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acute autonomic sensory neuropathy

Vikram A Londhey
SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology which can present with myriad clinical presentation. The neurological manifestations of SLE consist of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system manifestations (PNS). The CNS manifestations are aseptic meningitis, cerebrovascular accidents (stroke), demyelinating disorders, headache, involuntary movements like chorea, myelopathy, acute confusional states, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, seizures, psychosis and cranial nerve palsies...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Babar Kayani, Mathew David Sewell, Johnson Platinum, Andre Olivier, Timothy W R Briggs, Deborah M Eastwood
BACKGROUND: Congenital indifference to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare hereditary neuropathy, which is associated with defective sensation to noxious stimuli and autonomic dysfunction. The objective of the study was to report on the orthopaedic manifestations of this condition and provide an evidence-based approach for management. METHODS: Retrospective review of 14 consecutive patients with CIPA referred to a single tertiary centre. Mean age of diagnosis was 2...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Jafar Kafaie, Minsoo Kim, Erik Krause
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and quantitative relationship between vaccinations and small fiber neuropathy (SFN). SFN refers to damaged unmyelinated or thinly myelinated sensory and/or autonomic fibers. Diagnosis is primarily based on clinical presentation. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density can provide diagnostic confirmation with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 91%. However, the possible association between vaccination and small fiber polyneuropathy is not well defined...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Dariusz Kotlęga, Monika Gołąb-Janowska, Grzegorz Zaborowski, Sylwester Ciećwież, Przemysław Nowacki
Diabetes is a common disorder that leads to the musculoskeletal symptoms such as the shoulder arthritis. The involvement of peripheral nervous system is one of the troublesome for the patients as it provokes chronic sensory symptoms, lower motor neuron involvement and autonomic symptoms. In the course of the disease there has been several types of neuropathies described. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to the internal medicine department because of the general weakness, malaise, polydypsia and polyuria since several days...
July 25, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Andrew Mckeon, Eduardo E Benarroch
Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
José Antonio Garbino, Carlos Otto Heise, Wilson Marques
Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation...
January 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Mutsuki Makino, Dai Hiwatashi, Kesami Minemura, Kenji Kawaguchi
A 63-year-old male with a previous infection was admitted to our hospital because of acute pancreatitis. Although he had no history of diabetes mellitus, laboratory examinations revealed marked hyperglycemia on admission, and intensive insulin treatment was required. After 2 weeks, he developed severe pandysautonomia and sensory impairment, and eventually died from colonic perforation caused by paralytic ileus at 1 year after onset. Autopsy findings showed a complete loss of pancreatic islet beta cells with mild fibrosis of the exocrine pancreas...
February 2016: Pathology International
Haruki Koike
From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barr? syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy...
November 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Haruki Koike, Gen Sobue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
I Kurth
Loss of pain perception can result from neurodevelopmental defects, degeneration of nociceptive fibers, or altered excitability of sensory neurons. Hereditary neurodegeneration leading to pain loss is classified as sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). Mutations in approximately 15 genes have been identified in the group of HSAN disorders. Hallmark of the disease is a liability to injury because of impaired acute pain as a warning system to prevent harm. The clinically overlapping "congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP)" is caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels, which control the excitability of nociceptors...
August 2015: Der Schmerz
Yuto Uchida, Haruki Koike, Takuya Oguri, Hideki Kato, Hiroyuki Yuasa, Shigehisa Mitake
We report a rare case of autonomic neuropathy associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The patient, a 53-year-old male, was admitted to our hospital because of prolonged fever, headache and neck stiffness followed by urinary retention. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed pleocytosis (219/mm(3), predominantly lymphocytes) with a markedly increased protein level (217 mg/dl) and serum IgM anti-CMV antibody was detected. While his meningitic symptoms gradually improved after intravenous administration of ganciclovir, he complained of numbness in the extremities and difficulty in walking...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Pierre R Bourque, Jodi Warman Chardon, Rami Massie
Peripheral nervous system axons and myelin have unique potential protein, proteolipid, and ganglioside antigenic determinants. Despite the existence of a blood-nerve barrier, both humoral and cellular immunity can be directed against peripheral axons and myelin. Molecular mimicry may be triggered at the systemic level, as was best demonstrated in the case of bacterial oligosaccharides. The classification of immune neuropathy has been expanded to take into account specific syndromes that share unique clinical, electrophysiological, prognostic and serological features...
September 20, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Maneesh Kumar, Shrikiran Aroor, Suneel Mundkur, Sandeep Kumar
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an acute monophasic demyelinating neuropathy characterized by progressive motor weakness of limbs with areflexia. AIM: To study the clinical pattern and outcome of children with Guillain-Barre syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in a pediatric unit of tertiary care hospital over a period of 18 months. We assessed the clinical manifestations, results of electro-diagnostic tests, functional status, treatment instituted and outcome of 20 children diagnosed with GBS...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Scott M Bradfield, Eric Sandler, Thomas Geller, Roy N Tamura, Jeffrey P Krischer
BACKGROUND: Vincristine causes known side effects of peripheral sensory, motor, autonomic and cranial neuropathies. No preventive interventions are known. PROCEDURE: We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of oral glutamic acid as a preventive agent in pediatric patients with cancer who would be receiving vincristine therapy for at least 9 consecutive weeks (Stratum 1 = Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma) or 4 consecutive weeks in conjunction with steroids (Stratum 2 = Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma)...
June 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
M Vandamme, W Pauwels, J De Bleecker
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity is a serious complication of cancer treatment. Oxaliplatin, a third-generation platinum drug, has become one of the first-line therapies used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of platinum-based chemotherapy. Most commonly a sensory neuropathy occurs with cold-triggered symptoms in the acute phase and numbness and painful paresthesias as a late presentation. Autonomic neurotoxicity and late presentation, months after cessation of the therapy, has rarely been described...
June 2015: Acta Clinica Belgica
Miroslav Skorna, Roman Kopacik, Eva Vlckova, Blanka Adamova, Milena Kostalova, Josef Bednarik
INTRODUCTION: Small-fiber pathology can develop in the acute phase of critical illness and may explain chronic sensory impairment and pain in critical care survivors. METHODS: Eleven adult ischemic stroke patients in a neurocritical care unit were enrolled in an observational cohort study. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in the distal leg was assessed on admission to the intensive care unit and 10-14 days later, together with electrophysiological testing...
July 2015: Muscle & Nerve
Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz, Esra Duran, Cem Topuz, Deniz Kara, Namigar Turgut, Ülkü Aygen Türkmen, Bülent Turanç, Mustafa Önder Dolap, Volkan Hancı
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guillain-Barré Syndrome is one of the most common causes of acute polyneuropathy in adults. Recently, the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome after major and minor surgical operations has been increasingly debated. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and dysautonomy are generally observed after maximal motor deficit. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old male patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis...
May 2014: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Eduardo E Benarroch
Central or peripheral neurological disorders can manifest with autonomic failure or autonomic hyperactivity, which may affect the sympathetic, parasympathetic and/or enteric nervous systems. Disorders causing autonomic failure can be classified according to the presence or absence of associated neurological manifestations, such as peripheral neuropathy or parkinsonism, and their temporal profile (acute or subacute, chronic progressive, static, or episodic). A systematic approach allows focused evaluation to detect treatable, potentially disabling or life-threatening conditions...
July 2014: Nature Reviews. Neurology
R Ghermandi, A Mesfin, S Terzi, S Colangeli, E Zamparini, A Gasbarrini
Familial dysautomonia (FD, or Riley-Day syndrome) is a rare but fatal autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy caused by a point mutation in I-κ-B kinase complex associated protein (IKBCAP) gene. The disease, that affects primarily people of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, prejudices the development of primary sensory neurons determining depletion of autonomic and sensory neurons. Musculoskeletal problems include: spinal deformities, foot deformities, fractures and arthopathies. In this article we review a case of a 34 years old male of non-Jewish origin affected by FD presenting L2-L3 kyphosis and inability to walk due to chronic L2-L3 spondylodiscitis not surgically treated 14 years before as acute disease...
2014: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra, Gaurav Goyal, Moromi Das
There is a paucity of large studies evaluating the subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and their outcome from Southeast Asia. We report cliniconeurophysiological subtypes of GBS and their correlation with triggering events and 3-month outcome from northern India. Three hundred and twenty eight consecutive patients with GBS were clinically evaluated, including their triggers, severity, autonomic involvement, cranial nerve palsy, and respiratory paralysis. Nerve conduction study (NCS) was repeated at 3 weeks if the initial study was normal...
March 2014: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
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