by mild oxidation in air...
June 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625126/enhanced-risk-for-specific-somatic-myeloproliferative-neoplastic-mutations-in-patients-with-stroke
#18
Chih-Cheng Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Cih-En Huang, Yi-Yang Chen, Jrhau Lung, Hsing-Ying Ho, Chian-Pei Li, Jiann-Der Lee
BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2V617F), calreticulin (CALR), and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) are the major clonal molecules that drive the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). It is well recognized that MPN patients carry an excessive risk of thrombohemorrhagic complications. However, little is known about the prevalence of these clonal markers in patients with cerebral vascular disease. METHODS: To address this issue, 153 consecutive stroke patients in Taiwan were enrolled in the study...
June 18, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624983/how-to-increase-vaccination-acceptance-among-apostolic-communities-quantitative-results-from-an-assessment-in-three-provinces-in-zimbabwe
#19
Regina Gerede, Zorodzai Machekanyanga, Serigne Ndiaye, Kenneth Chindedza, Colline Chigodo, Messeret E Shibeshi, James Goodson, Fussum Daniel, Reinhard Kaiser
A worldwide increasing trend toward vaccine hesitancy has been reported. Measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections originating from Apostolic gatherings. Founded in Zimbabwe in the 1950s, the Apostolic church has built up a large number of followers with an estimated 3.5 million in Zimbabwe in 2014. To inform planning of interventions for the 2015 measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we assessed vaccination status and knowledge, attitudes and practices among purposive samples of Apostolic caregivers in three districts each in Harare City, Manicaland and Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623680/what-are-the-incidence-and-factors-associated-with-implant-fracture
#20
Reza Tabrizi, Hossein Behnia, Shahram Taherian, Nima Hesami
PURPOSE: Implant fracture is a serious complication, which leads to treatment failure. The purpose of this study is to estimate the incidence of implant fractures and identify factors associated with them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the sample was derived from 2 implant centers. The predictors were grouped into the following categories: demographic, location of implant, physical characteristic of implant, implant-abutment connection, type of prosthesis, type of retention, and outcome variable (time to implant fracture)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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