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social inequities

L Lafferty, C Treloar, J Guthrie, G M Chambers, T Butler
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
James W N Steenberg, Andrew A Millward, David J Nowak, Pamela J Robinson, Alexis Ellis
The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
Angela Lawless, Anna Lane, Felicity-Ann Lewis, Fran Baum, Patrick Harris
OBJECTIVE: To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. METHODS: 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Kathleen Falster, Emily Banks, Sanja Lujic, Michael Falster, John Lynch, Karen Zwi, Sandra Eades, Alastair H Leyland, Louisa Jorm
BACKGROUND: Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. METHODS: This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Mariza Theme-Filha, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elizabeth Moreira, Silvana Granado Gama
BACKGROUND: The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Naomi Priest, Laura Thompson, Tamara Mackean, Alison Baker, Elizabeth Waters
OBJECTIVE: Australian Indigenous children experience some of the most substantial health inequalities globally. In this context, research regarding their health and well-being has overemphasised physical illnesses with limited exploration of a diverse range of dimensions and determinants, particularly those based on Indigenous holistic understandings of health and well-being. This deficit-based approach has thus missed many strengths and assets of Indigenous children. This research aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of Indigenous children about their health and well-being in an urban setting in Australia...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Laura Wells, Magnus Nermo, Viveca Östberg
As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e., gender, immigrant background), associate with physical inactivity at two time points in youth. Longitudinal data were drawn from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 765) and analysed by gender-stratified logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Emma Stait, Michael Calnan
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, differential consumption patterns in health-related behaviours have increasingly been highlighted as playing an important role in explaining persistent and widening health inequalities. This period has also seen government public health policies in England place a greater emphasis on changing 'lifestyle' behaviours, in an attempt to tackle social inequalities in health. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the variation in health-related behaviour in relation to socio-economic position, in the English adult population, to determine the nature of this relationship and whether it has changed over time...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Chu-Shiu Li, June Han Lee, Chwen-Chi Liu, Yan-Lan Chan, Christopher Wen, Mu-Lin Chiu, Min Kuang Tsai, Shan Pou Tsai, Jackson Pui Man Wai, Chwen Keng Tsao, Xifeng Wu, Chi Pang Wen
Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows.A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sue Patterson, Kathleen Freshwater, Nicole Goulter, Julie Ewing, Boyd Leamon, Anand Choudhary, Vikas Moudgil, Brett Emmerson
Aims and method To describe and explain psychiatrists' responses to metabolic abnormalities identified during screening. We carried out an audit of clinical records to assess rates of monitoring and follow-up practice. Semi-structured interviews with 36 psychiatrists followed by descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Metabolic abnormalities were identified in 76% of eligible patients screened. Follow-up, recorded for 59%, was variable but more likely with four or more abnormalities. Psychiatrists endorse guidelines but ambivalence about responsibility, professional norms, resource constraints and skills deficits as well as patient factors influences practice...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Rosalía Cascón-Pereira, Ian Kirkpatrick, Mark Exworthy
This article aims to assess if the status of the medical profession has been reinforced or weakened with the new public management. With this purpose, it collects the opinion of two international experts regarding situation in the United Kingdom, in order to apply some lessons to the Spanish case. Both agree that, far from losing status and power with the healthcare reform, the medical profession has protected its status and autonomy against other social agents such as managers, politicians and patients. However, the maintenance of the status quo has been at the expense of an intra-professional stratification that has caused status inequalities linked to social class within the medical profession...
October 14, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Timo-Kolja Pförtner, Irene Moor
Background: The relationship between socioeconomic status and health is explained by the unequal distribution of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relative contribution of these factors for the association between income and different indicators of health and diseases. Method: Analyses were based on data from the "German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP)" in 2011. We estimated the relative contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in income-related inequalities in health by logistic mediator analyses focusing on following outcomes: self-rated health, diabetes, cardiac disease, sleep disorder, joint diseases, depression and chronical back trouble...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Catrinel Craciun, Uwe Flick
The present study explores views on aging and how these differ according to gender and precariousness status. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women with secure and insecure pensions. Themes like fear of illness and health decline were more present in men, while fear of losing their attractiveness in old age more present among women. For all participants, loss of autonomy and social roles represented a negative view of old age, while activity in the form of work, volunteering, or leisure represented positive views...
2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Elisabeth Hahn, Juliana Gottschling, Wiebke Bleidorn, Christian Kandler, Marion Spengler, Anna E Kornadt, Wiebke Schulz, Reinhardt Schunck, Tina Baier, Kristina Krell, Volker Lang, Franziska Lenau, Anna-Lena Peters, Martin Diewald, Rainer Riemann, Frank M Spinath
The German twin family study 'TwinLife' was designed to enhance our understanding of the development of social inequalities over the life course. The interdisciplinary project investigates mechanisms of social inequalities across the lifespan by taking into account psychological as well as social mechanisms, and their genetic origin as well as the interaction and covariation between these factors. Main characteristics of the study are: (1) a multidimensional perspective on social inequalities, (2) the assessment of developmental trajectories in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood in a longitudinal design by using (3) a combination of a multi-cohort cross-sequential and an extended twin family design, while (4) capturing a large variation of behavioral and environmental factors in a representative sample of about 4,000 German twin families...
October 17, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz
OBJECTIVE: The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. DESIGN: Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Sarah Nutter, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Angela S Alberga, Nancy Arthur, Anusha Kassan, Darren E Lund, Monica Sesma-Vazquez, Emily Williams
Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastian, Anneli Ivarsson, Lars Weinehall, Per E Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. METHODS: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
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