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Patricia de Paz-Lugo, José Antonio Lupiáñez, Enrique Meléndez-Hevia
Collagen synthesis is severely diminished in osteoarthritis; thus, enhancing it may help the regeneration of cartilage. This requires large amounts of glycine, proline and lysine. Previous works of our group have shown that glycine is an essential amino acid, which must be present in the diet in large amounts to satisfy the demands for collagen synthesis. Other authors have shown that proline is conditionally essential. In this work we studied the effect of these amino acids on type II collagen synthesis. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured under a wide range of different concentrations of glycine, proline and lysine...
July 13, 2018: Amino Acids
Fabiana Gullotta, Daniela Izzo, Francesca Scalera, Barbara Palazzo, Ivan Martin, Alessandro Sannino, Francesca Gervaso
Articular cartilage regeneration is still an open challenge in the field of tissue engineering. Although autologous chondrocytes seeded on collagen scaffolds (CSs) have already showed interesting results in the long-term repair of chondral lesions, they are not exempt from disadvantages that could be overcome using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The ability of polymeric scaffolds to support MSCs proliferation and differentiation has been widely documented. However, few studies assessed their mechanical performances and additionally performing a single mechanical test, i...
June 28, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Lei Li, Guohua Lv, Bing Wang, Lei Kuang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in multiple diverse diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we explored the role of lncRNA XIST in OA and identified the potential molecular mechanisms. The expression of XIST in cartilage samples in patients with OA was significantly upregulated. XIST knockdown remarkably suppressed IL-1β-suppressed OA chondrocyte proliferation while promoted IL-1β-induced cell apoptosis. By employing online tools, miRNAs related to CXCR4, a major contributor to chondrocyte apoptosis, and XIST were selected...
July 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mengmeng Wang, Lili Song, Charlie Strange, Xiao Dong, Hongjun Wang
To assess the potential therapeutic effects of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we compared the phenotype and functionality of ASCs isolated from high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2D and the leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice with cells from healthy C57BL/6 mice. ASCs from T2D or db/db mice showed similar expression patterns of cellular markers and abilities to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. However, the rate of proliferation was reduced...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Fazul Nabi, Muhammad K Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahzad, Shucheng Huang, Zhaoqing Han, Khalid Mehmood, Nisar Ahmed, Bahram Chachar, Muhammad A Arain, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a bone defect of broilers and other poultry birds that disturbs growth plate and it causes lameness. Previously we evaluated differential expression of multiple genes involved in growth plate angiogenesis and reported the safety and efficacious of medicinal plant root extracted for controlling TD. In this study, clinical and protective effect of an antibiotic Novobiocin (Hsp90 inhibitor) and expression of Hsp90 and proteoglycan aggrecan was examined. The chicks were divided into three groups; Control, thiram-induced TD, and Novobiocin injected TD...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Seung Hoon Lee, Ji Ye Kwon, JooYeon Jhun, KyungAh Jung, Sung-Hwan Park, Chul Woo Yang, YongSin Cho, Seok Jung Kim, Mi-La Cho
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and degenerative disease that causes pain, cartilage deformation, and joint inflammation. Lactobacillus species have been used as dietary supplements to induce the production of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors. The goal of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA. L. acidophilus showed anti-nociceptive properties and protected against cartilage destruction. It also downregulated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the joints of OA rats...
July 9, 2018: Immunology Letters
Sung Won Lee, Jee Hyun Rho, Sang Yeob Lee, Won Tae Chung, Yoo Jin Oh, Jung Ha Kim, Seung Hee Yoo, Woo Young Kwon, Ju Yong Bae, Su Young Seo, Hokeun Sun, Hye Young Kim, Young Hyun Yoo
Free fatty acids (FFAs), which are elevated with metabolic syndrome, are considered the principal offender exerting lipotoxicity. Few previous studies have reported a causal relationship between FFAs and osteoarthritis pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which FFAs exert lipotoxicity and induce osteoarthritis remains largely unknown. We here observed that oleate at the usual clinical range does not exert lipotoxicity while oleate at high pathological ranges exerted lipotoxicity through apoptosis in articular chondrocytes...
2018: Bone Research
Xin Ming, Chenyi Bao, Tao Hong, Ying Yang, Xinbin Chen, Yong-Sam Jung, Yingjuan Qian
Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (BHLHE40 also known as Sharp2/Stra13/DEC1), is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that plays an important role in circadian rhythms, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cellular senescence, hypoxia response, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is a cytoprotective protein that guards against genotoxic stresses. Here, clusterin (CLU) was identified as a novel target gene of DEC1 and suppresses DNA damage-induced cell death in tumor cells...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Rika Sakuma, Ai Takahashi, Akiko Nakano-Doi, Rikako Sawada, Saeko Kamachi, Mikiya Beppu, Toshinori Takagi, Shinichi Yoshimura, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Takayuki Nakagomi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells localized to the perivascular regions of various organs, including bone marrow (BM). While MSC transplantation represents a promising stem-cell based therapy for ischemic stroke, increasing evidence indicates that exogenously administered MSCs rarely accumulate in the injured central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, compared with MSCs, regionally derived brain multipotent stem cells may be a superior source in order to elicit regeneration of the CNS following ischemic injury...
July 12, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Stacy A Semevolos, Katja F Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Maureen Larson, Marc A Kinsley
Osteochondrosis (OC) is a naturally occurring disease of the articular-epiphyseal cartilage and subchondral bone layers, leading to pain and decreased mobility. The objective of this study was to characterize gene and protein expression of apoptotic markers in chondrocytes surrounding cartilage canals and along the osteochondral junction of osteochondrosis (OC)-affected and normal cartilage, using naturally occurring disease in horses. Paraffin-embedded osteochondral samples (6 OC, 8 normal controls) and cDNA from chondrocytes captured with laser capture microdissection (4 OC, 6 normal controls) were obtained from the lateral trochlear ridge of femoropatellar joints in 14 immature horses (1-6 months of age)...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Jennifer Gansau, Conor Timothy Buckley
Hydrogels, such as fibrin, offer a promising delivery vehicle to introduce cells into the intervertebral disc (IVD) to regenerate damaged disc tissue as a potential treatment for low back pain. However, fibrin lacks key extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as collagen (Col) and hyaluronan (HA), normally found in native nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. The overall aim of this work was to create a fibrin-based hydrogel, by incorporating Col and HA into the matrix to enhance NP-like matrix accumulation using articular chondrocytes (CC)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
X F Zhou, Q G Yan, X J Guo, X D Gou, J Q Han, J L Ye, H Y Zhang, F M Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, pathological diagnosis and treatment of malignant mixed tumor (MMT). Methods: Clinical and pathological features including immunohistochemical phenotypes were analyzed in a case of MMT accompanied with eccrine porocarcinoma (EP) involving both hands, diagnosed definitely in January 2018 along with review of relevant literature. Results: A 64-year-old man presented with multiple rash on both hands for 4 years. Three lesions of 0.5 to 2...
July 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Hilène Lin, Eric Hay, Augustin Latourte, Thomas Funck-Brentano, Wafa Bouaziz, Hang-Korng Ea, Abdel-Majid Khatib, Pascal Richette, Martine Cohen-Solal
Cartilage loss in osteoarthritis (OA) results from altered local production of growth factors and metalloproteases (MMPs). Furin, an enzyme involved in the protein maturation of MMPs, might regulate chondrocyte function. Here, we tested the effect of furin on chondrocyte catabolism and the development of OA. In primary chondrocytes, furin reduced the expression of MMP-13, which was reversed by treatment with the furin inhibitor α1-PDX. Furin also promoted the activation of Smad3 signaling, whereas activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) knockdown mitigated the effects of furin on MMP-13 expression...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Haiyan Zhang, Chuangxin Lin, Chun Zeng, Zhenyu Wang, Hua Wang, Jiansen Lu, Xin Liu, Yan Shao, Chang Zhao, Jianying Pan, Song Xu, Yue Zhang, Denghui Xie, Daozhang Cai, Xiaochun Bai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the roles and regulatory mechanisms of synovial macrophages and their polarisation in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Synovial tissues from normal patients and patients with OA were collected. M1 or M2-polarised macrophages in synovial tissues of patients with OA and OA mice were analysed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Mice with tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) or Rheb deletion specifically in the myeloid lineage were generated and subjected to intra-articular injection of collagenase (collagenase-induced osteoarthritis, CIOA) and destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to induce OA...
July 10, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Ernst B Hunziker
The disk of hyaline cartilage that is interposed between the epiphysis and the metaphysis of each of the long bones is responsible for its elongation, and, thus, when the lower limbs are concerned, for increases in bodily height. This so-called growth plate is avascular, aneural, and alymphatic. It consists solely of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix which the cells elaborate. The growth plate is architectonically striking in so far as the chondrocytes are aligned in strictly vertical columns, which represent the functional units of longitudinal bone growth...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Claire Vinatier, Eduardo Domínguez, Jerome Guicheux, Beatriz Caramés
Osteoarthritis is the most common musculoskeletal disease causing chronic disability in adults. Studying cartilage aging, chondrocyte senescence, inflammation, and autophagy mechanisms have identified promising targets and pathways with clinical translatability potential. In this review, we highlight the most recent mechanistic and therapeutic preclinical models of aging with particular relevance in the context of articular cartilage and OA. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, cell senescence, and circadian rhythms in the development of musculoskeletal system degeneration assure further translational efforts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Keisho Hirota, Akihiro Yasoda, Yugo Kanai, Yohei Ueda, Ichiro Yamauchi, Takafumi Yamashita, Yoriko Sakane, Toshihito Fujii, Nobuya Inagaki
Skeletal growth in mammals, which owes the growth of an individual, occurs at the growth plate and to observe and analyze its dynamic growth is of high interest. Here we performed live imaging analysis of the growth plate of a fetal murine long bone organ culture using two-photon excitation microscopy. We could observe a dynamic growth of the growth plate of explanted fetal murine ulna, as well as the resultant linear elongation of the explants. As for the factors contributing to the elongation of the growth plate, the displacement length of each chondrocyte was larger in the prehypertrophic or hypertrophic zone than in the proliferative zone...
July 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nausika Betriu, Lourdes Recha-Sancho, Carlos E Semino
A useful technique for culturing cells in a self-assembling nanofiber three-dimensional (3D) scaffold is described. This culture system recreates an environment that closely mimics the structural features of non-polarized tissue. Furthermore, the particular intrinsic nanofiber structure of the scaffold makes it transparent to visual light, which allows for easy visualization of the sample under microscopy. This advantage was largely used to study cell migration, organization, proliferation, and differentiation and thus any development of their particular cellular function by staining with specific dyes or probes...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rafael Calvo, Maximiliano Espinosa, David Figueroa, Luz María Pozo, Paulette Conget
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-enriched storage medium on fresh osteochondral viability at 4°C. Our hypothesis was that the cell viability of chondrocytes obtained from human osteochondral tissue and stored at 4°C significantly improves in the presence of NAC. Design Controlled laboratory study. For this study, 8 samples of femoral condyle osteochondral tissue were obtained from patients undergoing total knee replacement. The samples were stored at either 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or at 3 different concentrations of NAC (NAC 1, 2, and 5 mM)...
June 1, 2018: Cartilage
Gladys Valverde-Franco, Ginette Tardif, François Mineau, Frédéric Paré, Bertrand Lussier, Hassan Fahmi, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Johanne Martel-Pelletier
Objective: This study explored the role of the adipokine adipsin in OA. Methods: Control and OA articular tissues, cells and serum were obtained from human individuals. Serum adipsin levels of human OA individuals were compared with cartilage volume loss as assessed by MRI at 48 months. Human adipsin expression was determined by PCR, its production in tissues by immunohistochemistry, and in SF and serum by a specific assay. OA was surgically induced in wild-type (Df+/+) and adipsin-deficient (Df-/-) mice, and synovial membrane and cartilage processed for histology and immunohistochemistry...
June 29, 2018: Rheumatology
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