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Hidden populations

Megumi Endo, Mamiko Hirose, Masanao Honda, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshiaki Morino, Masato Kiyomoto, Hiroshi Wada
The marine environment around Japan experienced significant changes during the Cenozoic Era. In this study, we report findings suggesting that this dynamic history left behind traces in the genome of the Japanese sand dollar species Peronella japonica and P. rubra. Although mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase I sequences did not indicate fragmentation of the current local populations of P. japonica around Japan, two different types of intron sequence were found in the Alx1 locus. We inferred that past fragmentation of the populations account for the presence of two types of nuclear sequences as alleles in the Alx1 intron of P...
March 13, 2018: Gene
Helen O' Brien, Neil O' Leary, Siobhan Scarlett, Celia O' Hare, Rose Anne Kenny
Background: the dramatic shift in the global population demographic has led to increasing numbers of older people undergoing hospitalisation and surgical procedures. Objectives: to determine whether hospitalisation or hospitalisation with surgery under general anaesthesia is associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults over the age of 50. Methods: cognitive function in the domains of global cognition, memory and executive function was assessed in 8,023 individuals at waves 1 and 2 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), 2 years apart...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Julie Franks, Sharon B Mannheimer, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Paul W Colson, Hugo Ortega, Wafaa M El-Sadr
INTRODUCTION: Black men who have sex with men and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection, but are more likely to be unaware of their infection or not in care for diagnosed HIV compared to other races. Respondent driven sampling has been advanced as a method to reach stigmatized and hidden populations for HIV testing. We compared strategies to recruit black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women to identify newly diagnosed HIV infection, or those previously diagnosed but not in care...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Graham McGeoch, Kieran Holland, Melissa Kerdemelidis, Nikki Elliot, Brett Shand, Catherine Fink, Anne Dixon, Carolyn Gullery
INTRODUCTION Unmet needs are a key indicator of the success of a health system. Clinicians and funders in Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand were concerned that unmet health need was hidden. AIM The aim of this survey was to estimate the proportion of patients attending general practice who were unable to access clinically indicated referred services. METHODS The survey used a novel method to estimate unserviced health needs. General practitioners (GPs, n = 54) asked their patients (n = 2135) during a consultation about any health needs requiring a referred service...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Peristera-Maria Toziou, Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Paraskevi Boukouvala, Susan Verghese, Ioannis Nikolakakis
Since culture-based methods are costly and time consuming, alternative methods are investigated for the quantification of probiotics in commercial products. In this work ATR- FTIR vibration spectroscopy was applied for the differentiation and quantification of live Lactobacillus (La 5) in mixed populations of live and killed La 5, in the absence and in the presence of enteric polymer Eudragit® L 100-55. Suspensions of live (La 5_L) and killed in acidic environment bacillus (La 5_K) were prepared and binary mixtures of different percentages were used to grow cell cultures for colony counting and spectral analysis...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Katherine A Clements, Suzanne L Gray, Brya Gross, Irene M Pepperberg
Research has shown that some forms of inferential reasoning are likely widespread throughout the animal kingdom (e.g., exclusion, in which a subject infers the placement of a reward by eliminating potential alternative sites), but other types of inferential tasks have not been extensively tested. We examined whether a nonhuman might succeed in an experiment based on probabilistic reasoning, specifically, the ability to make inferences about a sample based on information about a population. A Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), previously trained to use English labels referentially to identify objects, observed a human researcher deposit 2 different types of items in a 3:1 ratio (e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Ester Moreno-Artero, Elena Querol-Cisneros, Nuria Rodríguez-Garijo, Alejandra Tomás-Velázquez, Javier Antoñanzas, Secundino Fernández, María Pilar Gil-Sánchez, Agustín España
Cocaine is an alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that emerged in the 1970s as a fashionable drug among members of certain social backgrounds. Cocaine abuse is a problem of current interest, which is mostly hidden and under-diagnosed, but dramatically widespread among all socioeconomic strata, and with an incidence which is increasing at an alarming rate. There are 1.5 million cocaine consumers in the USA. In Spain, the prevalence of consumption among the population between 15 and 65 years-old is higher, reaching 3...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
V E Baracos, L Arribas
Body composition, defined as the proportions and distribution of lean and fat tissues in the human body, is an emergent theme in clinical oncology. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) is most easily overlooked in obese patients; the advent of secondary analysis of oncologic images provides a precise and specific assessment of sarcopenia. Here, we review the definitions, prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in medical and surgical oncology. Reported prevalence of SO varies due to the heterogeneity in the definitions and the variability in the cut points used to define low muscle mass and high fat mass...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Lila Fishman, Andrea L Sweigart
Hybrids between flowering plant species often exhibit reduced fitness, including sterility and inviability. Such hybrid incompatibilities create barriers to genetic exchange that can promote reproductive isolation between diverging populations and, ultimately, speciation. Additionally, hybrid breakdown opens a window into hidden molecular and evolutionary processes occurring within species. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms and origins of hybrid incompatibility in flowering plants, including both diverse genic interactions and chromosomal incompatibilities...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Zinaida Good, Jolanda Sarno, Astraea Jager, Nikolay Samusik, Nima Aghaeepour, Erin F Simonds, Leah White, Norman J Lacayo, Wendy J Fantl, Grazia Fazio, Giuseppe Gaipa, Andrea Biondi, Robert Tibshirani, Sean C Bendall, Garry P Nolan, Kara L Davis
Insight into the cancer cell populations that are responsible for relapsed disease is needed to improve outcomes. Here we report a single-cell-based study of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis that reveals hidden developmentally dependent cell signaling states that are uniquely associated with relapse. By using mass cytometry we simultaneously quantified 35 proteins involved in B cell development in 60 primary diagnostic samples. Each leukemia cell was then matched to its nearest healthy B cell population by a developmental classifier that operated at the single-cell level...
March 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
Aleksandra Dańko, Ralf Schaible, Joanna Pijanowska, Maciej J Dańko
Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability...
2018: Marine Biology
Eliana Amorim de Souza, Anderson Fuentes Ferreira, Reagan Nzundu Boigny, Carlos Henrique Alencar, Jorg Heukelbach, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Jaqueline Caracas Barbosa, Alberto Novaes Ramos
OBJECTIVE To analyze, stratifield by gender, trends of the new case leprosy detection rates in the general population and in children; of grade 2 disability, and of proportion of multibacillary cases, in the state of Bahia, Brazil from 2001 to 2014. METHODS A time series study based on leprosy data from the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The time trend analysis included Poisson regression models by infection points (Joinpoint) stratified by gender. RESULTS There was a total of 40,054 new leprosy cases with a downward trend of the overall detection rate (Average Annual Percent Change [AAPC = -0...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
Timothy P Bilton, Matthew R Schofield, Michael A Black, David Chagné, Phillip L Wilcox, Ken G Dodds
Next generation sequencing is an efficient method that allows for substantially more markers than previous technologies, providing opportunities for building high density genetic linkage maps, which facilitate the development of non-model species' genomic assemblies and the investigation of their genes. However, constructing genetic maps using data generated via high-throughput sequencing technology (e.g., genotyping-by-sequencing) is complicated by the presence of sequencing errors and genotyping errors resulting from missing parental alleles due to low sequencing depth...
February 27, 2018: Genetics
Elhussein F Mourad, Mohamed S Sarhan, Hassan-Sibroe A Daanaa, Mennatullah Abdou, Ahmed T Morsi, Mohamed R Abdelfadeel, Hend Elsawey, Rahma Nemr, Mahmoud El-Tahan, Mervat A Hamza, Mohamed Abbas, Hanan H Youssef, Abdelhadi A Abdelhadi, Wafaa M Amer, Mohamed Fayez, Silke Ruppel, Nabil A Hegazi
In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures...
February 23, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Jane L Younger, Lynika Strozier, J Dylan Maddox, Árpád S Nyári, Matthew T Bonfitto, Marie J Raherilalao, Steven M Goodman, Sushma Reddy
Madagascar is renowned as a global biodiversity hotspot with high levels of microendemism. However, there are few molecular phylogenetic studies of Malagasy birds, particularly for forest-dwelling species, signifying a substantial gap in current measures of species diversity in the absence of genetic data. We evaluated species limits and explored patterns of diversification within the genus Newtonia (Family Vangidae), a group of forest-dwelling songbirds endemic to Madagascar. Our modern systematics approach combined genomic, morphometric, and ecological niche data to analyze the evolutionary history of the group...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sapinder Bali, Bruce R Robinson, Vidyasagar Sathuvalli, John Bamberg, Aymeric Goyer
Micronutrient deficiency, also known as the hidden hunger, affects over two billion people worldwide. Potato is the third most consumed food crops in the world, and is therefore a fundamental element of food security for millions of people. Increasing the amount of micronutrients in food crop could help alleviate worldwide micronutrient malnutrition. In the present study, we report on the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with folate, an essential micronutrient in the human diet...
2018: PloS One
Johannes Hertel, Stefan Frenzel, Johanna König, Katharina Wittfeld, Georg Fuellen, Birte Holtfreter, Maik Pietzner, Nele Friedrich, Matthias Nauck, Henry Völzke, Thomas Kocher, Hans J Grabe
For the goal of individualized medicine, it is critical to have clinical phenotypes at hand which represent the individual pathophysiology. However, for most of the utilized phenotypes, two individuals with the same phenotype assignment may differ strongly in their underlying biological traits. In this paper, we propose a definition for individualization and a corresponding statistical operationalization, delivering thereby a statistical framework in which the usefulness of a variable in the meaningful differentiation of individuals with the same phenotype can be assessed...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Kai Yang, Peihua Qiu
To monitor the incidence rates of cancers, AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, and other chronic or infectious diseases, some global, national, and regional reporting systems have been built to collect/provide population-based data about the disease incidence. Such databases usually report daily, monthly, or yearly disease incidence numbers at the city, county, state, or country level, and the disease incidence numbers collected at different places and different times are often correlated, with the ones closer in place or time being more correlated...
February 21, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Connor Seamus Stobie, Carel J Oosthuizen, Michael J Cunningham, Paulette Bloomer
The KwaZulu-Natal yellowfish ( Labeobarbus natalensis ) is an abundant cyprinid, endemic to KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. In this study, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset from double-digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing of samples across the distribution. We addressed several hidden challenges, primarily focusing on proper filtering of RAD data and selecting optimal parameters for data processing in polyploid lineages. We used the resulting high-quality SNP dataset to investigate the population genetic structure of L...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nash Delta Rochman, Dan M Popescu, Sean Sun
Many single-cell observables are highly heterogeneous. A part of this heterogeneity stems from
 age-related phenomena: the fact that there is a nonuniform distribution of cells with different ages.
 This has led to a renewed interest in analytic methodologies including use of the "von Foerster
 equation" for predicting population growth and cell age distributions. Here we discuss how some of
 the most popular implementations of this machinery assume a strong condition on the ergodicity of
 the cell cycle duration ensemble...
February 20, 2018: Physical Biology
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