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postmortem toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300918/detection-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-in-bone-following-decomposition-using-2d-lc-ms-ms
#1
Malorie Mella, Brendan Schweitzer, Claude R Mallet, Tara Moore, Sabra Botch-Jones
Introduction: In forensic toxicology, challenges exist with quantification analysis of cocaine and metabolites in postmortem samples following extensive decomposition. Alternative matrices, such as bone could prove useful when other specimens are not available. Detection and quantification of drugs in complex matrices require time-consuming extraction processes. The objective of this study was to develop a robust extraction and clean-up methodology to efficiently extract cocaine, and its metabolites, in bone and reach target limits of detection using multidimensional chromatography...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300899/tissue-distribution-of-suvorexant-in-three-forensic-autopsy-cases
#2
Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Aya Matsusue, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Suvorexant (Belsomra®) is a relatively new insomnia medication that has been available in USA and Japan since 2014. It is a dual orexin receptor antagonist that promotes sleep by inhibiting the binding of orexin neurons to the OX1R and OX2R receptors. In this report, we describe the detection and quantitation of suvorexant from the postmortem specimens of three separate autopsy cases handled by our department. Suvorexant was identified by fast gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during routine screening, and quantitated by a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275552/-forensic-analysis-of-6-cases-of-sudden-death-due-to-hyperthyroid-heart-disease
#3
M Z Zhang, B X Li, R Zhao, D W Guan, G H Zhang, X Wu, B L Zhu, R B Li
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease, and explore the general information of deaths and the forensic pathological characteristics to provide reference evidence for forensic identification of such cases. METHODS: Six cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease between 2001 and 2016 were selected from School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University. The general information (gender and age), clinical manifestations, medical history, anatomical and histopathological findings, biochemical parameters and cause of death were analysed retrospectively...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232618/pediatric-medicolegal-autopsy-in-france-a-forensic-histopathological-approach
#4
Clémence Delteil, Lucile Tuchtan, Julia Torrents, Caroline Capuani, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196879/the-feasibility-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-forensic-medicine-illustrated-by-the-example-of-morphine
#5
Nadine Schaefer, Daniel Moj, Thorsten Lehr, Peter H Schmidt, Frank Ramsthaler
In forensic medicine, expert opinion is often required concerning dose and time of intake of a substance, especially in the context of fatal intoxications. In the present case, a 98-year-old man died 4 days after admission to a hospital due to a femur neck fracture following a domestic fall in his retirement home. As he had obtained high morphine doses in the context of palliative therapy and a confusion of his supplemental magnesium tablets with a diuretic by the care retirement home was suspected by the relatives, a comprehensive postmortem examination was performed...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194599/teens-and-spice-a-review-of-adolescent-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use
#6
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Saeideh Amini, Abraham Ebenezer Paul
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly abused by adolescents with reported past year (2013) use in high school students between 3 and 10%. Standard adolescent postmortem toxicology does not include routine SC analysis, and thus, the true burden of fatalities related to SCs is unknown. A retrospective case review of two cases included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and toxicology. SCs were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Review of the eight adolescent SC-associated fatalities in the literature revealed five of eight cases had no other discernible cause of death on autopsy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186446/validation-of-the-i-stat%C3%A2-1-analyzer-for-postmortem-vitreous-humor-electrolytes-and-glucose-analysis
#7
Laura R Monzon, Sue Pearring, Caitlin Miller, Jay R Vargas
The analytical value of vitreous humor as a specimen in postmortem forensic toxicology has been known for some time. Numerous medical examiner laboratories outsource the analysis of this important specimen for electrolyte and glucose measurements. This can be both time-consuming and costly. The utility of the i-STAT®1 medical device to measure electrolytes and glucose in whole blood samples has been demonstrated for over two decades in a clinical setting through single-use disposable cartridges that introduce samples to the i-STAT®1...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133010/three-fatalities-associated-with-the-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-pb-22-and-ab-chminaca
#8
V Angerer, S Jacobi, F Franz, V Auwärter, J Pietsch
The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been widespread in certain groups of drug users for many years. In the scientific literature many intoxication cases and a number of fatalities after the use of synthetic cannabinoids were reported. In this paper three death cases are described with involvement of the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, AB-CHMINACA, and 5F-ADB. The three cases occurred in the eastern region of Germany, which is known as a region of high methamphetamine abuse. All decedents were male, between 25 and 41 years old, and had a known history of drug use...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127890/the-role-of-ethyl-glucuronide-in-supporting-medico-legal-investigations-analysis-of-this-biomarker-in-different-postmortem-specimens-from-21-selected-autopsy-cases
#9
Anna Laura Santunione, Patrizia Verri, Filippo Marchesi, Cecilia Rustichelli, Federica Palazzoli, Daniele Vandelli, Manuela Licata, Enrico Silingardi
Ethanol determination in postmortem blood is one of the most frequently requested analyses in legal medicine and forensic toxicology. Ethyl glucuronide is a non-oxidative ethanol metabolite. It is also a useful marker of ante-mortem alcohol ingestion when ethanol itself has been completely eliminated from the body and could be considered in autopsy cases to obtain more reliable indications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ethyl glucuronide distribution in postmortem specimens from autopsy cases found to be positive for ethanol...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076627/forensic-toxicology-perspectives-of-methadone-associated-deaths-in-tehran-iran-a-seven-year-overview
#10
Maryam Akhgari, Noushin Amini-Shirazi, Fariba Sardari Iravani
Methadone has a long history of pain relief and successful substitute for maintenance treatment in heroin and narcotic addiction. The aim of the study was to assess the trends of methadone-associated deaths in Tehran, Iran, in 2009-2015, from a forensic toxicology point of view. All methadone-associated deaths during this 7-year study period were evaluated according to demographic parameters and forensic toxicology analysis results. Results showed that 1274 cases of methadone-associated deaths were investigated during the study period...
October 27, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051136/using-google-glass-in-nonsurgical-medical-settings-systematic-review
#11
Bryn Dougherty, Sherif M Badawy
BACKGROUND: Wearable technologies provide users hands-free access to computer functions and are becoming increasingly popular on both the consumer market and in various industries. The medical industry has pioneered research and implementation of head-mounted wearable devices, such as Google Glass. Most of this research has focused on surgical interventions; however, other medical fields have begun to explore the potential of this technology to support both patients and clinicians. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically evaluate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of using Google Glass in nonsurgical medical settings and to determine the benefits, limitations, and future directions of its application...
October 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036543/pilot-reported-beta-blockers-identified-by-forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-postmortem-specimens
#12
Dennis V Canfield, Kurt M Dubowski, James M Whinnery, Estrella M Forster
Introduction: This study compared beta-blockers reported by pilots with the medications found by postmortem toxicology analysis of specimens received from fatal aviation accidents between 1999 and 2015. Several studies have compared drugs using the standard approach: Compare the drug found by toxicology analysis with the drug reported by the pilot. This study uniquely examined first the pilot-reported medication and then compared it to that detected by toxicology analysis. This study will serve two purposes: (i) to determine the capability of a toxicology laboratory to detect reported medications, and (ii) to identify pilots with medications below detectable limits...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033634/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-a-retrospective-autopsy-study-of-112-epileptic-patients
#13
İpek Esen Melez, Murat Nihat Arslan, Deniz Oğuzhan Melez, Ahmet Necati Şanli, Sermet Koç
INTRODUCTION: Sudden unexpected deaths comprise the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in both neurology and forensic medicine. Epilepsy, which is one of the neuropathological causes of sudden unexpected deaths, is an important disorder having mysterious aspects. The aim of this study is to make common the points of view between neurology and forensic medicine experts and to discuss the features of the findings together with the related clinical hypotheses, leading to the differential diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) by presenting autopsy findings and available medical data of patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017087/detection-of-butane-gas-inhalation-at-16days-after-hypoxic-encephalopathy-a-case-report
#14
Takako Sato, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kento Tsuboi, Munehiro Katagi, Akihiro Miki, Takashi Saito, Shuntaro Abe, Masakatsu Nomura, Misa Kitagawa, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Koichi Suzuki
In Japan, there are increasing reports of death by poisoning following butane abuse. To determine the specific cause of death in such cases, it is important to confirm the presence of fuel gas components in the body, although careful analysis is required because of their volatile properties. In most reported cases, the subject died suddenly during or immediately after butane aspiration. Thus, the butane concentration in the samples from the deceased should be relatively high. Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old man found with cardiopulmonary arrest, who then exhibited hypoxic encephalopathy for 16days in a hospital...
November 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985320/multiple-drug-toxicity-involving-novel-psychoactive-substances-3-fluorophenmetrazine-and-u-47700
#15
Kayla N Ellefsen, Elizabeth A Taylor, Paul Simmons, Vickie Willoughby, Brad J Hall
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a stimulant-like novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and fluorinated analog of phenmetrazine that has recently appeared on the recreational drug market, with limited published information. Likewise, the synthetic opioid U-47700 has gained popularity among recreational drug users and is frequently detected in postmortem casework. We present the case history, autopsy and toxicological findings of a fatality involving the designer drugs 3-FPM and U-47700 for the first time in the literature...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977581/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-blood
#16
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sarah Kerrigan
The synthetic cathinones are powerful psychostimulants that have been associated with impairment, intoxication and fatal overdose. Forensic laboratories must be able to identify these new drugs as part of antemortem and postmortem toxicology investigations. Preliminary reports have indicated that some of the synthetic cathinones are unstable in biological matrices. It is important to understand drug stability in biological evidence so that analytical findings can be interpreted appropriately. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the concentration, temperature and analyte-dependent stability of synthetic cathinones in preserved blood using liquid-chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977432/quantification-of-loperamide-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#17
Rachel Beck, Daniel S Atherton, Susan Kloda, Daniel W Dye, C Andrew Robinson
Due to reported pharmacological activity similar to classical opioids at supratherapeutic concentrations, abuse of the anti-diarrheal medication loperamide (Imodium AD™) has become a target in the opioid epidemic. While this phenomenon is not new, published quantitative analytical methods use liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Described here is an 11 min method for quantification of loperamide in postmortem whole blood by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Validation studies performed followed SWGTOX guidelines and included: accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), regression model analysis, stability, and matrix recovery enhancement and/or suppression...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#18
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852820/assessment-of-simpler-calibration-models-in-the-development-and-validation-of-a-fast-postmortem-multi-analyte-lc-qtof-quantitation-method-in-whole-blood-with-simultaneous-screening-capabilities-using-swath-acquisition
#19
Marco P Elmiger, Michael Poetzsch, Andrea E Steuer, Thomas Kraemer
In postmortem toxicology, fast methods can provide a triage to avoid unnecessary autopsies. Usually, this requires multiple qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. The aim of the present study was to develop a postmortem LC-QTOF method for simultaneous screening and quantitation using easy sample preparation and reduced alternative calibration models. Hence, a method for 24 highly relevant substances in forensic toxicology was fully validated using the following calibration models: one-point external, one-point internal via corresponding deuterated standards, multi-point external daily calibration, and multi-point external weekly calibration...
August 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830124/postmortem-fluid-and-tissue-concentrations-of-thc-11-oh-thc-and-thc-cooh
#20
Sunday R Saenz, Russell J Lewis, Mike K Angier, Jarrad R Wagner
Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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