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current hypertension reviews

Julio Sandoval
Despite advances in drug therapy, pulmonary hypertension-particularly arterial hypertension (PAH)-remains a fatal disease. Untreatable right heart failure (RHF) from PAH eventually ensues and remains a significant cause of death in these patients. Lowering pulmonary input impedance with different PAH-specific drugs is the obvious therapeutic target in RHF due to chronically increased afterload. However, potential clinical gain can also be expected from attempts to unload the right heart and increase systemic output...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
Fernando Pedro de Souza-Neto, Melissa Carvalho Santuchi, Mario de Morais E Silva, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the role of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and alamandine in experimental hypertension and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a very complex system, composed of a cascade of enzymes, peptides, and receptors, known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ang-(1-7), identified and characterized in 1987, and alamandine, discovered 16 years after, are the newest two main effector molecules from the RAS, protecting the vascular system against hypertension and atherosclerosis...
March 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Zhi-Chun Gu, Yi-Jing Zhang, Mang-Mang Pan, Chi Zhang, Xiao-Yan Liu, An-Hua Wei, Ying-Jie Su
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease and ultimately leads to right heart failure. Endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) have been demonstrated to significantly improve prognosis in PAH. However, ERAs-induced side effects can result in poor patient tolerance. Thus, we aim to evaluate current safety evidence of ERAs in PAH. METHODS: An electronic search will be performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the interested safety data (abnormal liver function, peripheral edema, and anemia) of ERAs in PAH...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
P Cordero, J Li, J A Oben
Obesity is the pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance define metabolic syndrome, which increases mortality risk and decreases the quality of life. Compared with lifestyles (diet and physical activity) and pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. This minimally invasive surgical treatment is based on an increase of satiety (by hormonal regulation and decreasing stomach volume) or a decrease in nutrient retention (gastric and/or intestinal resection)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Shuang Han, Daolin Cheng, Nianjiao Liu, Hongyu Kuang
The relationship between salt and hypertension is the focus of a large amount of research, there are few reviews of the relationship between salt and diabetes, despite the increasing incidence of diabetes. By searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, we summarized the relationships between diabetic risk factors, diabetic complications and salt intake. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of salt on diabetes risk factors and diabetic complications are also discussed. Our findings should assist experts and scholars to understand the current research of salt intake and to pay more attention to the prevention and treatment of related diseases caused by excessive salt intake; guide treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus; and provide a reference for government departments to formulate a reasonable salt restriction policy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Soisungwan Satarug
Cadmium (Cd) is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd...
March 10, 2018: Toxics
Ryo Morimoto, Kei Omata, Sadayoshi Ito, Fumitoshi Satoh
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is now considered as one of leading causes of secondary hypertension, accounting for 5-10% of all hypertensive patients and more strikingly 20% of those with resistant hypertension. Importantly, those with the unilateral disease could be surgically cured when diagnosed appropriately. On the other hand, only a very limited portion of those suspected to have PA has been screened, diagnosed, or treated to date. With current advancement in medical technologies and genetic research, expanding knowledge of PA has been accumulated and recent achievements have also been documented in the care of those with PA...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Yathisha Ug, Ishani Bhat, Iddya Karunasagar, Mamatha Bs
The rising interest to utilize nutritionally exorbitant fish proteins has instigated research activities in fish waste utilization. The development of newer technologies to utilize fish waste has fostered use of bioactive value-added products for specific health benefits. Enzymatically obtained Fish Protein Hydrolysate (FPH) is a rich source of biologically active peptides possessing anti-oxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activity. Isolating natural remedies to combat alarming negative consequences of synthetic drugs has been the new trend in current research promoting identification of antihypertensive peptides from FPH...
March 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yuchi Han, Paul R Forfia, Anjali Vaidya, Jeremy A Mazurek, Myung H Park, Gautam Ramani, Stephen Y Chan, Aaron B Waxman
Introduction: A major determining factor on outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) function. Ranolazine, which is currently approved for chronic stable angina, has been shown to improve RV function in an animal model and has been shown to be safe in small human studies with PAH. We aim to study the effect of ranolazine on RV function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (non-group 2 patients) and monitor the effect of ranolazine on metabolism using metabolic profiling and changes of microRNA...
2018: Open Heart
Waleed Brinjikji, Vitor M Pereira, Rujimas Khumtong, Alex Kostensky, Michael Tymianski, Timo Krings, Ivan Radovanovich
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding risk factors for intracranial aneurysm growth is important for patient management. We performed a retrospective study examining risk factors for growth of unruptured intracranial aneurysms followed at our institution examining both traditional risk factors and the PHASES score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of unruptured intracranial aneurysms followed at our institution for a minimum of six months over a 15-year period...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Georgia Brown, Tilman Humpl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) complicates the course of many cardiovascular, pulmonary and other systemic diseases in children. The physiological sequelae (pulmonary hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance) can overwhelm the right ventricle and lead to circulatory collapse. Despite the common end-point, the preceding pathophysiology is complex and variable and requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and management. In this article, we will review the most recent evidence and explore an approach to current controversies in the diagnosis and management of common or challenging patient subgroups...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Hamish C G Prosser, Omar Azzam, Markus P Schlaich
Resistant hypertension is commonly defined as office blood pressure above recommended target despite the use of optimal doses of at least three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. Australian guidelines recommend combination of blockers of the renin-angiotensin system, either ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, with calcium channel blockers and diuretics as the preferred triple therapy. A substantial proportion of hypertensive patients will require additional pharmacotherapy to achieve or get close to target blood pressure levels...
March 1, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Yang Zhao, Hui Guo, Ying Zhao, Bingyin Shi
Ectopic adrenal adenoma causing chronic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare phenomenon. Diagnosis is usually made years after disease onset because of the insidious nature of the ectopic adrenal gland and because it overlaps with common symptoms, such as overweight and hypertension, in the general population (Kreitschmann-Andermahr et al., 2015). Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old male with a 15-year history of severe hypertension, facial plethora, and centripetal obesity. During treatment for herpes zoster, the patient presented with severe hypokalemia and flaccid paralysis, characteristic changes associated with CS...
March 7, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Joshua A Sloan, Ramzi Mulki, Naemat Sandhu, Solomon Samuel, Philip O Katz
GOALS: The aim of our study was to characterize jackhammer esophagus symptoms and their relationship with the distal contractile integral (DCI) and bolus transit. BACKGROUND: Jackhammer esophagus is defined by the Chicago Classification version 3.0. This diagnosis is relatively new, with the most current definition being established in 2014. The forerunners of this diagnosis, nutcracker (or hypercontractile) esophagus, have been associated with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yandiswa Y Yako, Eric V Balti, Tandi E Matsha, Anastase Dzudie, Deirdre Kruger, Eugene Sobngwi, Charles Agyemang, Andre P Kengne
In a systematic review, the authors explored genetic association studies of essential hypertension in African populations. Studies reporting on the association of polymorphism(s) with hypertension in African populations were included. Appropriate studies were pooled using random effects model meta-analysis, under six potential inheritance models. In all, 46 polymorphisms in 33 genes were investigated for their association with hypertension or blood pressure levels. Meta-analysis was possible for three single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs4340, rs699, and rs5186...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Suparna C Clasen, Joyce W Wald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to summarize the effect of cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity on the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss commonly used cancer therapeutics that have the potential for both acute and delayed cardiotoxicity. LV dysfunction from cancer therapies may be found by routine cardiac imaging prior to clinical manifestations of heart failure (HF) and we discuss the current multi-modality approaches for early detection of toxicity with the use of advanced echocardiographic parameters including strain techniques...
March 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Amartya Kundu, Aditya Vaze, Partha Sardar, Ahmed Nagy, Wilbert S Aronow, Naomi F Botkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Variant angina, which is characterized by recurrent chest pain and transient ECG changes along with angiographic evidence of coronary artery spasm, generally has a favorable prognosis. However, episodes of ischemia caused by vasospasm may lead to potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest, even in patients with no history of prior cardiac disease. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and management of variant angina, as well as outcomes in patients who present with aborted sudden cardiac death (ASCD)...
March 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Carmela Cosola, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Adamasco Cupisti, Loreto Gesualdo
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular (CV) damage is present in parallel which leads to an increased risk of CV disease. Both traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to CV damage in CKD. The systemic role of the microbiota as a central player in the pathophysiology of many organs is progressively emerging in the literature: the microbiota is indeed involved in a complex, bi-directional network between many organs, including the kidney and heart connection, although many of these relationships still need to be elucidated through in-depth mechanistic studies...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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