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August 16, 2017: Nature
Shamas Tabraiz, Sajjad Haydar, Paul Sallis, Sadia Nasreen, Qaisar Mahmood, Muhammad Awais, Kishor Acharya
Intermittent backwashing and relaxation are mandatory in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) for its effective operation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of run-relaxation and run-backwash cycle time on fouling rates. Furthermore, comparison of the effects of backwashing and relaxation on the fouling behavior of membrane in high rate submerged MBR. The study was carried out on a laboratory scale MBR at high flux (30 L/m(2)·h), treating sewage. The MBR was operated at three relaxation operational scenarios by keeping the run time to relaxation time ratio constant...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Bo Hu, Xingtao Zuo, Juan Xiong, Ruiling Bao, Jiajie He
To predict the membrane fouling phenomena in the membrane filtration operation, the individual models derived from Darcy's law and the corresponding combined models were employed to investigate the kind of models that provided better fits. The filtration of the mixed liquid from membrane bioreactors with different sludge retention time (SRT) at a constant pressure was carried out. The variation of applied pressure had significantly effect on the kind of the individual model provided better fit for the data at longer SRT and less effect for the data at shorter SRT, though it had less effect on the kind of the combined model that provided better fit...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Gokulakrishnan Balasubramanian, Alexandra Modiri, Marina Affi, Catherine E Hagen, Bjorn Batdorf, Kiyoko Oshima, Laura Michaelis, Kia Saeian
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of systemic histiocytosis, typically presenting with striking osseous involvement characterized by bilateral osteosclerosis and involvement of organs such as the lung, pituitary gland, heart, and brain. Liver involvement with ECD is extremely uncommon. We report a 56-year-old woman presenting with newly diagnosed cirrhosis and signs concerning for intra-abdominal malignancy, including omental caking and peritoneal thickening. Liver biopsy demonstrated xanthogranulomatous infiltration from ECD...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
Julie M Hess, Joanne L Slavin
OBJECTIVE: To quantify and compare the nutrient-density of commonly consumed snacks using two nutrient-density measures, Nutrient Rich Foods Indices 9.3 (NRF 9.3) and 15.3 (NRF 15.3). DESIGN: Identify commonly consumed categories of snacks and individual snack foods, calculate NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores, rank snacks by category and by individual food based on nutrient density, compare and contrast scores generated by the two NRF Indices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: NRF 9...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Wei Chen, Chen Qian, Weili Hong, Ji-Xin Cheng, Han-Qing Yu
Membrane fouling is the bottleneck that restricts the sustainability of membrane technology for environmental applications. Therefore, the development of novel analytical tools for characterizing membrane fouling processes is essential. In this work, we demonstrate a capability of probing the chemical structure of foulants and detecting their 3-dimentional spatial distribution on membranes based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy as a vibrational spectroscopic imaging approach. The adsorption process of foulants onto membrane surfaces and their aggregation process within membrane pores during the micro-filtration of protein and polysaccharide solutions were clearly monitored...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaomei Xiao, Liangmei He, Yayun Chen, Longhuo Wu, Lin Wang, Zhiping Liu
Camellia oleifera Abel is a member of Camellia, and its seeds are used to extract Camellia oil, which is generally used as cooking oil in the south of China. Camellia oil consists of unsaturated fatty acids, tea polyphenol, squalene, saponin, carrot element and vitamins, etc. The seed remains after oil extraction of C. oleifera Abel are by-products of oil production, named as Camellia oil cake. Its extracts contain bioactive compounds including sasanquasaponin, flavonoid and tannin. Major components from Camellia oil and its cake have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antitumor activities...
August 10, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Valciney Gomes de Barros, Rose Maria Duda, Juliana da Silva Vantini, Wellington Pine Omori, Maria Inês Tiraboschi Ferro, Roberto Alves de Oliveira
Biogas production from sugarcane vinasse has enormous economic, energy, and environmental management potential. However, methane production stability and biodigested vinasse quality remain key issues, requiring better nutrient and alkalinity availability, operational strategies, and knowledge of reactor microbiota. This study demonstrates increased methane production from vinasse through the use of sugarcane filter cake and improved effluent recirculation, with elevated organic loading rates (OLR) and good reactor stability...
July 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Chuanliang Zhao, Huaili Zheng, Li Feng, Yili Wang, Yongzhi Liu, Bingzhi Liu, Badradine Zakaria Djibrine
Cationic polyacrylamides have been employed widely to improve sludge dewatering performance, but the cationic units are randomly distributed in the molecular chain, which restricts the further enhancement of dewaterability. Common template technology to prepare block copolymers requiring a huge number of templates reduces the polymer purity and molecular weight. Here, we adopted the surface-active monomer benzyl dimethyl 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC) to synthesize cationic microblocky polyacrylamide initiated by ultrasound...
March 13, 2017: Materials
Weilong Song, Hong You, Zhipeng Li, Feng Liu, Peishi Qi, Fang Wang, Yizhu Li
Membrane fouling mitigation in a novel AF-MBMBR system (moving bed membrane bioreactor (10L) coupled with anoxic biofilter (4L)) under high salinity condition (35‰) was systematically investigated. Pre-positioned AF served as a pretreatment induced significant decrease of suspended biomass by 85% and dissolved organic matters by 51.7% in subsequent MBR, which resulted in a reduction of cake layer formation. Based on this, sponge bio-carriers in MBMBR further alleviated the fouling propensity by modifying extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties...
July 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Franklin B Apea-Bah, June C Serem, Megan J Bester, Kwaku G Duodu
Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shulei Li, Yinfei Liao, Guosheng Li, Zhen Li, Yijun Cao
Thermal-sensitive polymers have been tested on settling, compacting or dewatering of clays or oil sand tailings. However, not much attention has been paid to explore the effect of temperature on flocculating performance using thermal-sensitive polymers. In this study, poly(NIPAM-co-DMAPMA) was synthesized and employed to investigate the flocculating and re-flocculating performance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles at two specific temperatures; meanwhile settling and dewatering behaviors were also investigated...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M Ozdogan, A O Ustundag, E Yarali
In this study, the effects of diet including different levels of olive cake were investigated on the fattening performance, blood parameters, certain slaughtering traits, and carcass quality of lambs. Thirty-six male lambs were used in the experiment. The lambs were randomly assigned to three groups with 12 lambs each. Groups included control, 12.5 and 25% olive cake (OC). The mixed feeds were offered ad libitum. All lambs were also allowed to consume alfalfa hay (83.8 g DM/animal/day). The experiment lasted for a period of 56 days...
July 28, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Arup Jyoti Das, Tatsuro Miyaji, Sankar Chandra Deka
Two types of starter cakes, viz. amou and perok-kushi, used in the production of rice beer in Assam, India, by the Bodo and Deori communities, respectively, were used for the isolation of amylolytic fungi. Based on the sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions the fungi were identified as Amylomyces rouxii and Rhizopus oryzae, and given the strain names TU460 and TU465, respectively. Both the strains showed the ability to degrade and saccharify starch. The glucoamylase activity was considerably high in A...
July 27, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Krzysztof W Trzaskus, Sooi Li Lee, Wiebe M de Vos, Antoine Kemperman, Kitty Nijmeijer
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles in customer products results in their accumulation in water sources. In this experimental study, we investigated the role of surfactant type (cationic, anionic and non-ionic) and concentration on fouling development, nanoparticle rejection and fouling irreversibility during dead-end ultrafiltration of model silica nanoparticles. Our work demonstrates that the type of surfactant influences the nanoparticle stability, which in turn is responsible for differences in fouling behavior of the nanoparticles...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dong Fan, Lili Ding, Hui Huang, Mengtian Chen, Hongqiang Ren
Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation to treat the flax secondary effluent was investigated. The operating variables, including initial pH, dosage of H2O2 and Fe(0), air flow rate, TMP and pore size, were optimized. The distributions of DOMs in the treatment process were analyzed. Under the optimum condition (600mgL(-1)H2O2, 1.4gL(-1) Fe(0), pH=3, 300Lh(-1) air flow rate and 15psi TMP), the highest TOC and color removal efficiencies were 84% and 94% in the coupled reactor with 100nm ceramic membrane, reducing 39% of total iron with similar removal efficiency compared with Fluidized-bed Fenton...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil contributes dietary energy (fat) in addition to protein (AA) and may provide an opportunity to enrich the n-3 fatty acid content of pork. Information regarding safety, growth performance, and efficacy of feeding camelina cake to pigs is limited. We therefore evaluated the effects of camelina cake inclusion in pig nursery diets. In total, 192 pigs (9.4 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 48 pens, 2 heavy and 2 light pigs per pen. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-based diets including camelina cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18%; variety Celine) replacing soybean meal for 4 wk...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
X Zhou, E Beltranena, R T Zijlstra
Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Yufei Wang, Hui Jia, Hongwei Zhang, Jie Wang, Wenjin Liu
A recycling magnetic flocculation membrane filtration (RMFMF) process integrating circulating coagulation, magnetic enhanced flocculation and membrane filtration was investigated for the treatment of surface water micro-polluted by tetracycline, a typical pharmaceutical and personal care product. A bench-scale experiment was conducted and several water quality parameters including turbidity, ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), total organic carbon and tetracycline concentration were evaluated, taking coagulation membrane filtration and magnetic flocculation membrane filtration processes as reference treatments...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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