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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457923/flipping-social-determinants-on-its-head-medical-student-perspectives-on-the-flipped-classroom-and-simulated-patients-to-teach-social-determinants-of-health
#1
N Gostelow, J Barber, F Gishen, A Berlin
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. INNOVATION: A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457138/leveraging-the-learning-health-care-model-to-improve-equity-in-the-age-of-genomic-medicine
#2
Katherine D Blizinsky, Vence L Bonham
To fully achieve the goals of a genomics-enabled learning health care system, purposeful efforts to understand and reduce health disparities and improve equity of care are essential. This paper highlights three major challenges facing genomics-enabled learning health care systems, as they pertain to ancestrally diverse populations: inequality in the utility of genomic medicine; lack of access to pharmacogenomics in clinical care; and inadequate incorporation of social and environmental data into the electronic health care record (EHR)...
January 2018: Learning Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456271/to-compare-is-to-despair-a-population-wide-study-of-neighborhood-composition-and-suicide-in-stockholm
#3
Kayuet Liu
Neighborhood context can change the effect of a socio-demographic attribute on the risk of suicide. Eight hypotheses about the interactions between neighborhood composition, ethnicity, income, and socially disadvantaged propositions are proposed based on social support, social comparison, and social regulation mechanisms. They are tested with a population-based dataset of all adults (1.4 million) who lived in the greater Stockholm area in the 1990s. On one hand, multilevel analysis shows that suicide risk increases with the level of affluence in one's neighborhood, particularly among individuals with low income...
November 1, 2017: Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455736/the-impact-of-childhood-neighborhood-disadvantage-on-adult-joblessness-and-income
#4
Steven Elías Alvarado
Research on residential inequality focuses heavily on adult economic outcomes as crucial components of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Yet, empirical evidence on whether youth neighborhoods have a lasting impact on adult economic outcomes at the national level is scarce. Further, we know little about how youth neighborhood effects on adult economic outcomes manifest. This study uses 26 years (14 waves) of restricted panel data from the NLSY79 and the NLSY Children and Young Adults cohorts - data that have never been used to analyze long-term neighborhood effects - to examine whether youth neighborhood disadvantage impacts adult economic outcomes through sensitive years in childhood, teen socialization, duration effects, or cumulative effects...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455566/-he-supported-me-100-mexican-immigrant-fathers-daughters-and-adolescent-sexual-health
#5
Kate Coleman-Minahan, Goleen Samari
OBJECTIVE: First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. METHODS: Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women...
February 19, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454356/multiple-forms-of-discrimination-and-relationships-with-health-and-wellbeing-findings-from-national-cross-sectional-surveys-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#6
Donna Cormack, James Stanley, Ricci Harris
BACKGROUND: The complex ways in which experiences of discrimination are patterned in society, including the exposure of communities to multiple overlapping forms of discrimination within social systems of oppression, is increasingly recognised in the health sciences. However, research examining the impacts on health and contribution to racial/ethnic health inequities remains limited. This study aims to contribute to the field by exploring the prevalence and patterning of experience of multiple forms of discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand, and associations with health and wellbeing...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453557/a-framework-for-regional-primary-health-care-to-organise-actions-to-address-health-inequities
#7
Toby Freeman, Sara Javanparast, Fran Baum, Anna Ziersch, Tamara Mackean
OBJECTIVES: Regional primary health-care organisations plan, co-ordinate, and fund some primary health-care services in a designated region. This article presents a framework for examining the equity performance of regional primary health-care organisations, and applies it to Australian Medicare Locals (funded from 2011 to 2015). METHODS: The framework was developed based on theory, literature, and researcher deliberation. Data were drawn from Medicare Local documents, an online survey of 210 senior Medicare Local staff, and interviews with 50 survey respondents...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453113/epidemiological-profile-of-epilepsy-in-low-income-populations
#8
REVIEW
Camilo Espinosa-Jovel, Rafael Toledano, Ángel Aledo-Serrano, Irene García-Morales, Antonio Gil-Nagel
Epilepsy is a global disease with an unequal distribution. About 80% of the affected individuals reside in low and middle income countries. The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in low income populations is higher than in the rest of the world, this is partly explained by some risk factors such as head trauma, perinatal injury and CNS infections, which are more common in poor regions, especially in rural areas. Epilepsy is considered a treatable condition with high rates of therapeutic response. About three fourths of patients achieve control of the disease with the use of antiepileptic drugs, however, despite this benign prognosis, over 75% of patients from low income populations do not receive treatment at all...
February 8, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452752/mental-health-family-roles-and-employment-status-inside-and-outside-the-household-in-spain
#9
Jorge Arias-de la Torre, Antonio J Molina, Tania Fernández-Villa, Lucía Artazcoz, Vicente Martín
OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of poor mental health by gender and social class, and to analyze if poor mental health is associated with the family roles or the employment status inside and outside the household. METHOD: A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Spanish population was carried out (n = 14,247). Mental health was evaluated using GHQ-12. Employment status, marital status, family roles (main breadwinner and the person who mainly carries out the household work) and educational level were considered as explanatory variables...
February 13, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452750/-consequences-of-chronic-pain-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#10
Rocío Cáceres-Matos, Eugenia Gil-García, Sergio Barrientos-Trigo, Esther Molina, Ana María Porcel-Gálvez
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in children and adolescents. METHOD: A scoping review was carried out in the international databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS and CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and gray literature. We included documents that addressed psychosocial aspects that influence chronic pain, published in English between 2010 and 2016. We excluded the documents that dealt with pharmacological treatments, chronic pain derived from surgical interventions or where there was no access to full text...
February 13, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450706/transitions-from-sexual-relationships-into-cohabitation-and-beyond
#11
Sharon Sassler, Katherine Michelmore, Zhenchao Qian
Much research on cohabitation has focused on transitions from cohabitation to marriage or dissolution, but less is known about how rapidly women progress into cohabitation, what factors are associated with the tempo to shared living, and whether the timing into cohabitation is associated with subsequent marital transitions. We use data from the 2006-2013 National Survey of Family Growth to answer these questions among women whose most recent sexual relationship began within 10 years of the interview. Life table results indicate that transitions into cohabitation are most common early in sexual relationships; nearly one-quarter of women had begun cohabiting within six months of becoming sexually involved...
February 15, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449351/regional-variation-and-predictors-of-over-registration-in-english-primary-care-in-2014-a-spatial-analysis
#12
Patrick Burch, Tim Doran, Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: There are more people registered with a general practice in England than are estimated to be resident in the country. The reasons behind this are not fully understood. We investigated the levels of over-registration (or under-registration) in English primary care, their regional variability and their association with population and geographical characteristics. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using mid-year population estimates for 2014 and general practice populations for the same year...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446535/translocality-network-structure-and-music-worlds-underground-metal-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Rachel Emms, Nick Crossley
Translocal music worlds are often defined as networks of local music worlds. However, their networked character and more especially their network structure is generally assumed rather than concretely mapped and explored. Formal social network analysis (SNA) is beginning to attract interest in music sociology but it has not previously been used to explore a translocal music world. In this paper, drawing upon a survey of the participation of 474 enthusiasts in 148 live music events, spread across 6 localities, we use SNA to explore a significant "slice" of the network structure of the U...
February 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444781/do-quality-improvement-initiatives-for-diabetes-care-address-social-inequities-secondary-analysis-of-a-systematic-review
#14
Jacquie Boyang Lu, Kristin J Danko, Michael D Elfassy, Vivian Welch, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Noah M Ivers
BACKGROUND: Socially disadvantaged populations carry a disproportionate burden of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. There is an emerging interest in quality improvement (QI) strategies in the care of patients with diabetes, however, the effect of these interventions on disadvantaged groups remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This is a secondary analysis of a systematic review that seeks to examine the extent of equity considerations in diabetes QI studies, specifically quantifying the proportion of studies that target interventions toward disadvantaged populations and conduct analyses on the impact of interventions on disadvantaged groups...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444777/estimates-of-prevalence-demographic-characteristics-and-social-factors-among-people-with-disabilities-in-the-usa-a-cross-survey-comparison
#15
Eric Andrew Lauer, Andrew J Houtenville
OBJECTIVE: A national priority for disability research in the USA is the standardised identification of people with disabilities in surveillance efforts. Mandated by federal statute, six dichotomous difficulty-focused questions were implemented in national surveys to identify people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, demographic characteristics and social factors among people with disabilities based on these six questions using multiple national surveys in the USA...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444736/recognition-of-the-complexity-facing-residential-care-homes-a-practitioner-inquiry
#16
Jenny Dudman, Julienne Meyer, Cheryl Holman, Wendy Moyle
Aim To explore the experiences and challenges for residential care home staff when managing the healthcare needs of their residents, in particular those living with dementia. BACKGROUND: Increasing number of older people, with complex health and social care needs are living in residential care homes. Yet there is limited appreciation of why staff sometimes struggle to manage residents' healthcare needs, or understanding of their working relationship with district nurses (DNs), whose responsibility it is to provide nursing support...
February 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439740/effects-on-inequality-in-life-expectancy-from-a-social-ecology-perspective
#17
Jong In Kim, Gukbin Kim
BACKGROUND: Inequality in life expectancy (ILE) is defined as inequality in the distribution of expected span of life-based on data from survival tables estimated using the Atkinson inequality index. ILE can be influenced by socio-ecological indicators including the Gini coefficient, secondary education, output per worker, and old age pension. This study examined the effects on ILE from a social ecology perspective. METHODS: This analysis is based on ILE data from 108 countries obtained from the United Nations Development Programme...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439615/gender-based-violence-against-transgender-people-in-the-united-states-a-call-for-research-and-programming
#18
Andrea L Wirtz, Tonia C Poteat, Mannat Malik, Nancy Glass
Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person's will and that results from power inequalities based on gender roles. Most global estimates of GBV implicitly refer only to the experiences of cisgender, heterosexually identified women, which often comes at the exclusion of transgender and gender nonconforming (trans) populations. Those who perpetrate violence against trans populations often target gender nonconformity, gender expression or identity, and perceived sexual orientation and thus these forms of violence should be considered within broader discussions of GBV...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439099/addressing-the-root-cause-rising-health-care-costs-and-social-determinants-of-health
#19
Melanie Bush
The United States is the only high-income country that does not have publicly-financed universal health care, yet it has one of the world's highest public health care expenditures. This financial outlay is not bringing the desired result in health outcomes because the root cause is not being addressed: solving the systematic disparities and social determinants that lead to poor health and health inequities. Targeting resources for the most vulnerable populations and linking health care plans with community-based organizations to address social determinants of health at the outset is a cost-effective means of preventing expensive chronic illnesses and health inequities...
January 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438464/intra-generational-social-mobility-and-changes-in-blood-pressure-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-elsa-brasil-study
#20
J M N Guimarães, R H Griep, P J Clarke, M J M Fonseca, S M Barreto, L Giatti, P A Lotufo, J G Mill, A G Pacheco, D Chor
Background: During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure (BP) levels have shifted from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the association of intra-generational social mobility with changes in BP and also with the incidence of hypertension over a 4-year follow-up. Methods: Data for 6529 baseline participants from ELSA-Brasil born between 1938 and 1975 were used. Based on a social mobility matrix, occupational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation (stable high; upward; downward; stable low)...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
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