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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#1
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333387/pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Xinyue Hu, Tao Bai, Zheng Xu, Qiuju Liu, Yang Zheng, Lu Cai
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333381/protective-actions-of-h2s-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-heart-failure
#3
Erminia Donnarumma, Rishi K Trivedi, David J Lefer
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was identified as the third gasotransmitter in 1996 following the discoveries of the biological importance of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Although H2S has long been considered a highly toxic gas, the discovery of its presence and enzymatic production in mammalian tissues supports a critical role for this physiological signaling molecule. H2S is synthesized endogenously by three enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H2S plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiovascular function as H2S has been shown to modulate: vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333375/renal-nerves-and-long-term-control-of-arterial-pressure
#4
John W Osborn, Jason D Foss
The objective of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation of how renal nerves regulate renal and cardiovascular function with a focus on long-term control of arterial pressure. We begin by reviewing the anatomy of renal nerves and then briefly discuss how the activity of renal nerves affects renal function. Current methods for measurement and quantification of efferent renal-nerve activity (ERNA) in animals and humans are discussed. Acute regulation of ERNA by classical neural reflexes as well and hormonal inputs to the brain is reviewed...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333109/angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-inhibitory-peptides-from-plants
#5
REVIEW
Ceren Daskaya-Dikmen, Aysun Yucetepe, Funda Karbancioglu-Guler, Hayrettin Daskaya, Beraat Ozcelik
Hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like synthetic drugs are widely used to control hypertension. ACE-inhibitory peptides from food origins could be a good alternative to synthetic drugs. A number of plant-based peptides have been investigated for their potential ACE inhibitor activities by using in vitro and in vivo assays. These plant-based peptides can be obtained by solvent extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis with or without novel food processing methods, and fermentation...
March 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323868/-waiting-for-daas-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-patients-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-in-rwanda
#6
Neil Gupta, Jules Kabahizi, Constance Mukabatsinda, Timothy David Walker, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Athanase Kiromera, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Kevin Steiner, Joia Mukherjee, Sabin Nsanzimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi
BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited. With the advent of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and easy-to-deliver oral regimens are now available on the global market. This study was conducted to understand the background and characteristics of a national cohort of patients with HCV infection enrolled in care and awaiting therapy with DAAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients with confirmed HCV infection who were currently enrolled in care and treatment at the four existing hepatitis referral centers in Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323673/clinical-pearls-of-maternal-critical-care-part-2-sickle-cell-disease-in-pregnancy
#7
Vinod Patil, Gamunu Ratnayake, Galina Fastovets
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review outlines the challenges in managing pregnant women with sickle-cell anemia, who are at risk of becoming critically ill during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Sickle obstetric patients pose unique challenges to the anesthetist and intensivist. We discuss the role of prophylactic transfusions for specific indications like acute anemia and twin pregnancies. The management and prevention of vaso-occlusive crises and chest crisis are also outlined...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319949/the-impact-of-kidney-development-on-the-life-course-a-consensus-document-for-action
#8
(no author information available yet)
Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a significant impact on global morbidity and mortality. The Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group has prepared a consensus document aimed to address the relatively neglected issue for the developmental programming of hypertension and CKD. It emerged from a workshop held on April 2, 2016, including eminent internationally recognized experts in the field of obstetrics, neonatology, and nephrology. Through multidisciplinary engagement, the goal of the workshop was to highlight the association between fetal and childhood development and an increased risk of adult diseases, focusing on hypertension and CKD, and to suggest possible practical solutions for the future...
March 21, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#9
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317481/gut-microbiota-a-new-marker-of-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Antonio Garcia-Rios, Jose David Torres-Peña, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the major cause of death in the developed countries. Moreover, the cardiovascular risk factors leading towards the development of CVD, mainly type 2 diabetes and obesity, are on the rise. The current preventive and therapeutic management, centred on the control of traditional risk factors, is clearly not enough to stop this pandemic. Therefore, the search for new biomarkers in CVD is a priority in most clinical research programs. Currently, interest in gut microbiota has peaked due to its association with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#12
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314558/a-patient-and-provider-research-agenda-on-diabetes-and-hypertension-management
#13
Emily B Zimmerman, Sarah K Cook, Amber D Haley, Steven H Woolf, Sarah K Price, Danielle Berman, Thomas DeLeire, Rebecca Etz, Jag Khalsa, Kirsten Knutson, Kathryn Kolasa, Alex Krist, Anton Kuzel, Pearl Lee, Theresa J Nartea, Gretchen Piatt, Hilary Seligman, Joni Strom Williams, Josh Brown, Jennifer Early, Jill Hellman, Julie Karr, Megan Kervin, Isra Malik, Albert Walker, Sheila Goode, Danita Gregory, Sharon Herman, Brenda Kenney, Chimere Miles, Audrey Smith, Travis White
INTRODUCTION: A demonstration project in Richmond, Virginia involved patients and other stakeholders in the creation of a research agenda on dietary and behavioral management of diabetes and hypertension. Given the impact of these diseases on morbidity and mortality, considerable research has been directed at the challenges patients face in chronic disease management. The continuing need to understand disparities and find evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes has been fruitful, but disparities and unmet needs persist...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306673/hypertensive-crisis-an-update-on-clinical-approach-and-management
#14
Emrah Ipek, Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Selim R Krim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review current concepts on hypertensive crisis (HTN-C) with a focus on epidemiology, causes, pathophysiology and prognosis. We also offer a practical approach to the management of HTN-C. RECENT FINDINGS: HTN-C is characterized by a severe and abrupt increase in blood pressure (BP) with impending or progressive acute end-organ damage (EOD). HTN-C can be divided into hypertensive emergency (HTN-E) and hypertensive urgency (HTN-U) based on the presence or absence of acute EOD, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302405/the-effect-of-dietary-approaches-to-stop-hypertension-dash-on-serum-inflammatory-markers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#15
Sepideh Soltani, Maryam J Chitsazi, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet is associated with improved blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is proposed that DASH might also improve systemic inflammatory markers like highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); however, interventional studies have led to conflicting results. The aim of current systematic review was to summarize results of randomized clinical trials examining the effect of DASH on inflammatory biomarkers...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301886/geburtshilfe-hypertensive-erkrankungen-in-der-schwangerschaft
#16
Bigna S Buddeberg, Thierry Girard
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the most common complications in pregnancy. They are associated with a high maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. 99 % of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries, but we should not forget that even in highly developed countries mothers still die from the complications of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. This term encompasses chronic hypertension as well as pregnancy specific disorders such as gestational hypertension and preeclampsia...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301228/the-evolving-classification-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Michelle Foshat, Nahal Boroumand
CONTEXT: - An explosion of information on pulmonary hypertension has occurred during the past few decades. The perception of this disease has shifted from purely clinical to incorporate new knowledge of the underlying pathology. This transfer has occurred in light of advancements in pathophysiology, histology, and molecular medical diagnostics. OBJECTIVES: - To update readers about the evolving understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and to demonstrate how pathology has shaped the current classification...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292320/addition-of-propranolol-in-resistant-arterial-hypertension-treatment-apropriate-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
G R Constantine, P Ranasinghe, P Weeratunga, C Weeraratne, P Galappatthy, S Rajapakse, U Senarath, P Katulanda
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension is defined as an uncontrolled blood pressure despite treatment at best-tolerated doses with at least three antihypertensive agents including a diuretic. It is an emerging public health problem. At present clinical trial data on management of resistant hypertension is limited. Management is largely based on observational studies and expert opinions. Propranolol is a nonselective beta blocker. Several studies have confirmed that propranolol has a significant hypotensive action, both when used alone and as an adjuvant therapy...
March 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289720/discerning-functional-hierarchies-of-micrornas-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Vinny Negi, Stephen Y Chan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multifaceted vascular disease where development and severity are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Over the past decade, there has been an acceleration of the discovery of molecular effectors that mediate PH pathogenesis, including large numbers of microRNA molecules that are expressed in pulmonary vascular cell types and exert system-wide regulatory functions in all aspects of vascular health and disease. Due to the inherent pleiotropy, overlap, and redundancy of these molecules, it has been challenging to define their integrated effects on overall disease manifestation...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
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