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Chondrocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922692/mir-195-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-chondrocytes-by-targeting-git1
#1
Yang-Lin Gu, Xiao-Xu Rong, Li-Ting Wen, Guo-Xing Zhu, Ming-Quan Qian
Previous studies have demonstrated that G-protein coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) serve an important role in chondrocyte proliferation and migration. However, a limited number of studies conducted thus far have investigated the association between GIT1 and miRNAs. In the present study, putative miR‑195 binding sites in the GIT1 3'‑untranslated region were identified using common bioinformatic algorithms (miRanda, TargetScan, miRBase and miRWalk), and it was demonstrated that they may be involved in regulating GIT1 expression...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922673/effects-of-mir-145-on-the-inhibition-of-chondrocyte-proliferation-and-fibrosis-by-targeting-tnfrsf11b-in-human-osteoarthritis
#2
Guo-Dong Wang, Xiao-Wei Zhao, Yu-Ge Zhang, Ying Kong, Shuai-Shuai Niu, Long-Fei Ma, Yuan-Min Zhang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of functional deterioration in older adults, and altered chondrogenesis is the most common pathophysiological process involved in the development of OA. MicroRNA‑145 (miR‑145) has been shown to regulate chondrocyte homeostasis. However, the function of miR‑145 in OA remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression levels of miR‑145 were examined in cartilage specimens from 25 patients with knee OA using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919783/the-potential-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-tool-to-study-skeletal-dysplasias-and-cartilage-related-pathologic-conditions
#3
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Lei Yang, Fang Fang Yu, Sen Wang, Cuiyan Wu, Chengjuan Qu, Xiong Guo, Mikko J Lammi
The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology has opened up new horizons for development of new research tools especially for skeletal dysplasias, which often lack human disease models. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering could be the next areas to benefit from refinement of iPSC methods to repair focal cartilage defects, while applications for osteoarthritis (OA) and drug screening have evolved rather slowly. Although the advances in iPSC research of skeletal dysplasias and repair of focal cartilage lesions are not directly relevant to OA, they can be considered to pave the way to future prospects and solutions to OA research, too...
December 2, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919571/long-noncoding-rnas-in-osteoarthritis
#4
Shi-de Jiang, Jian Lu, Zhen-Han Deng, Yu-Sheng Li, Guang-Hua Lei
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis that may affect all joint tissues. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of OA is not fully understood yet and it cannot be cured totally. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a type of RNA molecule greater than 200 nucleotides, and deregulated expression of lncRNAs plays an important role in many types of inflammation-related diseases. In this review, we have focused on the association of lncRNAs in the development and progression of OA and the possibility of lncRNAs as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA...
December 2, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919119/-osteochondritis-dissecans-of-the-talus-a-critical-review
#5
J Bruns, C R Habermann, J P Petersen
The etiology remains unclear. Mechanical factors seem to play an important role. Most histologies report clefts between the cartilage and bone and necrotic areas. Several classifications have been published based on observations from imaging techniques or on intraoperative findings. Clinical symptoms are unspecific. Imaging techniques are of great importance: X-rays of the ankle joint enable a quick diagnostic overview. MRT is the imaging-technique of choice for diagnosing OCDT-lesions. Regarding treatment, a tremendous number of retrospective publications exist...
April 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917821/optimizing-cell-sourcing-for-clinical-translation-of-tissue-engineered-ears
#6
Kerry A Morrison, Benjamin P Cohen, Ope Asanbe, Xue Dong, Alice Harper, Lawrence J Bonassar, Jason A Spector
: Background . Currently, the major impediment to clinical translation of our previously described platform for the fabrication of high fidelity, patient-specific tissue engineered ears is the development of a clinically optimal cell sourcing strategy. A limited autologous auricular chondrocyte (AuC) supply in conjunction with rapid chondrocyte de-differentiation during in vitro expansion currently makes clinical translation more challenging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise due to their inherent chondrogenic potential, and large availability through minimally invasive procedures...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916780/mir-15a-5p-regulates-viability-and-matrix-degradation-of-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-via-targeting-vegfa
#7
Hongwei Chen, Yun Tian
Previous studies demonstrated that miR-15a-5p was probably associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma, while the function of miR-15a-5p in OA (Osteoarthritis) still remains unknown. Here, we uncovered the potential role of miR-15a-5p on OA pathogenesis and confirmed its predicted target VEGFA (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A). Measured by RT-PCR, miR-15a-5p expression increased remarkably while VEGFA expression was significantly decreased in OA chondrocytes compared with normal conditions. According to Luciferase activity assay, miR-15a-5p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of VEGFA to inhibit its expression...
December 3, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916560/thinning-of-articular-cartilage-after-joint-unloading-or-immobilization-an-experimental-investigation-of-the-pathogenesis-in-mice
#8
Masato Nomura, Naoyoshi Sakitani, Hiroyuki Iwasawa, Yuta Kohara, Shoko Takano, Yoshio Wakimoto, Hiroshi Kuroki, Hideki Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: Moderate mechanical stress generated by normal joint loading and movement is essential for the maintenance of healthy articular cartilage. However, the effects of reduced loading caused by the absence of weight bearing or joint motion on articular cartilage and subchondral bone is still poorly understood. We aimed to characterize morphological and metabolic responses of articular cartilage and subchondral bone to decreased mechanical stress in vivo. METHODS: Mice were subjected to periods of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension or external fixation of the knee joints...
December 1, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914878/hydroxytyrosol-modulates-the-levels-of-microrna-9-and-its-target-sirtuin-1-thereby-counteracting-oxidative-stress-induced-chondrocyte-death
#9
Stefania D'Adamo, Silvia Cetrullo, Serena Guidotti, Rosa Maria Borzì, Flavio Flamigni
OBJECTIVE: Nutraceutical compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT), have been found to exert protective effects in osteoarthritis (OA) by affecting a variety of key molecular and cellular processes in chondrocytes. However, to our knowledge, no relationship has been reported between nutraceuticals and microRNA (miR) network in OA models. Here, we identified a miR that is implicated in hydroxytyrosol (HT)-mediated chondroprotection following oxidative stress condition by targeting sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1)...
November 30, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911782/egfr-signaling-is-critical-for-maintaining-the-superficial-layer-of-articular-cartilage-and-preventing-osteoarthritis-initiation
#10
Haoruo Jia, Xiaoyuan Ma, Wei Tong, Basak Doyran, Zeyang Sun, Luqiang Wang, Xianrong Zhang, Yilu Zhou, Farid Badar, Abhishek Chandra, X Lucas Lu, Yang Xia, Lin Han, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Ling Qin
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. The surface of joint cartilage is the first defensive and affected site of OA, but our knowledge of genesis and homeostasis of this superficial zone is scarce. EGFR signaling is important for tissue homeostasis. Immunostaining revealed that its activity is mostly dominant in the superficial layer of healthy cartilage but greatly diminished when OA initiates. To evaluate the role of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage, we studied a cartilage-specific Egfr-deficient (CKO) mouse model (Col2-Cre EgfrWa5/flox)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910822/prolonged-in-vitro-precultivation-alleviates-post-implantation-inflammation-and-promotes-stable-subcutaneous-cartilage-formation-in-a-goat-model
#11
Yi Liu, Dan Li, Zongqi Yin, Xusong Luo, Wei Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yilin Cao, Yu Liu, Guangdong Zhou
Synthetic biodegradable scaffolds such as polylactic acid coated polyglycolic acid (PLA-PGA) are especially suitable for engineering shaped cartilage such as auricle, but they induce a serious inflammatory reaction particularly in the immunologically aggressive subcutaneous site, leading to resorption of the engineered autologous cartilage. Our previous study in a rabbit model has demonstrated 2 weeks of in vitro precultivation could significantly alleviate the post-implantation inflammation induced by PLA-PGA engineered cartilaginous grafts, but reproduction of this result failed in a preclinical goat model...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910811/ll-37-hnp-1-and-hbd2-3-modulate-the-secretion-of-cytokines-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-ifn-%C3%AE-il-10-and-mmp1-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#12
Carlos Erik Medina Santos, Carmen Nathaly López Hurtado, Bruno Rivas Santiago, Roberto Gonzalez-Amaro, Yolanda Guadalupe Cataño Cañizales, Margarita de la Luz Martínez Fierro, José Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Mariana Haydee García Hernández
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the LL-37, HNP-1 and HBD2/3 peptides on cytokine and MMP production in human polymorphonuclear cells, mononuclear cells and chondrocytes. The levels of cytokines in supernatants from mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell cultures were measured with a cytometric bead array by flow cytometry. Likewise, the levels of metalloproteinase/MMP-1, 3, and 13 were measured in supernatants from chondrocyte cultures using an ELISA. The expression of RANKL on lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#13
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909759/continuous-hydrostatic-pressure-induces-differentiation-phenomena-in-chondrocytes-mediated-by-changes-in-polycystins-sox9-and-runx2
#14
Konstantinos Karamesinis, Anastasia Spyropoulou, Georgia Dalagiorgou, Maria A Katsianou, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Svenja Memmert, James Deschner, Heleni Vastardis, Christina Piperi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of hydrostatic pressure on chondrocyte differentiation, as indicated by protein levels of transcription factors SOX9 and RUNX2, on transcriptional activity of SOX9, as determined by pSOX9 levels, and on the expression of polycystin-encoding genes Pkd1 and Pkd2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ATDC5 cells were cultured in insulin-supplemented differentiation medium (ITS) and/or exposed to 14.7 kPa of hydrostatic pressure for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909553/effects-of-gangliosides-from-deer-bone-extract-on-the-gene-expressions-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-collagen-type-ii-in-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-osteoarthritic-chondrocytes
#15
Hyung Joo Suh, Hyunji Lee, Byung Jung Min, Sung Ug Jung, Eun Young Jung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the anti-osteoarthritic effects of deer bone extract on the gene expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and collagen type II (COL2) in interleukin-1β-induced osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: Primary rabbit chondrocytes were treated as follows: CON (PBS treatment), NC (IL-1β treatment), PC (IL-1β + 100 µg/mL glucosamine sulphate/chondroitin sulphate mixture), and DB (IL-1β + 100 µg/mL deer bone extract)...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908803/pericytes-integral-components-of-adult-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#16
REVIEW
D Sá da Bandeira, J Casamitjana, M Crisan
The interest in perivascular cells as a niche for adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is significantly growing. In the adult bone marrow (BM), perivascular cells and HSCs cohabit. Among perivascular cells, pericytes are precursors of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. In situ, pericytes are recognised by their localisation to the abluminal side of the blood vessel wall, closely associated with endothelial cells in combination with the expression of markers such as CD146, neural glial 2 (NG2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), nestin (Nes) and/or leptin receptor (LepR)...
November 28, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908786/distinct-requirements-of-wls-wnt9a-wnt5b-and-gpc4-in-regulating-chondrocyte-maturation-and-timing-of-endochondral-ossification
#17
Irving Tc Ling, Lucie Rochard, Eric C Liao
Formation of the mandible requires progressive morphologic change, proliferation, differentiation and organization of chondrocytes preceding osteogenesis. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in regulating bone development and maintenance. Chondrocytes that are fated to become bone require Wnt to polarize and orientate appropriately to initiate the endochondral ossification program. Although the canonical Wnt signaling has been well studied in the context of bone development, the effects of non-canonical Wnt signaling in regulating the timing of cartilage maturation and subsequent bone formation in shaping ventral craniofacial structure is not fully understood...
November 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908598/cell-compaction-influences-the-regenerative-potential-of-passaged-bovine-articular-chondrocytes-in-an-ex%C3%A2-vivo-cartilage-defect-model
#18
Michael Schmutzer
The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908544/inhibition-of-cartilage-degradation-and-suppression-of-pge2-and-mmps-expression-by-pomegranate-fruit-extract-in-a-model-of-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis
#19
Nahid Akhtar, Nazir M Khan, Omer S Ashruf, Tariq M Haqqi
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation in the affected joints. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits cartilage degradation in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral consumption of PFE inhibits disease progression in rabbits with surgically induced OA. METHODS: OA was surgically induced in the tibiofemoral joints of adult New Zealand White rabbits. In one group, animals were fed PFE in water for 8 wk postsurgery...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908299/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-induces-inflammatory-and-degradative-effects-in-articular-cells-but-not-through-leptin-or-adiponectin
#20
Jean-Baptiste Gross, Cecile Guillaume, Pascale Gegout-Pottie, Pascal Reboul, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Didier Mainard, Nathalie Presle
OBJECTIVES: Based on a novel approach suggesting a role of adipose tissue in osteoarthritis (OA), we aimed to determine whether the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) may affect joint cell functions through adipokines. METHODS: The conditioned media of IFP and subcutaneous adipose tissue from OA patients were used to determine the production of leptin and adiponectin, and to stimulate chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Blocking experiments were carried out to evaluate the contribution of adipokines to IFP effects...
November 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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