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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347135/discrete-time-dynamic-network-model-for-the-spread-of-susceptible-infective-recovered-diseases
#1
Sanjeev Kumar Chauhan
We propose a discrete-time dynamic network model describing the spread of susceptible-infective-recovered diseases in a population. We consider the case in which the nodes in the network change their links due to social mixing dynamics as well as in response to the disease. The model shows the behavior that, as we increase social mixing, disease spread is inhibited in certain cases, while in other cases it is enhanced. We also extend this dynamic network model to take into account the case of hidden infection...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346606/characteristics-of-cases-with-repeated-sexually-transmitted-infections-massachusetts-2014-2016
#2
Katherine K Hsu, Lauren E Molotnikov, Kathleen A Roosevelt, Heather R Elder, R Monina Klevens, Alfred DeMaria, Sevgi O Aral
Background: Persons with prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at high risk for re-infection. No recent studies have examined the frequency with which persons within a geographic area are diagnosed and reported with multiple bacterial STIs over time. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study of confirmed syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infections reported to the Massachusetts state surveillance system within a two-year period, July 28, 2014 - July 27, 2016...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340803/robust-exponential-memory-in-hopfield-networks
#3
Christopher J Hillar, Ngoc M Tran
The Hopfield recurrent neural network is a classical auto-associative model of memory, in which collections of symmetrically coupled McCulloch-Pitts binary neurons interact to perform emergent computation. Although previous researchers have explored the potential of this network to solve combinatorial optimization problems or store reoccurring activity patterns as attractors of its deterministic dynamics, a basic open problem is to design a family of Hopfield networks with a number of noise-tolerant memories that grows exponentially with neural population size...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340312/ckd-screening-and-surveillance-in-australia-past-present-and-future
#4
REVIEW
Sree K Venuthurupalli, Wendy E Hoy, Helen G Healy, Anne Cameron, Robert G Fassett
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was largely a hidden health problem until the publication of an internationally agreed approach to its identification, monitoring, and treatment. The 2002 National Kidney Foundation CKD classification and the subsequent 2006 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations are powerful tools for translating thinking about CKD into clinical practice. These guidelines were strongly endorsed by the international community, including Australia, and were incorporated into CKD practice guidelines...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336168/dementia-in-eastern-mediterranean-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
Sara Mahmoud Yaghmour, Ruth Bartlett, Tula Brannelly
Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320900/societal-costs-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-ireland
#6
Peter Carney, Derek O'Boyle, Aidan Larkin, Chris McGuigan, Killian O'Rourke
AIMS: This paper evaluates the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Ireland and estimates the associated direct, indirect, and intangible costs to society based on a large nationally representative sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to capture the demographics, disease characteristics, healthcare use, informal care, employment, and wellbeing. Referencing international studies, standardised survey instruments were included (e.g., CSRI, MFIS-5, EQ-5D) or adapted (EDSS) for inclusion in an online survey platform...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318535/specialized-pollination-by-fungus-gnats-in-the-introduced-population-of-aspidistra-elatior
#7
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahiro Sueyoshi
The monocot genus Aspidistra comprises rhizomatous perennials that are distributed in tropical to warm temperate regions of Asia. Little is known about the pollinators of almost all the species, probably due to the inconspicuous nature of Aspidistra flowers. Nevertheless, the unusual floral morphology suggests biotic pollination, since pollen grains are hidden under each flower's stigma. Aspidistra elatior has been suspected to have a very peculiar pollination ecology. So far, pollination by mollusks, crustaceans, or collembolans has been suspected...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311629/climate-warming-as-a-possible-trigger-of-keystone-mussel-population-decline-in-oligotrophic-rivers-at-the-continental-scale
#8
Ivan N Bolotov, Alexander A Makhrov, Mikhail Yu Gofarov, Olga V Aksenova, Paul E Aspholm, Yulia V Bespalaya, Mikhail B Kabakov, Yulia S Kolosova, Alexander V Kondakov, Thomas Ofenböck, Andrew N Ostrovsky, Igor Yu Popov, Ted von Proschwitz, Mudīte Rudzīte, Māris Rudzītis, Svetlana E Sokolova, Ilmari Valovirta, Ilya V Vikhrev, Maxim V Vinarski, Alexey A Zotin
The effects of climate change on oligotrophic rivers and their communities are almost unknown, albeit these ecosystems are the primary habitat of the critically endangered freshwater pearl mussel and its host fishes, salmonids. The distribution and abundance of pearl mussels have drastically decreased throughout Europe over the last century, particularly within the southern part of the range, but causes of this wide-scale extinction process are unclear. Here we estimate the effects of climate change on pearl mussels based on historical and recent samples from 50 rivers and 6 countries across Europe...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311171/detecting-hepatitis-b-and-c-by-combined-public-health-and-primary-care-birth-cohort-testing
#9
Jeanne Heil, Christian J P A Hoebe, Jochen W L Cals, Henriëtte L G Ter Waarbeek, Inge H M van Loo, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers
PURPOSE: Both chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and B virus (HBV) infections are generally asymptomatic, and many remain undetected or are diagnosed at a late stage. Studies that evaluate best practice hepatitis testing strategies are needed to better detect this hidden population. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic yield (test uptake and rate of positive test results) of a combined public health and primary care birth cohort testing strategy in detecting hidden cases of HCV and HBV infections...
January 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305873/on-the-decidability-of-population-size-histories-from-finite-allele-frequency-spectra
#10
Soheil Baharian, Simon Gravel
Understanding the historical events that shaped current genomic diversity has applications in historical, biological, and medical research. However, the amount of historical information that can be inferred from genetic data is finite, which leads to an identifiability problem. For example, different historical processes can lead to identical distribution of allele frequencies. This identifiability issue casts a shadow of uncertainty over the results of any study which uses the frequency spectrum to infer past demography...
January 3, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304788/analyzing-hidden-populations-online-topic-emotion-and-social-network-of-hiv-related-users-in-the-largest-chinese-online-community
#11
Chuchu Liu, Xin Lu
BACKGROUND: Traditional survey methods are limited in the study of hidden populations due to the hard to access properties, including lack of a sampling frame, sensitivity issue, reporting error, small sample size, etc. The rapid increase of online communities, of which members interact with others via the Internet, have generated large amounts of data, offering new opportunities for understanding hidden populations with unprecedented sample sizes and richness of information. In this study, we try to understand the multidimensional characteristics of a hidden population by analyzing the massive data generated in the online community...
January 5, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300816/phylogeographic-analysis-of-the-east-asian-goldenrod-solidago-virgaurea-complex-asteraceae-reveals-hidden-ecological-diversification-with-recurrent-formation-of-ecotypes
#12
Shota Sakaguchi, Takuma Kimura, Ryuta Kyan, Masayuki Maki, Takako Nishino, Naoko Ishikawa, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Pan Li, Hyeok Jae Choi, Olga A Chernyagina, Motomi Ito
Background and Aims: The processes and mechanisms underlying lineage diversification are major topics in evolutionary biology. Eurasian goldenrod species of the Solidago virgaurea complex show remarkable morphological and ecological diversity in the Japanese Archipelago, with ecotypic taxa well adapted to specific environments (climate, edaphic conditions and disturbance regimes). The species complex is a suitable model to investigate the evolutionary processes of actively speciating plant groups, due to its ability to evolve in relation to environmental adaptation and its historical population dynamics...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277427/folate-biofortification-of-potato-by-tuber-specific-expression-of-four-folate-biosynthesis-genes
#13
Jolien De Lepeleire, Simon Strobbe, Jana Verstraete, Dieter Blancquaert, Lars Ambach, Richard G F Visser, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Insufficient dietary intake of micronutrients, known as 'hidden hunger', is a devastating global burden, affecting 2 billion people. Deficiency of folates (vitB9), which are known to play a central role in C1-metabolism, causes birth defects in at least a quarter million people annually. Biofortification to enhance the level of naturally occurring folates in crop plants, proves to be an efficient and cost-effective tool in fighting folate deficiency. Previously, introduction of folate biosynthesis genes GTPCHI and ADCS, proven to be a successful biofortification strategy in rice and tomato, turned out to be insufficient to adequately increase folate levels in potato tubers...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273000/age-based-partitioning-of-individual-genomic-inbreeding-levels-in-belgian-blue-cattle
#14
Marina Solé, Ann-Stephan Gori, Pierre Faux, Amandine Bertrand, Frédéric Farnir, Mathieu Gautier, Tom Druet
BACKGROUND: Inbreeding coefficients can be estimated either from pedigree data or from genomic data, and with genomic data, they are either global or local (when the linkage map is used). Recently, we developed a new hidden Markov model (HMM) that estimates probabilities of homozygosity-by-descent (HBD) at each marker position and automatically partitions autozygosity in multiple age-related classes (based on the length of HBD segments). Our objectives were to: (1) characterize inbreeding with our model in an intensively selected population such as the Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) cattle breed; (2) compare the properties of the model at different marker densities; and (3) compare our model with other methods...
December 22, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259947/prevalence-of-trichinella-spp-infections-in-hunted-wild-boars-in-northern-iran
#15
Ali Rostami, Hooshang Khazan, Bahram Kazemi, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Mojgan Bandepour, Niloofar Taghipour, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Background: Trichinellosis is an important and neglected foodborne zoonotic infectious disease in worldwide. The most human outbreaks in recent years have been related to consumption of wild boar meat. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in hunted wild boars in northern Iran. Methods: Thirty-five hunted wild boars were subjected in this study in 2015. All samples were examined by conventional artificial digestion method to detect of muscle larvae...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258618/a-pilot-study-of-an-autologous-tumor-derived-autophagosome-vaccine-with-docetaxel-in-patients-with-stage-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Rachel E Sanborn, Helen J Ross, Sandra Aung, Anupama Acheson, Tarsem Moudgil, Sachin Puri, Traci Hilton, Brenda Fisher, Todd Coffey, Christopher Paustian, Michael Neuberger, Edwin Walker, Hong-Ming Hu, Walter J Urba, Bernard A Fox
BACKGROUND: Tumor-derived autophagosome vaccines (DRibbles) have the potential to broaden immune response to poorly immunogenic tumors. METHODS: Autologous vaccine generated from tumor cells harvested from pleural effusions was administered to patients with advanced NSCLC with the objectives of assessing safety and immune response. Four patients were vaccinated and evaluable for immune response; each received two to four doses of vaccine. Study therapy included two cycles of docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on days 1 and 29 to treat the tumor, release hidden antigens and produce lymphopenia...
December 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237685/identity-by-descent-mapping-identifies-major-locus-for-serum-triglycerides-in-amerindians-largely-explained-by-an-apoc3-founder-mutation
#17
Wen-Chi Hsueh, Anup K Nair, Sayuko Kobes, Peng Chen, Harald H H Göring, Toni I Pollin, Alka Malhotra, William C Knowler, Leslie J Baier, Robert L Hanson
BACKGROUND: Identity-by-descent mapping using empirical estimates of identity-by-descent allele sharing may be useful for studies of complex traits in founder populations, where hidden relationships may augment the inherent genetic information that can be used for localization. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through identity-by-descent mapping, using ≈400 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of serum lipid profiles, we identified a major linkage signal for triglycerides in 1007 Pima Indians (LOD=9...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230876/on-individual-specific-prediction-of-hidden-inbreeding-depression-load
#18
J Casellas
Inbreeding depression is caused by increased homozygosity in the genome and merges two genetic mechanisms, a higher impact from recessive mutations and the waste of overdominance contributions. It is of major concern for the conservation of endangered populations of plants and animals, as major abnormalities are more frequent in inbred families than in outcrosses. Nevertheless, we lack appropriate analytical methods to estimate the hidden inbreeding depression load (IDL) in the genome of each individual. Here, a new mixed linear model approach has been developed to account for the inbreeding depression-related background of each individual in the pedigree...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229546/changes-in-cognition-and-dendritic-complexity-following-intrathecal-methotrexate-and-cytarabine-treatment-in-a-juvenile-murine-model
#19
Tyler C Alexander, Christy M Simecka, Frederico Kiffer, Thomas Groves, Julie Anderson, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Gwendolyn Carter, Antiño R Allen
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent childhood cancer and accounts for 26.8% of cancer diagnoses among children, worldwide-approximately 3,000 children each year. While advancements in treating ALL have led to a remission rate of more than 90%, many survivors experience adverse neurocognitive and/or neurobehavioral effects as a result of intrathecal chemotherapy. Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly administered with cytosine arabinoside (AraC, cytarabine) during intrathecal chemotherapy for ALL...
December 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229523/inference-in-population-genetics-using-forward-and-backward-discrete-and-continuous-time-processes
#20
Juraj Bergman, Dominik Schrempf, Carolin Kosiol, Claus Vogl
A central aim of population genetics is the inference of the evolutionary history of a population. To this end, the underlying process can be represented by a model of the evolution of allele frequencies parametrized by e.g., the population size, mutation rates and selection coefficients. A large class of models use forward-in-time models, such as the discrete Wright-Fisher and Moran models and the continuous forward diffusion, to obtain distributions of population allele frequencies, conditional on an ancestral initial allele frequency distribution...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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