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Hidden populations

Dennis Pischel, Jörn H Buchbinder, Kai Sundmacher, Inna N Lavrik, Robert J Flassig
Imaging flow cytometry is a powerful experimental technique combining the strength of microscopy and flow cytometry to enable high-throughput characterization of cell populations on a detailed microscopic scale. This approach has an increasing importance for distinguishing between different cellular phenotypes such as proliferation, cell division and cell death. In the course of undergoing these different pathways, each cell is characterized by a high amount of properties. This makes it hard to filter the most relevant information for cell state discrimination...
2018: PloS One
Francesco Giorgino, Alfred Penfornis, Valeria Pechtner, Raffaella Gentilella, Antonella Corcos
Adherence to antihyperglycemic medications is often suboptimal in patients with type 2 diabetes, and this can contribute to poor glycemic control, increased hospitalization, and the development of diabetic complications. Reported adherence rates to antihyperglycemics vary widely among studies, and this may be related to differences in methodology for measuring adherence, patient populations, and other factors. Poor adherence may occur regardless of the specific regimen used and whether therapy is oral or injectable, and can be especially common in chronic, asymptomatic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Pia R Neubauer, Christiane Widmann, Daniel Wibberg, Lea Schröder, Marcel Frese, Tilman Kottke, Jörn Kalinowski, Hartmut H Niemann, Norbert Sewald
Flavin-dependent halogenases catalyse halogenation of aromatic compounds. In most cases, this reaction proceeds with high regioselectivity and requires only the presence of FADH2, oxygen, and halide salts. Since marine habitats contain high concentrations of halides, organisms populating the oceans might be valuable sources of yet undiscovered halogenases. A new Hidden-Markov-Model (HMM) based on the PFAM tryptophan halogenase model was used for the analysis of marine metagenomes. Eleven metagenomes were screened leading to the identification of 254 complete or partial putative flavin-dependent halogenase genes...
2018: PloS One
Samer Angelone, Michael J Jowers, Anna Rita Molinar Min, Paulino Fandos, Paloma Prieto, Mario Pasquetti, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Gregorio Mentaberre, Jorge Ramón López Olvera, Arián Ráez-Bravo, José Espinosa, Jesús M Pérez, Ramón C Soriguer, Luca Rossi, José Enrique Granados
BACKGROUND: Defining hidden genetic diversity within species is of great significance when attempting to maintain the evolutionary potential of natural populations and conduct appropriate management. Our hypothesis is that isolated (and eventually small) wild animal populations hide unexpected genetic diversity due to their maintenance of ancient polymorphisms or introgressions. RESULTS: We tested this hypothesis using the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) as an example...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genetics
Dingkun Ren, Chi On Chui
Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) has been instrumental in tracking collective behavior of confluent cell layers for decades. Toward probing cellular heterogeneity in a population, the single-cell version of ECIS has also been explored, yet its intrinsic capability and limitation remain unclear. In this work, we argue for the fundamental feasibility of impedance spectroscopy to track changes of multiple cellular properties using a noninvasive single-cell approach. While changing individual properties is experimentally prohibitive, we take a simulation approach instead and mimic the corresponding changes using a 3D computational model...
May 8, 2018: ACS Sensors
Francesco Ortuso, Donatella Bagetta, Annalisa Maruca, Carmine Talarico, Maria L Bolognesi, Norbert Haider, Fernanda Borges, Sharon Bryant, Thierry Langer, Hanoch Senderowitz, Stefano Alcaro
For every lead compound developed in medicinal chemistry research, numerous other inactive or less active candidates are synthetized/isolated and tested. The majority of these compounds will not be selected for further development due to a sub-optimal pharmacological profile. However, some poorly active or even inactive compounds could live a second life if tested against other targets. Thus, new therapeutic opportunities could emerge and synergistic activities could be identified and exploited for existing compounds by sharing information between researchers who are working on different targets...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
S Klok-Nentjes, G A Tramper-Stranders, E D M van Dam-Bakker, J Beldman
Undocumented migrants are people who do not have a valid residence permit. There are only estimates about how many undocumented migrants are living in the European Union; the number of children among them is unclear. Studies about undocumented children are scarce and little is known about their living situation and their access to health care. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the number of undocumented children in the population of visitors of our primary care clinic for undocumented patients. Moreover, we explored whether these children's rights with respect to health care, education, and living circumstances were met...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
David B Lindenmayer, Chloe Sato
Increasing numbers of ecosystems globally are at risk of collapse. However, most descriptions of terrestrial ecosystem collapse are post hoc with few empirically based examples of ecosystems in the process of collapse. This limits learning about collapse and impedes development of effective early-warning indicators. Based on multidecadal and multifaceted monitoring, we present evidence that the Australian mainland Mountain Ash ecosystem is collapsing. Collapse is indicated by marked changes in ecosystem condition, particularly the rapid decline in populations of keystone ecosystem structures...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephanie Zaza, Wendy E Braund, Robert W Carr
We explore three issues related to the practice of preventive medicine. First, how does the dearth of preventive medicine physicians on state licensure boards affect quality of medical care? Second, should a process be established to assess the training and skills of candidates for population health positions, like the "credentialing" or "privilege-granting" process used by hospitals and health systems for clinical positions? And third, how should the pervasive lack of recognition of preventive medicine as a bona fide medical specialty be addressed? In exploring these issues, we conclude that preventive medicine physicians are critical to the US health care ecosystem at every level, and to building a dominant culture of prevention...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine
Scott Schuette, Ryan A Folk, Jason T Cantley, Christopher T Martine
The genus Heuchera is recognized as one of the most diverse endemic radiations of Saxifragaceae in North America, yet species delimitation and geographic distribution within the group remain controversial. Many species remain difficult to identify, including Heuchera alba , a narrow Appalachian endemic and globally imperiled (G2) taxon recorded only from West Virginia and Virginia that occurs in sympatry with H. pubescens and H. americana . A recent survey of the cliffside flora of the Shikellamy Bluffs, PA recorded dozens of Heuchera individuals that, through the use of social media, were positively identified as H...
2018: PhytoKeys
Jason D Buenrostro, M Ryan Corces, Caleb A Lareau, Beijing Wu, Alicia N Schep, Martin J Aryee, Ravindra Majeti, Howard Y Chang, William J Greenleaf
Human hematopoiesis involves cellular differentiation of multipotent cells into progressively more lineage-restricted states. While the chromatin accessibility landscape of this process has been explored in defined populations, single-cell regulatory variation has been hidden by ensemble averaging. We collected single-cell chromatin accessibility profiles across 10 populations of immunophenotypically defined human hematopoietic cell types and constructed a chromatin accessibility landscape of human hematopoiesis to characterize differentiation trajectories...
April 25, 2018: Cell
Bilal Khan, Hsuan-Wei Lee, Ian Fellows, Kirk Dombrowski
Size estimation is particularly important for populations whose members experience disproportionate health issues or pose elevated health risks to the ambient social structures in which they are embedded. Efforts to derive size estimates are often frustrated when the population is hidden or hard-to-reach in ways that preclude conventional survey strategies, as is the case when social stigma is associated with group membership or when group members are involved in illegal activities. This paper extends prior research on the problem of network population size estimation, building on established survey/sampling methodologies commonly used with hard-to-reach groups...
2018: PloS One
Cecili B Mendes, Jon L Norenburg, Vera N Solferini, Sónia C S Andrade
Ototyphlonemertes is a cosmopolitan genus of meiofaunal nemerteans. Their morphological characters are insufficient to reliably identify and delimit species. Consequently, some of the species are considered cosmopolitan despite anticipated low dispersion capability of the adults and a short planktonic larval phase. Indeed, recent studies show that some species actually comprise cryptic species, and populations are connected by stochastic events of long-distance dispersion. Based solely on morphological traits, a Lactea and a Pallida morph of Ototyphlonemertes are recognized here from collections at eight and five locations respectively along the Chilean coast...
2018: PloS One
Verena Strehlau, Iris Torchalla, Michelle Patterson, Akm Moniruzzaman, Allison Laing, Sindi Addorisio, Jim Frankish, Michael Krausz, Julian Somers
Background: Homeless individuals with mental illness are challenging to recruit and retain in longitudinal research studies. The present study uses information from the Vancouver site of a Canadian multi-city longitudinal randomized controlled trial on housing first interventions for homeless individuals. We were able to recruit 500 participants and retain large number of homeless individuals with mental illness; 92% of the participants completed the 6-month follow up interview, 84% the 24-month follow up, while 80% completed all follow-up visits of the study...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Lucas Neiva-Silva, Lauro Miranda Demenech, Laísa Rodrigues Moreira, Adriano Trassantes Oliveira, Fernanda Torres de Carvalho, Simone Dos Santos Paludo
The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience, along with associated factors among street children, adolescents and youths in Porto Alegre and Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The sampling method in this cross-sectional study was Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS), innovative in research about hidden populations. Interviews were conducted with 307 subjects, aged 10 to 21 years. In multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used. Most of this sample were males, with no contact with school and family...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
James Dewitt, Benjamin Capistrant, Nidhi Kohli, B R Simon Rosser, Darryl Mitteldorf, Enyinnaya Merengwa, William West
BACKGROUND: While deduplication and cross-validation protocols have been recommended for large Web-based studies, protocols for survey response validation of smaller studies have not been published. OBJECTIVE: This paper reports the challenges of survey validation inherent in a small Web-based health survey research. METHODS: The subject population was North American, gay and bisexual, prostate cancer survivors, who represent an under-researched, hidden, difficult-to-recruit, minority-within-a-minority population...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Samuel Soubeyrand, Pauline de Jerphanion, Olivier Martin, Mathilde Saussac, Charles Manceau, Pascal Hendrikx, Christian Lannou
Unravelling the ecological structure of emerging plant pathogens persisting in multi-host systems is challenging. In such systems, observations are often heterogeneous with respect to time, space and host species, and may lead to biases of perception. The biased perception of pathogen ecology may be exacerbated by hidden fractions of the whole host population, which may act as infection reservoirs. We designed a mechanistic-statistical approach to help understand the ecology of emerging pathogens by filtering out some biases of perception...
April 24, 2018: New Phytologist
Preeti Gupta, Bharti Mankere, Shami Chekkoora Keloth, Urmil Tuteja, Pratibha Pandey, Kulanthaivel Thava Chelvam
Background: Vibrio cholerae, the aetiological agent of the deadly diarrhoeal disease cholera, is known to form biofilm. The antibiotic susceptibility status of biofilm of V. cholerae O139, an important epidemic strain in India and other countries, has not previously been studied in detail. Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility status of planktonic and biofilm cultures of V. cholerae O139 was evaluated by determining MIC, MBC and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of five different classes of antibiotics using established methods...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Zhe Wang, Xiaoli Xie, Jinglu Zhao, Ming Fu, Yonglan Li, Wei Zhong, Huimin Xia, Yan Zhang, Rui-Zhong Zhang
Biliary atresia (BA) is a multifactorial pathogenic disease with possible genetic components. As a member of membrane skeletal proteins in the liver and bile ducts, a haplotype composed by five SNPs on ADD3 has been identified as associated with BA. However, limited study was designed to further elaborate the mutual relationship among those replicated SNPs to disease. We selected three susceptibility SNPs in ADD3 and conducted a replication study using 510 BA cases and 1473 controls to evaluate the individual function of the SNPs and further stratified the potential roles with disease and its subclinical features...
April 23, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Katherine Reid, Hugh Alberti
The ageing population and push to community care has significantly increased the workload of General Practitioners (GPs) in the UK and internationally. In an attempt to tackle this, NHS England has promised 5000 more GPs by 2020/21; however, recruitment is in crisis with GP training posts remaining unfilled. Little research has been carried out to assess the fundamental questions of what medical students' perceptions of General Practice are and what shapes their perceptions at medical school. We aimed to explore medical students' conceptualisations of being a GP and specifically the role of the medical school in shaping their perceptions...
April 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
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