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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228014/a-model-for-warfare-in-stratified-small-scale-societies-the-effect-of-within-group-inequality
#1
Sagar Pandit, Gauri Pradhan, Carel van Schaik
In order to predict the features of non-raiding human warfare in small-scale, socially stratified societies, we study a coalitionary model of war that assumes that individuals participate voluntarily because their decisions serve to maximize fitness. Individual males join the coalition if war results in a net economic and thus fitness benefit. Within the model, viable offensive war ensues if the attacking coalition of males can overpower the defending coalition. We assume that the two groups will eventually fuse after a victory, with ranks arranged according to the fighting abilities of all males and that the new group will adopt the winning group's skew in fitness payoffs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226708/-men-are-in-front-at-eating-time-but-not-when-it-comes-to-rearing-the-chicken-unpacking-the-gendered-benefits-and-costs-of-livestock-ownership-in-kenya
#2
Sarah E Dumas, Abena Maranga, Patrick Mbullo, Shalean Collins, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Livestock can promote resilience in low-income communities through a number of pathways. Livestock development programs seek to amplify these benefits but often fail to consider the costs to intended beneficiaries or the effect of prevailing gender norms. OBJECTIVE: To explore perceptions of livestock ownership among female smallholder livestock keepers in Nyanza Region, Kenya, and unpack how the distribution of livestock benefits and investments varies by gender within households...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225588/income-inequality-and-happiness-an-inverted-u-shaped-curve
#3
Zonghuo Yu, Fei Wang
Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222995/updating-edwin-chadwick-s-seminal-work-on-geographical-inequalities-by-occupation
#4
Mark A Green, Danny Dorling, Richard Mitchell
To honour the 175th anniversary of Edwin Chadwick's seminal 'Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Poor', we update Chadwick's famous analysis of geographical differences in occupational based inequalities. Much of the field of Health Geography owes both its direction of development and its initial impetus to his 1842 report. The report presented evidence for the importance of local context to health, with individuals of the lowest occupations in Rutland living longer than individuals of the highest occupations in Liverpool...
December 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221512/social-class-and-prosocial-behavior-current-evidence-caveats-and-questions
#5
REVIEW
Paul K Piff, Angela R Robinson
This review synthesizes research on social class and prosocial behavior. Individuals of lower social class display increased attention to others and greater sensitivity to others' welfare compared to individuals of higher social class, who exhibit more self-oriented patterns of social cognition. As a result, lower-class individuals are more likely to engage in other-beneficial prosocial behavior, whereas higher-class individuals are more prone to engage in self-beneficial behavior. Although the extant evidence indicates that higher social class standing may tend to undermine prosocial impulses, we propose that the effects of social class on prosocial behavior may also depend on three crucial factors: motivation, identity, and inequality...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221511/how-social-class-stereotypes-maintain-inequality
#6
REVIEW
Federica Durante, Susan T Fiske
Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221504/a-social-identity-analysis-of-responses-to-economic-inequality
#7
REVIEW
Jolanda Jetten, Zhechen Wang, Niklas K Steffens, Frank Mols, Kim Peters, Maykel Verkuyten
Even though there is growing awareness that economic inequality is harmful for people's health, the way that such inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes remains poorly understood. Moving beyond a focus on the health and well-being costs of income inequality, we review research that examines how economic inequality shapes dynamics between groups within societies, addressing the questions why, when, and for whom inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes. On the basis of classic social identity theorizing, we develop five hypotheses that focus on the way inequality shapes the fit of wealth categorizations (H1), intergroup relations (H2), and stereotypes about wealth groups (H3)...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220706/swing-voting-in-the-2016-presidential-election-in-counties-where-midlife-mortality-has-been-rising-in-white-non-hispanic-americans
#8
Usama Bilal, Emily A Knapp, Richard S Cooper
Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015, health inequalities in life expectancy by income, and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties in the 2016 presidential election. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study in 2764 US counties from 1999 to 2016...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219089/health-impacts-of-climate-change-and-health-and-social-inequalities-in-the-uk
#9
REVIEW
Jouni Paavola
This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the health impacts of climate change in the UK, and what the implications are for climate change adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climate change. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climate change influencing health outcomes...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215328/a-realist-evaluation-of-social-prescribing-an-exploration-into-the-context-and-mechanisms-underpinning-a-pathway-linking-primary-care-with-the-voluntary-sector
#10
Marcello Bertotti, Caroline Frostick, Patrick Hutt, Ratna Sohanpal, Dawn Carnes
This article adopts a realist approach to evaluate a social prescribing pilot in the areas of Hackney and City in London (United Kingdom). It unpacks the contextual factors and mechanisms that influenced the development of this pilot for the benefits of GPs, commissioners and practitioners, and reflects on the realist approach to evaluation as a tool for the evaluation of health interventions. Primary care faces considerable challenges including the increase in long-term conditions, GP consultation rates, and widening health inequalities...
December 7, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215153/the-role-of-municipal-public-policies-in-oral-health-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-brazil-a-multilevel-study
#11
Violeta Rodrigues Aguiar, Marcos Pascoal Pattussi, Roger Keller Celeste
OBJECTIVES: It is known that fluoridation has a contextual effect on oral health socioeconomic inequalities, but broad public policies have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of municipal public policies on oral health across different social strata. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 7328 12-year-old children and 5445 15-19-year-old adolescents from 177 Brazilian municipalities. Information at municipal level was collated for dental services, educational services, sanitation and water fluoridation...
December 7, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214687/urban-rural-differences-in-health-literacy-and-its-determinants-in-iran-a-community-based-study
#12
Farzaneh Golboni, Haidar Nadrian, Sarisa Najafi, Shayesteh Shirzadi, Hassan Mahmoodi
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown a remarkable difference in functional health literacy among residents of urban and rural areas which may be attributed to socioeconomic inequalities between these areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences (if any) in the level of functional health literacy and its determinants between urban and rural areas in Sanandaj, Iran. DESIGN: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A multistage clustered random sample of 1000 respondents older than 18 years...
December 6, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213301/including-refugees-in-disease-elimination-challenges-observed-from-a-sleeping-sickness-programme-in-uganda
#13
Jennifer J Palmer, Okello Robert, Freddie Kansiime
Background: Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211159/social-inequalities-in-limitations-caused-by-chronic-diseases-and-disabilities-in-brazil-the-2013-national-health-survey
#14
Patricia de Moraes Mello Boccolini, Cristina Maria Rabelais Duarte, Miguel Abud Marcelino, Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini
This paper aims to evaluate the association between social inequalities and self-reported limitations for the performance of daily activities caused by chronic diseases or disabilities. The 2013 National Health Survey evaluated a sample of Brazilians with 18+ years. The outcome was that individuals reported that their daily activities were moderately, severely or very severely limited (LIMIT) by one or more chronic diseases, or mental, physical, hearing or motor impairment. The main exposure was the economy class, classified into five categories, ranging from A (richest) to E (poorest)...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206829/-transition-from-millennium-development-goals-to-sustainable-development-goals-from-the-perspective-of-the-social-determinants-of-health-and-health-equity
#15
Manue Urbina-Fuentes, Luis Jasso-Gutiérrez, Raffaela Schiavon-Ermani, Rafael Lozano, Jacobo Finkelman
The United Nations Declaration of 2000 agreed on eight millennium development goals (MDGs) to be met in 2015. The results show that poverty continues through population growth and advances in both rich and poor countries are threatened by economic crises and inequities in geographic areas and population groups within countries. In a globalized world with great social and economic inequalities, from the perspective of the social determinants of health (SDH), the relevance of the new 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) is greater...
November 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203324/-towards-a-social-determinants-oriented-approach-to-public-health-workshop-report
#16
Elena González Rojo, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet, Luis Andrés López Fernández
This article is the result of a workshop with public health experts held in Granada (Spain) in October 2015 in order to reflect upon the components of the framework that should be part of a public health approach based on the social determinants of health. Advocacy and training professionals in health advocacy were identified as key elements where this was needed. During the workshop, it was agreed that the gender perspective, the salutogenic approach, interdisciplinary work and particular attention to disadvantaged groups are crucial...
December 1, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202843/socioeconomic-inequalities-of-outpatient-and-inpatient-service-utilization-in-china-personal-and-regional-perspectives
#17
Dawei Zhu, Na Guo, Jian Wang, Stephen Nicholas, Li Chen
BACKGROUND: China's health system has shown remarkable progress in health provision and health outcomes in recent decades, however inequality in health care utilization persists and poses a serious social problem. While government pro-poor health policies addressed affordability as the major obstacle to equality in health care access, this policy direction deserves further examination. Our study examines the issue of health care inequalities in China, analyzing both regional and individual socioeconomic factors associated with the inequality, and provides evidence to improve governmental health policies...
December 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202754/institutional-context-and-vct-practitioner-narratives-possibilities-and-limitations-for-hiv-prevention-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#18
Claudia Mora, Simone Monteiro, Carlos Otávio Fiúza Moreira
BACKGROUND: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is an HIV prevention strategy that promotes the principles of confidentiality and informed consent. International research has highlighted VCT counselors' isolation from service planning and the contradictions they negotiate between local values and global testing recommendations. In Brazil, studies have identified many limitations, including counselors' difficulties to implement a vulnerability approach to HIV prevention as recommended in the country's national guidelines...
December 4, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202073/what-does-the-development-of-medical-tourism-in-barbados-hold-for-health-equity-an-exploratory-qualitative-case-study
#19
Ronald Labonté, Vivien Runnels, Valorie A Crooks, Rory Johnston, Jeremy Snyder
Background: Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism's impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism's impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal public health care, private sector health care and a strong tourism industry, is interested in developing an enhanced medical tourism sector...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201415/contraceptive-utilization-and-associated-factors-among-women-of-reproductive-age-group-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-cross-sectional-survey-mixed-methods
#20
Misganu Endriyas, Akine Eshete, Emebet Mekonnen, Tebeje Misganaw, Mekonnen Shiferaw, Sinafikish Ayele
Background: Though contraceptive utilization has comprehensive benefit for women, it was one of underutilized public intervention in Ethiopia and in the study area. Thus, assessing status and factors affecting contraceptive utilization among women of reproductive age group was found key step for program improvement. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2015 in Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples' Region, Ethiopia...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
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