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Hidden populations

Matthias Ruckenbauer, Sebastian Mai, Philipp Marquetand, Leticia González
Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is commonly employed with the intention to monitor electronic excited-state dynamics occurring in a neutral molecule. With the help of theory, we show that when excited-state processes occur on similar time scales the different relaxation pathways are completely obscured in the total photoionization signal recorded in the experiment. Using non-adiabatic molecular dynamics and Dyson norms, we calculate the photoionization signal of cytosine and disentangle the transient contributions originating from the different deactivation pathways of its tautomers...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fernando Abad-Franch
Current working classifications of Chagas disease vectors rely on a loose mix-up of biological and operational matters. They are therefore confusing and ineffective. I propose a very simple classification that makes biological sense and can be operationally useful. It considers a four-level hierarchy of species (which can be native or non-native); populations (either wild or non-wild); infestation foci (natural, domestic or peridomestic); and individual bugs (which can be solitary house-invaders or part of a hidden infestation focus)...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Christopher E Cattau, Robert J Fletcher, Brian E Reichert, Wiley M Kitchens
Identifying impacts of non-native species on native populations is central to conservation and ecology. While effects of non-native predators on native prey populations have recently received much attention, impacts of introduced prey on native predator populations are less understood. Non-native prey can influence predator behavior and demography through direct and indirect pathways, yet quantitative assessments of the relative impacts of multiple, potentially counteracting, effects on native predator population growth remain scarce...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Daniel Satgé, Emmanuelle Kempf, Jean-Bernard Dubois, Motoi Nishi, Jean Trédaniel
As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) has progressed, they have become similarly at risk of cancer as individuals of the general population. Epidemiological studies indicate a reduced incidence and mortality from lung cancer in the total population of persons with ID. However, the pattern is heterogeneous and the risk is strongly correlated with the impairment level; persons with mild intellectual impairment have higher cancer risk, and this subgroup also has the highest tobacco consumption (the major risk factor for lung cancer) compared to individuals with more severe impairment...
2016: Lung Cancer International
M Giovanna Merli, Ashton Verdery, Ted Mouw, Jing Li
The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population...
July 2016: Migration Studies
Amanda A Koepke, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Jon Wakefield, Vladimir N Minin
Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model...
June 2016: Annals of Applied Statistics
Carmen Mesas Burgos, Björn Frenckner
BACKGROUND: Improvements in the clinical management of CDH have led to overall improved reported result from single institutions. However, population-based studies have highlighted a hidden mortality. AIM: To explore the incidence in Sweden and to address the hidden mortality for CDH during a 27-year period in a population-based setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a population based cohort study that includes all patients diagnosed with CDH that were registered in the National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Congenital Malformations and the Register for Causes of Death between 1987 and 2013...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Emma C Tecwyn, Stephanie Denison, Emily J E Messer, Daphna Buchsbaum
The ability to reason about probabilities has ecological relevance for many species. Recent research has shown that both preverbal infants and non-human great apes can make predictions about single-item samples randomly drawn from populations by reasoning about proportions. To further explore the evolutionary origins of this ability, we conducted the first investigation of probabilistic inference in a monkey species (capuchins; Sapajus spp.). Across four experiments, capuchins (N = 19) were presented with two populations of food items that differed in their relative distribution of preferred and non-preferred items, such that one population was more likely to yield a preferred item...
October 15, 2016: Animal Cognition
Colleen G Le Prell, Odile Clavier
Speech communication often takes place in noisy environments; this is an urgent issue for military personnel who must communicate in high-noise environments. The effects of noise on speech recognition vary significantly according to the sources of noise, the number and types of talkers, and the listener's hearing ability. In this review, speech communication is first described as it relates to current standards of hearing assessment for military and civilian populations. The next section categorizes types of noise (also called maskers) according to their temporal characteristics (steady or fluctuating) and perceptive effects (energetic or informational masking)...
October 12, 2016: Hearing Research
Maxine de la Cruz, Akhila Reddy, Vishidha Balankari, Margeaux Epner, Susan Frisbee-Hume, Jimin Wu, Diane Liu, Sriram Yennurajalingam, Hilda Cantu, Janet Williams, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Improper use, storage, and disposal of prescribed opioids can lead to diversion or accidental poisoning. Our previous study showed a large proportion of cancer patients have unsafe opioid practices. Our objective was to determine whether an improvement occurred in the patterns of use, storage, and disposal of opioids among cancer outpatients after the implementation of a patient educational program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our palliative care (PC) clinic provides every patient with educational material (EM) on safe opioid use, storage, and disposal every time they receive an opioid prescription...
October 14, 2016: Oncologist
Simon J Labrie, Sylvain Moineau
Bacterial genomic islands contain hidden treasures. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Depardieu et al. (2016) found, in one of those islands, an altruistic anti-phage system that is triggered by a phage component and induces a phosphorylation cascade leading to protection of the bacterial population.
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Jiandong Yang, Fujun Shen, Rong Hou, Yang Da
BACKGROUND: A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. RESULTS: The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52...
October 3, 2016: BMC Genetics
Kathryn M Hart, Chris M W Ho, Supratik Dutta, Michael L Gross, Gregory R Bowman
TEM β-lactamase confers bacteria with resistance to many antibiotics and rapidly evolves activity against new drugs. However, functional changes are not easily explained by differences in crystal structures. We employ Markov state models to identify hidden conformations and explore their role in determining TEM's specificity. We integrate these models with existing drug-design tools to create a new technique, called Boltzmann docking, which better predicts TEM specificity by accounting for conformational heterogeneity...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Gloriana Chaverri, Inazio Garin, Antton Alberdi, Lide Jimenez, Cristian Castillo-Salazar, Joxerra Aihartza
Mountain environments, characterized by high levels of endemism, are at risk of experiencing significant biodiversity loss due to current trends in global warming. While many acknowledge their importance and vulnerability, these ecosystems still remain poorly studied, particularly for taxa that are difficult to sample such as bats. Aiming to estimate the amount of cryptic diversity among bats of a Neotropical montane cloud forest in Talamanca Range-south-east Central America-, we performed a 15-night sampling campaign, which resulted in 90 captured bats belonging to 8 species...
2016: PloS One
Sanju George, Jaisoorya Ts, Sivasankaran Nair, Anjana Rani, Priya Menon, Revamma Madhavan, Jeevan Chakkandan Rajan, Komath Sankaran Radhakrishnan, Vineeta Jose, Vivek Benegal, K Thennarasu, Nancy M Petry
BACKGROUND: In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. AIMS: This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Rodolfo A Kolliker-Frers, Ivan Insua, Gabriela Razzitte, Francisco Capani
INTRODUCTION: Argentina has been a preferential target for Bolivian immigrants for decades. The relatively recent migratory flux includes Germany, France, the United States, Australia, Japan, and some Latin American countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women, analyzing the Bolivian-specific Chagas prevalence as the main contributor of migratory populations from Chagas disease-endemic areas to Buenos Aires city, Argentina, and to evaluate the impact of these migrant influxes on the process of the "urbanization" of the disease in reference hospital José Maria Ramos Mejia (JMRM)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Bhavna Gupta, Daniel M Parker, Qi Fan, B P Niranjan Reddy, Guiyun Yan, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui
Malaria transmission along international borders of the Greater Mekong Subregion is a big challenge for regional malaria elimination. At the Thai-Myanmar border, Plasmodium falciparum cases have dropped dramatically; however, increasing P. vivax prevalence and the emerging reports on hidden malaria burden due to asymptomatic infections demand attention. We conducted cross-sectional surveys to detect asymptomatic malaria infections in a small village located at Thai-Myanmar border and genotyped P. vivax infections in order to understand the level of genetic diversity on such a microgeographic scale...
September 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Pablo Perez-Martinez, Juan F Alcala-Diaz, Edmon K Kabagambe, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Michael Y Tsai, Javier Delgado-Lista, Genovefa Kolovou, Robert J Straka, Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Paul N Hopkins, Carmen Marin, Ingrid Borecki, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, James E Hixson, Antonio Camargo, Michael A Province, Javier Lopez-Moreno, Fernando Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Francisco J Tinahones, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Donna K Arnett, Jose M Ordovas, Jose Lopez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benefit diagnostically from an oral-fat tolerance test (OFTT) in clinical practice. METHODS: A population of 1002 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from the CORDIOPREV clinical trial and 1115 white US subjects from the GOLDN study underwent OFTTs...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Juncheng Dai, Wei Shen, Wanqing Wen, Jiang Chang, Tongmin Wang, Haitao Chen, Guangfu Jin, Hongxia Ma, Chen Wu, Lian Li, Fengju Song, YiXin Zeng, Yue Jiang, Jiaping Chen, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Wen Zhou, Jiangbo Du, Yongbing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Zhibin Hu, Weiping Zhou, Kexin Chen, Jianfeng Xu, Weihua Jia, Dongxin Lin, Wei Zheng, Hongbing Shen
The familial aggregation indicated the inheritance of cancer risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Following heritability analyses have shown that SNPs could explain a moderate amount of variance for different cancer phenotypes among Caucasians. However, little information was available in Chinese population. We performed a genome-wide complex trait analysis for common cancers at nine anatomical sites in Chinese population (14,629 cancer cases vs...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Lisa G Johnston, Katherine R McLaughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Susan A Bartels
Successive sampling (SS)-population size estimation (PSE) is a technique used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations using data collected in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys. We here assess past estimations and use new data from an RDS survey to calculate a new PSE. In 2012, 852 adult women in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, who self-identified as survivors of sexual violence, resulting in a pregnancy, since the start of the war (in 1996) were sampled using RDS. We used imputed visibility, enrollment order, and prior estimates for PSE using SS-PSE in RDS Analyst...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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