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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078813/host-defense-peptide-derived-privileged-scaffolds-for-anti-infective-drug-discovery
#1
Ersilia Nigro, Irene Colavita, Daniela Sarnataro, Olga Scudiero, Aurora Daniele, Francesco Salvatore, Antonello Pessi
'Privileged scaffolds' are molecular frameworks which have been successfully exploited for small molecule drug discovery. Peptide privileged scaffolds, featuring a strictly conserved multiple-disulfide framework and high variability in the rest of the sequence, display a broad range of biological effects, including antimicrobial and antiviral activity. Unlike small molecules, however, the cost of manufacturing these peptides is high, and their synthesis challenging. We previously described a simplified privileged scaffold corresponding to the γ-core of human β-defensin-3 (HBD3)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074411/biomass-and-terpenoids-produced-by-mutant-strains-of-arthrospira-under-low-temperature-and-light-conditions
#2
Jian Guan, Songdong Shen, Hao Wu, Xin Liu, Weijie Shen, Yuan He, R Duan
The filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira is commercially produced and is a functional, high-value, health food. We identified 5 low temperature and low light intensity tolerant strains of Arthrospira sp. (GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1, GMPC1, and GMPC3) using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and low temperature screening. The 5 Arthrospira strains grew rapidly below 14 °C, 43.75 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and performed breed conservation at 2.5 °C, 8.75 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). We used morphological identification and molecular genetic analysis to identify GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1 and GMPC1 as Arthrospira platensis, while GMPC3 was identified as Arthrospira maxima...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074039/cd34-mesenchymal-cells-are-a-major-component-of-the-intestinal-stem-cells-niche-at-homeostasis-and-after-injury
#3
Igor Stzepourginski, Giulia Nigro, Jean-Marie Jacob, Sophie Dulauroy, Philippe J Sansonetti, Gérard Eberl, Lucie Peduto
The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34(+) Gp38(+) αSMA(-) mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5(+) IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34(+) Gp38(+) cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5(+) IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073907/metformin-prevents-metabolic-side-effects-during-systemic-glucocorticod-treatment
#4
Eleonora Seelig, Stefanie Meyer, Katharina Timper, Nicole Nigro, Martina Bally, Ida Pernicova, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Muller, Marta Korbonits, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Objectives Patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment are prone to develop metabolic complications. In preclinical studies metformin prevented the development of the metabolic syndrome during glucocorticoid excess. We herein investigated the metabolic effect of metformin during glucocorticoid treatment in non-diabetic patients. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients starting glucocorticoid treatment (prednisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone) for four weeks were randomized to concomitantly receive metformin (850mg once daily for one week followed by 850mg twice daily for three weeks) or placebo...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072903/laparoscopic-treatment-of-giant-ventral-hernia-experience-of-35-patients
#5
Michele Grande, Giorgio Lisi, Michela Campanelli, Simona Grande, Dario Venditti, Casimiro Nigro, Francesca Cabry, Massimo Villa
BACKGROUND: Minimal access surgery for incisional hernia repair is still debated, especially for giant wall defects. Laparoscopic repair may reduce pain and hospital stay. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the laparoscopic technique in giant hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2013, 35 consecutive patients with giant ventral hernia, according to the Chevrel classification, underwent laparoscopic repair. Fourteen patients were obese, with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 and in 21 patients the mean BMI was 24 (range 22-28)...
January 10, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038867/parkinsonian-axial-signs-in-schizophrenia
#6
Francesca Morgante, Corrado Barbui, Michele Tinazzi
INTRODUCTION: We have recently demonstrated evidence of nigro-striatal denervation, disease progression and response to levodopa in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia who developed parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated whether axial parkinsonian signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia not necessarily related to chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs (AP) drugs. METHODS: From a baseline cohort of 299 schizophrenic patients who did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for parkinsonism (presence of at least two of the following appendicular signs: bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity), we identified a group of patients who manifested two out of three axial parkinsonian signs (abnormality of trunk posture, hypomimia and short-step gait)...
December 23, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032353/allergooncology-the-impact-of-allergy-in-oncology-eaaci-position-paper
#7
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, M Capron, C Corrigan, M Castells, D Dombrowicz, T R Daniels-Wells, J Fazekas, E Fiebiger, S Gatault, H J Gould, J Janda, D H Josephs, P Karagiannis, F Levi-Schaffer, A Meshcheryakova, D Mechtcheriakova, Y Mekori, F Mungenast, E A Nigro, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, L Saul, J Singer, J F Spicer, A G Siccardi, E Spillner, M C Turner, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
Th2 immunity and allergic immune surveillance play critical roles in host responses to pathogens, parasites and allergens. Numerous studies have reported significant links between Th2 responses and cancer, including insights into the functions of IgE antibodies and associated effector cells in both anti-tumour immune surveillance and therapy. The interdisciplinary field of AllergoOncology was given Task Force status by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2014. Affiliated expert groups focus on the interface between allergic responses and cancer, applied to immune surveillance, immunomodulation and the functions of IgE-mediated immune responses against cancer, to derive novel insights into more effective treatments...
December 29, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013292/mib2-variants-altering-notch-signalling-result-in-left-ventricle-hypertrabeculation-non-compaction-and-are-associated-with-m%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-trier-like-gastropathy
#8
Pasquale Piccolo, Sergio Attanasio, Ilaria Secco, Riccardo Sangermano, Caterina Strisciuglio, Giuseppe Limongelli, Erasmo Miele, Margherita Mutarelli, Sandro Banfi, Vincenzo Nigro, Tirso Pons, Alfonso Valencia, Lorena Zentilin, Severo Campione, Gerardo Nardone, Ty C Lynnes, Patricia B S Celestino-Soper, Katherine G Spoonamore, Francesco P D'Armiento, Mauro Giacca, Annamaria Staiano, Matteo Vatta, Chiara Collesi, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri
We performed whole exome sequencing in individuals from a family with autosomal dominant gastropathy resembling Ménétrier disease, a premalignant gastric disorder with epithelial hyperplasia and enhanced EGFR signalling. Ménétrier disease is believed to be an acquired disorder, but its aetiology is unknown. In affected members, we found a missense p.V742G variant in MIB2, a gene regulating NOTCH signalling that has not been previously linked to human diseases. The variant segregated with the disease in the pedigree, affected a highly conserved amino acid residue, and was predicted to be deleterious although it was found with a low frequency in control individuals...
December 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008839/-microbiota-intestinal-stem-cells-dialog-a-key-element-for-intestinal-regeneration
#9
Aline Stedman, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
The most abundant and well-studied microbiota on the human body resides in the intestinal tract. Its impact extends the limits of the mucosal interface as it plays an essential role in systemic functions such as development of the immune system. At the level of the intestine, commensal microbes play important metabolic functions and promote the integrity of the mucosal barrier. Moreover, a large number of studies points to a role of the microbiota in intestinal regeneration both under homeostatic conditions and after epithelial damage...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999187/targeting-the-pro-angiogenic-forms-of-vegf-or-inhibiting-their-expression-as-anti-cancer-strategies
#10
Mélanie Guyot, Caroline Hilmi, Damien Ambrosetti, Marco Merlano, Cristiana Lo Nigro, Jérôme Durivault, Renaud Grépin, Gilles Pagès
Tumor growth relies on oxygen and blood supply depending on neo-vascularization. This process is mediated by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in many tumors. This paradigm has led to the development of specific therapeutic approaches targeting VEGF or its receptors. Despite their promising effects, these strategies have not improved overall survival of patients suffering from different cancers compared to standard therapies. We hypothesized that the existence of anti-angiogenic forms of VEGF VEGFxxxb which are still present in many tumors limit the therapeutic effects of the anti-VEGF antibodies bevacizumab/Avastin (BVZ)...
December 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967054/fast-algorithm-for-a-three-dimensional-synthetic-model-of-intermittent-turbulence
#11
Francesco Malara, Francesca Di Mare, Giuseppina Nigro, Luca Sorriso-Valvo
Synthetic turbulence models are useful tools that provide realistic representations of turbulence, necessary to test theoretical results, to serve as background fields in some numerical simulations, and to test analysis tools. Models of one-dimensional (1D) and 3D synthetic turbulence previously developed still required large computational resources. A "wavelet-based" model of synthetic turbulence, able to produce a field with tunable spectral law, intermittency, and anisotropy, is presented here. The rapid algorithm introduced, based on the classic p-model of intermittent turbulence, allows us to reach a broad spectral range using a modest computational effort...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916823/vitamin-b12-among-vegetarians-status-assessment-and-supplementation
#12
REVIEW
Gianluca Rizzo, Antonio Simone Laganà, Agnese Maria Chiara Rapisarda, Gioacchina Maria Grazia La Ferrera, Massimo Buscema, Paola Rossetti, Angela Nigro, Vincenzo Muscia, Gaetano Valenti, Fabrizio Sapia, Giuseppe Sarpietro, Micol Zigarelli, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale
Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet...
November 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906444/letter-to-the-editor-arrhythmic-risk-evaluation-in-familial-mediterranean-fever-the-role-of-electrocardiographic-and-echocardiographic-parameters
#13
V Russo, A Rago, F Di Meo, A A Papa, G Nigro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892891/atorvastatin-for-high-risk-statin-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-undergoing-noncardiac-surgery-the-lowering-the-risk-of-operative-complications-using-atorvastatin-loading-dose-load-randomized-trial
#14
Otavio Berwanger, Pedro G M de Barros E Silva, Roberto Ramos Barbosa, Dalton Bertolim Precoma, Estêvão Lanna Figueiredo, Ludhmila Abrahão Hajjar, Cleber Dario Pinto Kruel, Carolina Alboim, Adail Paixão Almeida, Marianna Deway Andrade Dracoulakis, Hugo Vargas Filho, Maria José Carvalho Carmona, Lília Nigro Maia, João Bosco de Oliveira Filho, Jose Francisco Kerr Saraiva, Rafael M Soares, Lucas Damiani, Denise Paisani, Alessandra A Kodama, Beatriz Gonzales, Dimas T Ikeoka, Philip J Devereaux, Renato D Lopes
: Preliminary evidence suggests that statins may prevent major perioperative vascular complications. METHODS: We randomized 648 statin-naïve patients who were scheduled for noncardiac surgery and were at risk for a major vascular complication. Patients were randomized to a loading dose of atorvastatin or placebo (80 mg anytime within 18hours before surgery), followed by a maintenance dose of 40 mg (or placebo), started at least 12hours after the surgery, and then 40 mg/d (or placebo) for 7days...
November 9, 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884799/the-infectious-hypoxia-occurrence-and-causes-during-shigella-infection
#15
Ellen T Arena, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti, Benoit S Marteyn
Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment.
November 21, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878421/the-role-of-the-atrial-electromechanical-delay-in-predicting-atrial-fibrillation-in-beta-thalassemia-major-patients
#16
Anna Rago, Vincenzo Russo, Andrea Antonio Papa, Carmine Ciardiello, Bruno Pannone, Maria Carolina Mayer, Giovanni Cimmino, Gerardo Nigro
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias frequently occur in beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD) in a large β-TM population with normal cardiac function and its relationship to atrial fibrillation (AF) onset. METHODS: Eighty β-TM patients (44 men, 36 women), with a mean age of 36.2 ± 11.1 years, and 80 healthy subjects used as controls, matched for age and gender, were studied for the occurrence of AF during a 5-year follow-up, through 30-day external loop recorder (ELR) monitoring performed every 6 months...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864140/the-role-of-mir-190a-in-methylglyoxal-induced-insulin-resistance-in-endothelial-cells
#17
Paola Mirra, Cecilia Nigro, Immacolata Prevenzano, Teresa Procopio, Alessia Leone, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Francesco Andreozzi, Michele Longo, Francesca Fiory, Francesco Beguinot, Claudia Miele
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a reactive dicarbonyl produced as by-product of glycolysis, and its formation is heightened in hyperglycaemia. MGO plasma levels are two-fold to five-fold increased in diabetics and its accumulation promotes the progression of vascular complications. Impairment of endothelium-derived nitric oxide represents a common feature of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics. We previously demonstrated that MGO induces endothelial insulin resistance. Increasing evidence shows that high glucose and MGO modify vascular expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs), suggesting their potential role in the impairment of endothelial insulin sensitivity...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860185/sildenafil-attenuates-hypoxic-pulmonary-remodelling-by-inhibiting-bone-marrow-progenitor-cells
#18
Shirley Favre, Elisa Gambini, Patrizia Nigro, Alessandro Scopece, Paola Bianciardi, Anna Caretti, Giulio Pompilio, Antonio F Corno, Giuseppe Vassalli, Ludwig K von Segesser, Michele Samaja, Giuseppina Milano
The recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells to the lung is related to pulmonary remodelling and the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Although sildenafil is a known target in PH treatment, the underlying molecular mechanism is still elusive. To test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of sildenafil is linked to the reduced recruitment of BM-derived progenitor cells, we induced pulmonary remodelling in rats by two-week exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH, 10% oxygen), a trigger of BM-derived progenitor cells...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849858/216-pulmonary-dead-space-fraction-and-extubation-success-in-children-after-cardiac-surgery
#19
Renee Devor, Chasity Wellnitz, Paul Kang, Muniza Siddiqui, John Nigro, Daniel Velez, Brigham Willis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843282/acta-myologica-online
#20
EDITORIAL
Vincenzo Nigro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
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