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Manus Carey, Emily Donaldson, Antonio J Signes-Pastor, Andrew A Meharg
There has been an increasing realisation that young infants are exposed to elevated concentrations of the carcinogen inorganic arsenic, relative to adults. This is because many infant food products are rice based, and rice is ~10-fold elevated in inorganic arsenic compared to most other foods. The European Commission (EC) has acted on this concern setting stricter standards for infants, 100 μg of inorganic arsenic per kg of food (100 μg/kg), as compared to adults (200 μg/kg), for rice based foods, a law that was brought into place in 1st January 2016...
2018: PloS One
Nina Zupanič, Maša Hribar, Urška Pivk Kupirovič, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Consumption of industrially produced trans -fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Hongjia Zhang, Tan Sui, Enrico Salvati, Dominik Daisenberger, Alexander J G Lunt, Kai Soon Fong, Xu Song, Alexander M Korsunsky
High energy 2D X-ray powder diffraction experiments are widely used for lattice strain measurement. The 2D to 1D conversion of diffraction patterns is a necessary step used to prepare the data for full pattern refinement, but is inefficient when only peak centre position information is required for lattice strain evaluation. The multi-step conversion process is likely to lead to increased errors associated with the 'caking' (radial binning) or fitting procedures. A new method is proposed here that relies on direct Digital Image Correlation analysis of 2D X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD-DIC, for short)...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Filip Boratyński, Ewa Szczepańska, Aleksandra Grudniewska, Bartłomiej Skalny, Teresa Olejniczak
In this study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) was proposed as an alternative approach to obtain optically pure forms of one of the most common aroma compounds, whisky lactone. Filamentous fungi were used for enantioselective hydrolysis of a racemate of trans and cis whisky lactones, utilizing rapeseed cake as a growth medium. Among the tested fungi, Fusarium oxysporum AM13 and Papularia rosea AM17 were chosen for further studies. Various process parameters, including temperature, moisture content of solid media, and substrate concentration were optimized to maximize the efficiency of the kinetic resolution process...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Amine Charfi, Eunyoung Park, Muhammad Aslam, Jeonghwan Kim
The study presents a mathematical model developed to better understand and control membrane fouling in a single-staged, anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beads as scouring media. The model was based on combining the anaerobic biological model AM2b and a fouling model applied in membrane filtration. The presented model was validated using experimental data obtained by a laboratory scaled AFMBR reactor run during 250 d under various operational conditions...
March 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sen Zhang, Yu Yang, Satoshi Takizawa, Li-An Hou
This study investigated the pretreatment effect of ferrihydrite (FH) on the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and membrane fouling control in a hybrid adsorption-ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was chosen for comparative study, and three surrogates, namely, humic acid (HA), sodium alginate (SA) and bovine serum albumin, were applied in feed water to simulate humic substances, polysaccharides and proteins, respectively. In the hybrid adsorption-membrane system, the impacts of adsorbent cake layers on DOM removal and membrane fouling were systematically investigated...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rainer U Pliquett, Arno Noll, Richard Ibe, Alexandra Katz, Charlotte Ackmann, Alexandra Schreiber, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND: Here, we report a case of central pontine demyelinization in a type-2 diabetes patient with hyperglycemia after a binge-eating attack in the absence of a relevant hyponatremia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old, male type-2 diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis stage Child-Pugh B was admitted due to dysmetria of his right arm, gait disturbance, dizziness, vertigo, and polyuria, polydipsia after a binge-eating attack of sweets (a whole fruit cake and 2 Liters of soft drinks)...
March 12, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Davinia Brouckaert, Laurens De Meyer, Brecht Vanbillemont, Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal, Joris Lammens, Severine Therese F C Mortier, Jos Corver, Chris Vervaet, Ingmar Nopens, Thomas De Beer
Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring, since it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, it is aimed to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses, based on spin freezing...
March 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Samira Norouzi, Mohsen Heidari, Vali Alipour, Omid Rahmanian, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam, Heshmatollah Nourmoradi, Babak Goudarzi, Kavoos Dindarloo
Date Press Cake (DPC) is an inevitable by-product of date processing industries and may pose environmental problems if not managed properly. In this study, DPC was converted into activated carbon using solid NaOH under various activation conditions. The prepared activated carbon showed high specific surface area (2025.9 m2  g-1 ) and microporous texture (86.01%). It was successfully applied for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities as high as 282.8 mg g-1 (pH = 2) and 198...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jacqueline Horn, Julia Schanda, Wolfgang Friess
PURPOSE: Mannitol/sucrose formulations are employed to generate lyophilizates for biopharmaceuticals with an elegant cake appearance. The aim of this study was to dry protein/mannitol/sucrose formulations as fast as possible without loss of cake appearance and protein stability. Glycerol was included as potential additional protein stabilizer. Three proteins (lysozyme and two monoclonal antibodies) at low and high concentration were analyzed comparing fast with conservative freeze-drying...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
L C Meneguelli de Souza, L P de Carvalho, J S Araújo, E J T de Melo, O L T Machado
Castor cake is a by-product of the extraction of oil from from seeds of castor plants (Ricinus communis). This by-product contains high levels of proteins, but a toxic protein, ricin, limits its use as an animal feed. Ricin can be efficiently inactivated by treatment with calcium oxide (CaO), which can be evaluated by a cytotoxicity assay using LLC-MK2 cells. The mechanism by which the CaO treatment inactivates ricin, however, is unclear. We report the structural changes responsible for ricin inactivation. Purified ricin was treated with 0...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Meiqiang Cai, Jian-Qiang Hu, George F Wells, Youngwoo Young Seo, Richard Spinney, Shih-Hsin Ho, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Jie Su, Ruiyang Xiao, Zongsu Wei
Enhancing activated sludge dewaterability is of scientific and engineering importance in the face of accelerated urbanization and stringent environmental regulations. In this study, we investigated the integration of acidification and ultrasound (A/US) treatments for improving sludge dewaterability at both bench‒ and pilot‒scales. Our results showed that the A/US system exhibited significantly improved sludge dewatering performance, characterized by capillary suction time, cake moisture, and water/solid content of sludge cake...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xue-Na Zheng, Jun Yang, Tao Xie, Bin Guo, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Li-Na Xie, Xue-Fen Wu, Gang-Zhu Hu, Mai-Lan Liu, Zeng-Hui Yue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of herbal cake-separated moxibustion on blood lipid-apoprotein levels and the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2), TLR 4 and nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) mRNAs in atherosclerotic (AS) vulnerable plaques of hyperglycemia rabbits, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Sixty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, model, direct moxibustion, herbal-cake-separated moxibustion and medication groups( n =12 rabbits in each group)...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Yi-Fan Zou, Ming-Zhu Ma, Zhao Zhao, Jing Tan, Jing-Jing Yang, Jia Shi, Mi Liu, Mai-Lan Liu, Xiao-Rong Chang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of herbal-cake-separated moxibustion on blood lipid levels and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) and scavenger receptor B 1 (SR-B 1) proteins and genes in liver of hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis rabbits, so as to explore its mechanism underlying anti-atherosclerosis formation. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into normal control, model, moxibustion and Simvastatin groups ( n =10 rabbits in each group)...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Dan Zhang, Yan-Bo Ren, Huan-Gan Wu, Yan-Ting Yang, Li-Jie Wu, Ji Zhang, Zheng Shi, Xiao-Peng Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different-doses of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion (Moxi) on histopathological changes of the damaged colon tissue in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC), so as to select an optimal dosage of Moxi in the treatment of UC. METHODS: Sixty-three male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into 7 groups: normal control, model, medication, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 moxa-cone Moxi ( n =9 rats per group). The UC model was developed by subcutaneous injection of emulsion (1 mL) containing colon mucosa-prepared protein suspension and complete Freund's adjuvant into the toes, groin and back...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Zsolt Beda, Steven M Smith
Two experiments tested the red herring retrieval hypothesis, which states that fixation in creative problem solving is worse when memory for red herrings (i.e., inappropriate or incorrect solutions) is strengthened. In Experiment 1, when associations between Remote Associates Test (RAT) problem words (e.g., COTTAGE, SWISS, CAKE) and related red herring words (e.g., hut, chocolate, icing) were strengthened via repetition, an encoding variable, fixation was found to increase. In Experiment 2, when associations were formed between RAT problem contexts and red herrings, then subsequent reinstatement of problem contexts during RAT problem solving trials (as compared with showing new contexts) also worsened fixation effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Jing Wang, Kangmin Chon, Xianghao Ren, Haizhong Wu, Yingying Kou, Moon-Hyun Hwang, Kyu-Jung Chae
In this study, the effects of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) and chitosan (CTS) on the dewatering characteristics of the digested activated sludge (e.g., filtrate turbidity, specific resistance of filtration (SRF), and cake moisture content) were investigated. The combined conditioning of PFS and CTS improved the settleability of the digested sludge more effectively than when using of PFS alone. The SRF value of the digested sludge decreased to 2.08 × 1012 m/kg after conditioning with 50 mg/g PFS and 10 mg/g CTS...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Sandra Rojas-Moreno, Guillermo Osorio-Revilla, Tzayhrí Gallardo-Velázquez, Fernando Cárdenas-Bailón, Gabriela Meza-Márquez
Orange essential oil was microencapsulated by complex coacervation with whey protein isolate (WPI):carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), WPI:sodium alginate (SA) and WPI:chitosan (CH). Effect of pH, protein:polysaccharide ratio and solid concentration on coacervation efficiency were selected for the best coacervation conditions. Tannic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate, oxidized tannic acid and transglutaminase enzyme were used as cross-linking agents. Highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) for wet coacervated microcapsules ranged from 88-94%...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Le Ying, De-Dong Kong, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Feng Yan, Yue-Fei Wang, Ping Xu
Phenolics, as the main bioactive compounds in tea, have been suggested to have potential in the prevention of various human diseases. However, little is known about phenolics and their bioactivity in Zhangping Narcissue tea cake which is considered the most special kind of oolong tea. To unveil its bioactivity, three phenolic-enriched extracts were obtained from Zhangping Narcissue tea cake using ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. Their main chemical compositions and in vitro bioactivity were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Shangyuan Sang, Huang Zhang, Lei Xu, Yisheng Chen, Xueming Xu, Zhengyu Jin, Na Yang, Fengfeng Wu, Dandan Li
Hen egg is commonly used in some cereal-based food, including cakes and bread. Ovalbumin, one of the major components of egg white protein, can affect the performance of the food product. The interaction between ovalbumin and gluten protein and its effect on property of dough and quality of Chinese steamed bread was investigated in this study. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns indicated that ovalbumin was surprisingly not incorporated in glutenins by covalent bond, whereas size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that glutenin macropolymer content in glutenins increased slightly...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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