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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148573/phenotypic-and-genetic-integration-of-personality-and-growth-under-competition-in-the-sheepshead-swordtail-xiphophorus-birchmanni
#1
K Boulton, C A Walling, A J Grimmer, G G Rosenthal, A J Wilson
Competition for resources including food, physical space, and potential mates is a fundamental ecological process shaping variation in individual phenotype and fitness. The evolution of competitive ability, in particular social dominance, depends on genetic (co)variation among traits causal (e.g., behaviour) or consequent (e.g. growth) to competitive outcomes. If dominance is heritable, it will generate both direct and indirect genetic effects (IGE) on resource dependent traits. The latter are expected to impose evolutionary constraint because winners necessarily gain resources at the expense of losers...
November 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140918/integrating-social-determinants-of-health-into-graduate-medical-education-a-call-for-action
#2
Jennifer Siegel, David L Coleman, Thea James
Social determinants of health (SDH) are the major drivers of health and disparate health outcomes across communities and populations. Given this, the authors assert that competency in recognizing and mitigating SDH should become a vital component of graduate medical education in all specialties. While the most effective approaches to educating trainees about SDH are uncertain, in this Invited Commentary, the authors offer several key principles for implementing curricula focusing on SDH. These include universalization of the material, integration into clinical education, identification of space for trainee introspection, clarification of specific competencies in identification and mitigation of SDH, and creation of robust faculty development programming...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108855/hiv-patients-healthy-aging-and-transplant-recipients-can-reveal-the-hidden-footprints-of-cmv
#3
REVIEW
Shelley Waters, Emily Brook, Silvia Lee, Riwanti Estiasari, Ibnu Ariyanto, Patricia Price
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus. Latent infections are common in all populations. However age-associated increases in levels of CMV-reactive antibody are testament to a repeated reactivations and periods of viral replication. CMV has been associated with several diseases of aging, including vasculopathy and neurocognitive impairment. These conditions occur at a younger age in persons with particularly high burdens of CMV - transplant recipients and people living with HIV. Here we define the "clinical footprints" as immunopathologies triggered by CMV that develop over many years...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107063/hidden-heterogeneity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-insights-from-genetic-association-studies-and-other-analyses
#4
Anatoliy I Yashin, Fang Fang, Mikhail Kovtun, Deqing Wu, Matt Duan, Konstantin Arbeev, Igor Akushevich, Alexander Kulminski, Irina Culminskaya, Ilya Zhbannikov, Arseniy Yashkin, Eric Stallard, Svetlana Ukraintseva
Despite evident success in clarifying many important features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the efficient methods of its prevention and treatment are not yet available. The reasons are likely to be the fact that AD is a multifactorial and heterogeneous health disorder with multiple alternative pathways of disease development and progression. The availability of genetic data on individuals participated in longitudinal studies of aging health and longevity, as well as on participants of cross-sectional case-control studies allow for investigating genetic and non-genetic connections with AD and to link the results of these analyses with research findings obtained in clinical, experimental, and molecular biological studies of this health disorder...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101008/use-of-a-neural-net-to-model-the-impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-abnormalities-on-vision-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#5
Tariq M Aslam, Haider R Zaki, Sajjad Mahmood, Zaria C Ali, Nur A Ahmad, Mariana R Thorell, Konstantinos Balaskas
PURPOSE: To develop a neural network for the estimation of visual acuity from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration and to demonstrate its use to model the impact of specific controlled OCT changes on vision. DESIGN: Artificial Intelligence (neural network) study. METHODS: We assessed 1400 OCT scans of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (AMD). 15 physical features for each eligible OCT as well as patient age were used as input data and corresponding recorded visual acuity as the target data to train, validate and test a supervised neural network...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095866/using-data-from-respondent-driven-sampling-studies-to-estimate-the-number-of-people-who-inject-drugs-application-to-the-kohtla-j%C3%A3-rve-region-of-estonia
#6
Jiacheng Wu, Forrest W Crawford, Mait Raag, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla
Estimating the size of key risk populations is essential for determining the resources needed to implement effective public health intervention programs. Several standard methods for population size estimation exist, but the statistical and practical assumptions required for their use may not be met when applied to HIV risk groups. We apply three approaches to estimate the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia using data from a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) study: the standard "multiplier" estimate gives 654 people (95% CI 509-804), the "successive sampling" method gives estimates between 600 and 2500 people, and a network-based estimate that uses the RDS recruitment chain gives between 700 and 2800 people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093474/insertion-sequence-polymorphism-and-genomic-rearrangements-uncover-hidden-wolbachia-diversity-in-drosophila-suzukii-and-d-subpulchrella
#7
Rupinder Kaur, Stefanos Siozios, Wolfgang J Miller, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Ability to distinguish between closely related Wolbachia strains is crucial for understanding the evolution of Wolbachia-host interactions and the diversity of Wolbachia-induced phenotypes. A useful model to tackle these issues is the Drosophila suzukii - Wolbachia association. D. suzukii, a destructive insect pest, harbor a non-CI inducing Wolbachia 'wSuz' closely related to the strong CI-inducing wRi strain. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) suggests presence of genetic homogeneity across wSuz strains infecting European and American D...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092810/recruitment-and-ongoing-engagement-in-a-uk-smartphone-study-examining-the-association-between-weather-and-pain-cohort-study
#8
Katie L Druce, John McBeth, Sabine N van der Veer, David A Selby, Bertie Vidgen, Konstantinos Georgatzis, Bruce Hellman, Rashmi Lakshminarayana, Afiqul Chowdhury, David M Schultz, Caroline Sanders, Jamie C Sergeant, William G Dixon
BACKGROUND: The huge increase in smartphone use heralds an enormous opportunity for epidemiology research, but there is limited evidence regarding long-term engagement and attrition in mobile health (mHealth) studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine how representative the Cloudy with a Chance of Pain study population is of wider chronic-pain populations and to explore patterns of engagement among participants during the first 6 months of the study...
November 1, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083200/the-paradox-of-intelligence-heritability-and-malleability-coexist-in-hidden-gene-environment-interplay
#9
Bruno Sauce, Louis D Matzel
Intelligence can have an extremely high heritability, but also be malleable; a paradox that has been the source of continuous controversy. Here we attempt to clarify the issue, and advance a frequently overlooked solution to the paradox: Intelligence is a trait with unusual properties that create a large reservoir of hidden gene-environment (GE) networks, allowing for the contribution of high genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in IQ. GE interplay is difficult to specify with current methods, and is underestimated in standard metrics of heritability (thus inflating estimates of "genetic" effects)...
October 30, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071471/the-hidden-genomics-of-chlamydia-trachomatis
#10
James Hadfield, Angèle Bénard, Daryl Domman, Nicholas Thomson
The application of whole-genome sequencing has moved us on from sequencing single genomes to defining unravelling population structures in different niches, and at the -species, -serotype or even -genus level, and in local, national and global settings. This has been instrumental in cataloguing and revealing a huge a range of diversity in this bacterium, when at first we thought there was little. Genomics has challenged assumptions, added insight, as well as confusion and glimpses of truths. What is clear is that at a time when we start to realise the extent and nature of the diversity contained within a genus or a species like this, the huge depth of knowledge communities have developed, through cell biology, as well as the new found molecular approaches will be more precious than ever to link genotype to phenotype...
October 26, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066709/-indirect-methods-to-estimate-hidden-population
#11
Rocío Lorenzo Ortega, Michela Sonego, José Pulido, Almudena González Crespo, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías, Luis Sordo
Estimating the prevalence of the so-called "hidden populations" can be challenging, because the identification of its members is difficult due to their socially sanctionable or illegal behaviors. This article provides a critical review of the most widely used methods for estimating the size of a hard-to-reach population. All are indirect methods, based on incomplete data sources. Depending on the available data, one method can be more appropriate than another. Besides, each method must fulfill a number of requirements, and each one may be subject to specific risk of bias...
October 20, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061615/elder-abuse-as-a-risk-factor-for-psychological-distress-among-older-adults-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Maria Evandrou, Jane C Falkingham, Min Qin, Athina Vlachantoni
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association between elder abuse and psychological distress among older adults in India and explores whether this association varies by the level of psychosocial and material resources. DESIGN: The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. SETTING: The data are drawn from a representative sample of 9589 adults aged 60 and above in seven Indian states-Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu-in 2011...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060620/deepdeath-learning-to-predict-the-underlying-cause-of-death-with-big-data
#13
Hamid Reza Hassanzadeh, Ying Sha, May D Wang
Multiple cause-of-death data provides a valuable source of information that can be used to enhance health standards by predicting health related trajectories in societies with large populations. These data are often available in large quantities across U.S. states and require Big Data techniques to uncover complex hidden patterns. We design two different classes of models suitable for large-scale analysis of mortality data, a Hadoop-based ensemble of random forests trained over N-grams, and the DeepDeath, a deep classifier based on the recurrent neural network (RNN)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060379/iot-m2m-wearable-based-activity-calorie-monitoring-and-analysis-for-elders
#14
Sabrina I Soraya, Ting-Hui Chiang, Guo-Jing Chan, Yi-Juan Su, Chih-Wei Yi, Yu-Chee Tseng, Yu-Tai Ching
With the growth of aging population, elder care service has become an important part of the service industry of Internet of Things. Activity monitoring is one of the most important services in the field of the elderly care service. In this paper, we proposed a wearable solution to provide an activity monitoring service on elders for caregivers. The system uses wireless signals to estimate calorie burned by the walking and localization. In addition, it also uses wireless motion sensors to recognize physical activity, such as drinking and restroom activity...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053737/screening-for-hiv-hepatitis-b-and-syphilis-on-dried-blood-spots-a-promising-method-to-better-reach-hidden-high-risk-populations-with-self-collected-sampling
#15
Inge H M van Loo, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Rosalie Heuts, Marianne A B van der Sande, Christian J P A Hoebe
INTRODUCTION: Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS), a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053437/reaching-egyptian-gays-using-social-media-a-comprehensive-health-study-and-a-framework-for-future-research
#16
Ahmed Gamal Elmahy
Internet has revolutionized research on sexual minorities by providing direct and safe access to hidden, stigmatized and high risk populations. This study investigated the possibility of using Facebook to reach Egyptian gays. The questionnaire was manually distributed to an extensive list of Facebook pages and groups related to the topic that has been collected using a snowball-like technique. The recruitment lasted from August 2015 to May 2016. Among the 461 eligible participants, the mean age was 26.6 (SD = 7...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052408/indirect-methods-to-estimate-hidden-population
#17
Rocío Lorenzo Ortega, Michela Sonego, José Pulido, Almudena González Crespo, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías, Luis Sordo
Estimating the prevalence of the so-called “hidden populations” can be challenging, because the identification of its members is difficult due to their socially sanctionable or illegal behaviours. This article provides a critical review of the most widely used methods for estimating the size of a hard-to-reach population. All are indirect methods, based on incomplete data sources. Depending on the available data, one method can be more appropriate than another. Besides, each method must fulfil a number of requirements, and each one may be subject to specific risk of bias...
October 20, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051922/hidden-heritability-due-to-heterogeneity-across-seven-populations
#18
Felix C Tropf, S Hong Lee, Renske M Verweij, Gert Stulp, Peter J van der Most, Ronald de Vlaming, Andrew Bakshi, Daniel A Briley, Charles Rahal, Robert Hellpap, Anastasia Nyman, Tõnu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin, Nicola Barban, Harold Snieder, Matthew R Robinson, Melinda C Mills
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which dominate genetic discovery are based on data from diverse historical time periods and populations. Genetic scores derived from GWAS explain only a fraction of the heritability estimates obtained from whole-genome studies on single populations, known as the 'hidden heritability' puzzle. Using seven sampling populations (N=35,062), we test whether hidden heritability is attributed to heterogeneity across sampling populations and time, showing that estimates are substantially smaller from across compared to within populations...
October 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045724/effects-of-demographic-history-on-the-detection-of-recombination-hotspots-from-linkage-disequilibrium
#19
Amy L Dapper, Bret A Payseur
In some species, meiotic recombination is concentrated in small genomic regions. These "recombination hotspots" leave signatures in fine-scale patterns of linkage disequilibrium, raising the prospect that the genomic landscape of hotspots can be characterized from sequence variation. This approach has led to the inference that hotspots evolve rapidly in some species, but are conserved in others. Historic demographic events, such as population bottlenecks, are known to affect patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genome, violating population genetic assumptions of this approach...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039051/hidden-morbidity-of-ethanol-lock-therapy
#20
Teerin T Meckmongkol, Caitlyn Costanzo, Sean Ciullo, Rajeev Prasad, L Grier Arthur
AIMS: Long-term central venous catheters are essential in sustaining growth and development in patients with intestinal failure (IF). Several strategies have been developed to prevent and treat catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs), including ethanol lock therapy. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of ethanol lock therapy in our IF population. METHOD: This is a retrospective review of IF patients treated with ethanol lock therapy at a single institution from 2006 to 2013...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
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