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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718342/reconsidering-the-roles-of-gratitude-and-indebtedness-in-social-exchange
#1
Cong Peng, Rob M A Nelissen, Marcel Zeelenberg
Receiving favors is often a mixed blessing and commonly triggers two emotions: the positive emotion gratitude and negative emotion indebtedness. In three studies, we examined the hypothesis that gratitude and indebtedness have distinct functions in social exchange. Contrary to current views, we believe that the function of gratitude does not primarily reside in facilitating social exchange. Instead, we propose that indebtedness motivates people to repay favours received, and thus accounts for most of the prosocial effects commonly attributed to gratitude...
July 18, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717258/children-s-perceptions-of-social-resource-inequality
#2
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children's perceptions of social resource inequalities were investigated by measuring spontaneous explanations for race-based disparities in access to societal resources. Fifth graders (N = 139, M = 11.14 years, SD = .61 years) viewed animated vignettes depicting hypothetical resource inequalities between institutions serving children of African-American and European-American background. Children frequently explained disparities in terms of institutions' differing financial resources, revealing awareness that economic inequalities often underlie groups' differential access to societal resources...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716453/the-effects-of-whiteness-on-the-health-of-whites-in-the-usa
#3
Jennifer Malat, Sarah Mayorga-Gallo, David R Williams
Whites in the USA are the dominant racial group, with greater than average access to most material and social rewards. Yet, while whites have better outcomes than other racial groups on some health indicators, whites paradoxically compare poorly on other measures. Further, whites in the USA also rank poorly in international health comparisons. In this paper, we present a framework that combines the concept of whiteness-a system that socially, economically, and ideologically benefits European descendants and disadvantages people in other groups-with research from a variety of fields in order to comprehensively model the social factors that influence whites' health...
July 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713297/a-multiple-identity-approach-to-gender-identification-with-women-identification-with-feminists-and-their-interaction
#4
Jolien A van Breen, Russell Spears, Toon Kuppens, Soledad de Lemus
Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712453/-on-overview-of-social-inequalities-in-health-in-france
#5
Hélène Colineaux, Florent Bérault, Thierry Lang, Sébastien Lamy
Health is dependent on the living conditions and the socioeconomic environment of populations. The healthcare system tends to underestimate these aspects and thereby maintain, and even aggravate, the resulting social inequalities in health. It is essential that this situation is improved by adopting a global and interdisciplinary vision of healthcare and its social determinants.
July 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712443/-the-role-of-professionals-in-reducing-social-inequalities-in-health
#6
Éric Breton, Chloé Jomier
Inequalities in health stem from social mechanisms which for the most part operate outside the health care sector. By being aware of these inequalities and understanding them from the perspective of a gradient of resources, health professionals can intervene to improve equality in this field.
July 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712441/-social-inequalities-in-health-challenges-for-nursing-care
#7
Anne Guichard, Louise Potvin
The main factors of social inequalities in health lie outside the healthcare system. In a context centred on curative care, the influence of social determinants on people's health is a challenge facing nursing care and highlights the need to reinforce cross-sector action.
July 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712440/-social-inequalities-in-health-missions-of-a-regional-healthcare-agency
#8
Luc Ginot
The presence of social inequalities in health requires a multi-faceted intervention, focusing on the social determinants as well as the provision of care and prevention strategies. Regional health agencies have important levers at their disposal, as illustrated by the example of the Île-de-France region.
July 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711284/financialisation-in-health-care-an-analysis-of-private-equity-fund-investments-in-turkey
#9
Ipek Eren Vural
The 2007-2008 global financial crisis revived interest in the impacts of financial markets and actors on our social and economic life. Nevertheless, research on health care financialisation remains scant. This article presents findings from research on one modality of financial investments in health care: global private equity funds' investments in private hospitals. Adopting a political economy approach, it analyses the drivers and impacts of the upsurge of global private equity investments in the Turkish private hospital sector amid the global financial crisis...
June 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709341/consensus-formation-times-in-anisotropic-societies
#10
Juan Neirotti
We developed a statistical mechanics model to study the emergence of a consensus in societies of adapting, interacting agents constrained by a social rule B. In the mean-field approximation, we find that if the agents' interaction H_{0} is weak, all agents adapt to the social rule B, with which they form a consensus; however, if the interaction is sufficiently strong, a consensus is built against the established status quo. We observed that, after a transient time α_{t}, agents asymptotically approach complete consensus by following a path whereby they neglect their neighbors' opinions on socially neutral issues (i...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707565/neoliberalism-and-the-recommodification-of-health-inequalities-a-case-study-of-the-swedish-welfare-state-1980-to-2011
#11
Kristin Farrants, Clare Bambra
AIMS: This paper examines the effects of neoliberalism on health inequalities through an empirical examination of the recommodification of the social determinants of health. It uses a detailed case study of changes to three specific welfare policy domains in Sweden: unemployment, healthcare, and pensions. METHODS: Using time series data from the repeat cross-sectional Swedish Living Conditions Survey for 1980-2011, it examines: (1) the effects of reductions in the replacement rate value of unemployment benefit on inequalities in self-reported general health between the employed and the unemployed; (2) the effects of reductions in the replacement rate value of pensions on educational inequalities in self-reported general health among pensioners; and (3) the effects of the increase in user charges on inequalities in having visited a doctor in the past 3 months by educational level...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707564/time-trends-in-absolute-and-relative-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-leisure-time-physical-inactivity-in-northern-sweden
#12
Máté Szilcz, Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastián, Per E Gustafsson
AIMS: The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. METHODS: This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706346/individual-differences-in-the-resistance-to-social-change-and-acceptance-of-inequality-predict-system-legitimacy-differently-depending-on-the-social-structure
#13
Mark J Brandt, Christine Reyna
We propose that individual differences in the resistance to social change and the acceptance of inequality can have divergent effects on legitimacy depending on the context. This possibility was tested in a sample of 27 European countries (N = 144 367) and across four experiments (total N = 475). Individual differences in the resistance to social change were related to higher levels of perceived legitimacy no matter the level of inequality of the society. Conversely, individual differences in the acceptance of inequality were related to higher levels of perceived legitimacy in unequal societies, but either a relationship near zero or the opposite relationship was found in more equal societies...
May 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706036/driving-improvements-in-emerging-disease-surveillance-through-locally-relevant-capacity-strengthening
#14
REVIEW
Jo E B Halliday, Katie Hampson, Nick Hanley, Tiziana Lembo, Joanne P Sharp, Daniel T Haydon, Sarah Cleaveland
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten the health of people, animals, and crops globally, but our ability to predict their occurrence is limited. Current public health capacity and ability to detect and respond to EIDs is typically weakest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many known drivers of EID emergence also converge in LMICs. Strengthening capacity for surveillance of diseases of relevance to local populations can provide a mechanism for building the cross-cutting and flexible capacities needed to tackle both the burden of existing diseases and EID threats...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705364/political-democracy-economic-liberalization-and-macro-sociological-models-of-intergenerational-mobility
#15
Alexi Gugushvili
Building on the previously investigated macro-sociological models which analyze the consequences of economic development, income inequality, and international migration on social mobility, this article studies the specific contextual covariates of intergenerational reproduction of occupational status in post-communist societies. It is theorized that social mobility is higher in societies with democratic political regimes and less liberalized economies. The outlined hypotheses are tested by using micro- and macro-level datasets for 21 post-communist societies which are fitted into multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705165/on-the-plausibility-of-socioeconomic-mortality-estimates-derived-from-linked-data-a-demographic-approach
#16
Mathias Lerch, Adrian Spoerri, Domantas Jasilionis, Francisco Viciana Fernandèz
BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status...
July 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704590/the-influence-of-democratic-racism-in-nursing-inquiry
#17
Carla T Hilario, Annette J Browne, Alysha McFadden
Neoliberal ideology and exclusionary policies based on racialized identities characterize the current contexts in North America and Western Europe. Nursing knowledge cannot be abstracted from social, political and historical contexts; the task of examining the influence of race and racial ideologies on disciplinary knowledge and inquiry therefore remains an important task. Contemporary analyses of the role and responsibility of the discipline in addressing race-based health and social inequities as a focus of nursing inquiry remain underdeveloped...
July 13, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703180/socioeconomic-inequality-in-the-provision-of-specific-preventive-dental-interventions-among-children-in-the-uk-children-s-dental-health-survey-2003
#18
R Shaban, S Kassim, W Sabbah
Aim To assess socioeconomic inequality regarding specific preventive interventions (fissure sealants or any treatment to prevent caries) and dental visits among UK children.Method Data were from the Children's Dental Health Survey 2003, which included participants from England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The number of children in the analysis was 2,286. Variables were sex, age, area of residency (for example, England), mother's education, family social class, and deprivation level. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed...
June 9, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702358/crossing-the-road-in-time-inequalities-in-older-people-s-walking-speeds
#19
Elizabeth A Webb, Steven Bell, Rebecca E Lacey, Jessica G Abell
Pedestrian crossings in the UK and US require people to walk at 1.2 m/s to cross the road in time; however a large proportion of older people do not walk this fast, potentially discouraging walking or putting older people at risk of injury. We use longitudinal data to investigate changes in walking speed, and ability to cross the road in time, at older ages. 31,015 walking speed measurements were taken from 10,249 men and women aged 60+ years in waves 1-7 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2002-2014)...
June 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700078/are-postgraduate-qualifications-the-new-frontier-of-social-mobility
#20
Paul Wakeling, Daniel Laurison
We investigate the relationship between social origin, postgraduate degree attainment, and occupational outcomes across five British age-group cohorts. We use recently-available UK Labour Force Survey data to conduct a series of logistic regressions of postgraduate (masters or doctorate) degree attainment among those with first degrees, with controls for measures of degree classification, degree subject, age, gender, ethnicity and national origin. We find a marked strengthening of the effect of class origin on degree- and occupational attainment across age cohorts...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
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