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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725272/brazilian-guidelines-on-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-position-statement-from-the-brazilian-diabetes-society-sbd-the-brazilian-cardiology-society-sbc-and-the-brazilian-endocrinology-and-metabolism-society-sbem
#1
REVIEW
Marcello Casaccia Bertoluci, Rodrigo Oliveira Moreira, André Faludi, Maria Cristina Izar, Beatriz D Schaan, Cynthia Melissa Valerio, Marcelo Chiara Bertolami, Ana Paula Chacra, Marcus Vinicius Bolivar Malachias, Sérgio Vencio, José Francisco Kerr Saraiva, Roberto Betti, Luiz Turatti, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein Fonseca, Henrique Tria Bianco, Marta Sulzbach, Adriana Bertolami, João Eduardo Nunes Salles, Alexandre Hohl, Fábio Trujilho, Eduardo Gomes Lima, Marcio Hiroshi Miname, Maria Teresa Zanella, Rodrigo Lamounier, João Roberto Sá, Celso Amodeo, Antonio Carlos Pires, Raul D Santos
BACKGROUND: Since the first position statement on diabetes and cardiovascular prevention published in 2014 by the Brazilian Diabetes Society, the current view on primary and secondary prevention in diabetes has evolved as a result of new approaches on cardiovascular risk stratification, new cholesterol lowering drugs, and new anti-hyperglycemic drugs. Importantly, a pattern of risk heterogeneity has emerged, showing that not all diabetic patients are at high or very high risk. In fact, most younger patients who have no overt cardiovascular risk factors may be more adequately classified as being at intermediate or even low cardiovascular risk...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723414/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-strategy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Donald B Jump, Kelli A Lytle, Christopher M Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722749/rho-associated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-both-vascular-and-parenchymal-pathologies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Aaron Y Lai, JoAnne McLaurin
The causes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are unclear and likely multifactorial. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are ubiquitously expressed signaling messengers that mediate a wide array of cellular processes. Interestingly, they play an important role in several vascular and brain pathologies implicated in Alzheimer's etiology, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, deposition of vascular and parenchymal amyloid-beta peptides, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cognitive decline...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717531/the-role-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-erectile-function
#4
REVIEW
Raidh A Talib, Kareim Khalafalla, Önder Cangüven
In the last few years growing evidence highlighted vitamin D (VD) deficiency is one of the several dynamics that associates with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCV) diseases. ASCV diseases and erectile dysfunction (ED) share common risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this review was to summarize current progress in VD research by focusing effect of low VD level on different body systems and erectile function. Here we examine research linking VD deficiency and ED and discuss how VD influences ED and its classic risk factors that also associate to increased ED risk...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717354/blood-pressure-and-penumbral-sustenance-in-stroke-from-large-vessel-occlusion
#5
REVIEW
Robert W Regenhardt, Alvin S Das, Christopher J Stapleton, Ronil V Chandra, James D Rabinov, Aman B Patel, Joshua A Hirsch, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi
The global burden of stroke remains high, and of the various subtypes of stroke, large vessel occlusions (LVOs) account for the largest proportion of stroke-related death and disability. Several randomized controlled trials in 2015 changed the landscape of stroke care worldwide, with endovascular thrombectomy (ET) now the standard of care for all eligible patients. With the proven success of this therapy, there is a renewed focus on penumbral sustenance. In this review, we describe the ischemic penumbra, collateral circulation, autoregulation, and imaging assessment of the penumbra...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716992/blood-pressure-trajectories-and-the-risk-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-and-cerebral-infarction-a-prospective-study
#6
Weijuan Li, Cheng Jin, Anand Vaidya, Yuntao Wu, Kathryn Rexrode, Xiaoming Zheng, Mahmut E Gurol, Chaoran Ma, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
The association between long-term blood pressure (BP) patterns in community-dwelling adults and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction is not well characterized. This prospective study included 79 385 participants, free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer in or before 2010 (baseline). Systolic BP trajectories were identified using latent mixture modeling with data from 2006, 2008, and 2010. Incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction occurred during 2010 to 2014, confirmed by review of medical records, by 3 physicians...
July 17, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716564/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#7
REVIEW
Hui Gong, Xing Lu, Qiong Wang, Min Hu, Xiangyu Zhang
Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a special type of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It is a process that is characterized by the loss of features of endothelial cells and acquisition of specific markers of mesenchymal cells. A variety of stimuli, such as inflammation, growth factors, and hypoxia, regulate EndMT through various signaling pathways and intracellular transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are also involved in this process. Recent studies have identified the essential role of EndMT in the cardiovascular system...
July 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714660/maternal-mortality-in-the-developed-world-a-review-of-surveillance-methods-levels-and-causes-of-maternal-deaths-during-2006-2010
#8
Andreea A Creanga
This article provides an overview of surveillance methods, levels, and causes of maternal mortality in developed countries (Europe and the United States) during 2006-2010. Accurate identification of maternal deaths is not always possible, and no two countries in the world use the same surveillance methods for maternal mortality. Despite limitations (underestimation, missclassification), routine vital registration systems are the backbone of maternal mortality surveillance systems in developed countries. Enhanced surveillance methods involve linkages between deaths of women of reproductive age and births within the preceding year, or the use of additional data sources for maternal deaths...
July 17, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713799/the-use-of-ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring-as-standard-of-care-in-pediatrics
#9
REVIEW
Caitlin G Peterson, Yosuke Miyashita
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant global health problem, responsible for 7.5 million deaths each year worldwide. The prevalence of HTN is increasing in the pediatric population likely attributed to the increase in childhood obesity. Recent work has also shown that blood pressure (BP) tends to track from childhood to adulthood including BP-related target organ damage. In the last 25-30 years, pediatric use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been expanding mainly in the setting of initial elevated BP measurement evaluation, HTN therapy efficacy follow-up, and renal disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712906/a-comparison-of-pharmacologic-therapeutic-agents-used-for-the-reduction-of-intracranial-pressure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed M Alnemari, Brianna M Krafcik, Tarek R Mansour, Daniel Gaudin
OBJECTIVE: In neurotrauma care, a better understanding of treatments following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality in this population. TBI represents a significant medical problem, and complications following TBI are associated with the initial injury and post-event intracranial processes such as elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema. Consequently, appropriate therapeutic interventions are required to reduce brain tissue damage and improve cerebral perfusion...
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711538/cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-secondary-to-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Kaiyuan Huang, Qingsheng Xu, Yuankun Ma, Renya Zhan, Jian Shen, Jianwei Pan
BACKGOUND AND IMPORTANCE: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP) is a rare fibrosing inflammatory process involving the dura mater. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatments for IHCP, and the usefulness of immunosuppressive agents as a first-line option remains controversial. Cerebral venous sinus occlusion (CVSO) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) secondary to IHCP, which may cause progressive intracranial hypertension and venous obstructive parenchymal lesions, make the diagnosis and treatment of IHCP more complicated...
July 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711075/diabetic-nephropathy-and-pregnancy
#12
Kate Bramham
Women with diabetic nephropathy have challenging pregnancies, with pregnancy outcomes far worse than expected for the stage of chronic kidney disease. The underlying mechanisms that cause the adverse events remain poorly understood, but it is a widely held belief that substantial endothelial injury in these women likely contributes. Maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and cesarean section rates are high, and offspring are often preterm and of low birth weight, with additional neonatal complications associated with glycemic control...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707261/from-inflammation-to-fibrosis-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-myocardial-tissue-remodelling-and-perspectives-on-differential-treatment-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Navin Suthahar, Wouter C Meijers, Herman H W Silljé, Rudolf A de Boer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlight the most important cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. We also discuss the interplay between inflammation and fibrosis in various precursors of heart failure (HF) and how such mechanisms can contribute to myocardial tissue remodelling and development of HF. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, many research articles attempt to elucidate different aspects of the interplay between inflammation and fibrosis...
July 13, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706866/current-transcatheter-devices-to-treat-functional-tricuspid-regurgitation-with-discussion-of-issues-relevant-to-clinical-trial-design
#14
Rebecca T Hahn
Functional or secondary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has seen increased attention in recent times as relationships with clinically-relevant outcomes have come to light. Despite the association of increased mortality with significant TR, the disease remains under-recognized and thus relatively untreated. In addition, the disease itself has not been extensively studied and the interactions between annular dilatation, right heart disease and pulmonary hypertension are poorly understood. However, the high mortality and recurrence rate with current surgical replacement or repair techniques is well recognised, opening the door to transcatheter therapies for functional TR...
May 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705796/tracking-adventitial-fibroblast-contribution-to-disease-a-review-of-current-methods-to-identify-resident-fibroblasts
#15
REVIEW
Jill T Kuwabara, Michelle D Tallquist
Cells present in the adventitia, or outermost layer of the blood vessel, contribute to the progression of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and aortic dissection. The adventitial fibroblast of the aorta is the prototypic perivascular fibroblast, but the adventitia is composed of multiple distinct cell populations. Therefore, methods for uniquely identifying the fibroblast are critical for a better understanding of how these cells contribute to disease processes. A popular method for distinguishing adventitial cell types relies on the use of genetic tools in the mouse to trace and manipulate these cells...
July 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704161/cardiovascular-safety-of-low-dose-fenfluramine-in-dravet-syndrome-a-review-of-its-benefit-risk-profile-in-a-new-patient-population
#16
An-Sofie Schoonjans, Fabienne Marchau, Bernard P Paelinck, Lieven Lagae, Arnold Gammaitoni, Milka Pringsheim, Martin G Keane, Berten Ceulemans
OBJECTIVE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare, treatment-resistant epilepsy syndrome for which current treatment regimens are often ineffective. Fenfluramine is currently in development for treatment of DS based on reports in the 1980s and 1990s of its antiepileptic activity in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. However, fenfluramine was withdrawn from global markets in 1997 following reports of its association with pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease in adult patients treated for obesity...
July 13, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702845/regulation-of-cardiac-ca-2-and-ion-channels-by-shear-mechanotransduction
#17
REVIEW
Joon-Chul Kim, Min-Jeong Son, Jun Wang, Sun-Hee Woo
Cardiac contraction is controlled by a Ca(2+) signaling sequence that includes L-type Ca(2+) current-gated opening of Ca(2+) release channels (ryanodine receptors) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Local Ca(2+) signaling in the atrium differs from that in the ventricle because atrial myocytes lack transverse tubules and have more abundant corbular SR. Myocardium is subjected to a variety of forces with each contraction, such as stretch, shear stress, and afterload, and adapts to those mechanical stresses...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699986/diagnosis-and-management-of-primary-aldosteronism
#18
Leticia A P Vilela, Madson Q Almeida
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension (HTN), with an estimated prevalence of 4% of hypertensive patients in primary care and around 10% of referred patients. Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than age- and sex-matched patients with essential HTN and the same degree of blood pressure elevation. PA is characterized by an autonomous aldosterone production causing sodium retention, plasma renin supression, HTN, cardiovascular damage, and increased potassium excretion, leading to variable degrees of hypokalemia...
May 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699175/long-term-health-outcomes-of-adults-with-mccune-albright-syndrome
#19
S C Wong, M Zacharin
CONTEXT: McCune Albright Syndrome (MAS) is associated with numerous health problems. Comprehensive long term health problems of adults with MAS are less well defined in the literature. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to report comprehensive health outcomes of adults with MAS (> 18 years). DESIGN: Retrospective case note review of 16 adults with MAS managed by one clinician. Results expressed as median (range) RESULTS: The study included 16 adults (7 males) with MAS...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698986/novelties-in-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-portal-hypertension-new-treatments-on-the-horizon
#20
REVIEW
Seong Hee Kang, Moon Young Kim, Soon Koo Baik
Portal hypertension (PH) is responsible for the most severe complications of cirrhosis and leading cause of death and liver transplantation. The standard pharmacological treatment available for PH currently consists of the use of a non-selective beta-blocker. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to pharmacological treatment. This has led to the development of identifiable targets for the discovery of new horizons in PH treatment. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the mechanism behind PH, which is a product of increased hepatic vascular resistance including structural changes and functional change due to endothelial dysfunction...
July 11, 2017: Hepatology International
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