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Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Cuijun Deng, Huiying Zhu, Jiayi Li, Chun Feng, Qingqiang Yao, Liming Wang, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu
The cartilage lesion resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) always extends into subchondral bone. It is of great importance for simultaneous regeneration of two tissues of cartilage and subchondral bone. 3D-printed Sr5 (PO4 )2 SiO4 (SPS) bioactive ceramic scaffolds may achieve the aim of regenerating both of cartilage and subchondral bone. We hypothesized that strontium (Sr) and silicon (Si) ions released from SPS scaffolds play a crucial role in osteochondral defect reconstruction. Methods: SPS bioactive ceramic scaffolds were fabricated by a 3D-printing method...
2018: Theranostics
Chun-Yuan Chen, Shan-Shan Rao, Lu Ren, Xiong-Ke Hu, Yi-Juan Tan, Yin Hu, Juan Luo, Yi-Wei Liu, Hao Yin, Jie Huang, Jia Cao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Zheng-Zhao Liu, Hao-Ming Liu, Si-Yuan Tang, Ran Xu, Hui Xie
Chronic non-healing wounds represent one of the most common complications of diabetes and need advanced treatment strategies. Exosomes are key mediators of cell paracrine action and can be directly utilized as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. Here, we explored the effects of exosomes from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-Exos) on diabetic wound healing and the underlying mechanism. Methods: USCs were characterized by flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation potential analyses...
2018: Theranostics
Yujie Ning, Xi Wang, Pan Zhang, Amin Liu, Xin Qi, Meidan Liu, Xiong Guo
Previous studies have identified a close association between diet and the prevalence of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD); however, the mechanisms via which the diet protects against KBD-associated cartilage injury has remained elusive. Recent international research studies have revealed a therapeutic role of dietary exosome micro (mi)RNAs in repairing chondrocyte lesions by regulating genes and proteins associated with cellular apoptosis and extracellular matrix. Vital molecules affecting bio-functions of chondrocytes, including miR-23b and protein kinase cyclic AMP-activated catalytic subunit β, were preliminarily identified to be dysregulated in cells and cartilage tissue of KBD patients...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kai Li, Yue Zhang, Yuwei Zhang, Wenqing Jiang, Junhui Shen, Song Xu, Daozhang Cai, Jie Shen, Bin Huang, Mangmang Li, Qiancheng Song, Yu Jiang, Anling Liu, Xiaochun Bai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of tyrosine kinase Fyn in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and the underlying mechanisms, and to define whether targeting Fyn could prevent OA in mice. METHODS: Cartilage samples from normal and aged mice were analysed with proteome-wide screening. Fyn expression was examined with immunofluorescence in human and age-dependent or experimental mouse OA cartilage samples. Experimental OA in Fyn-knockout mice was induced by destabilisation of the medial meniscus...
March 19, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Ping-Er Wang, Lei Zhang, Jun Ying, Xing Jin, Cheng Luo, Shibing Xu, Rui Dong, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage degeneration plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushenhuoxue formula (BSHXF) has been widely used in the treatment of OA in clinics. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the chondroprotective effect of BSHXF remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of BSHXF on OA mice model. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of BSHXF on destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced chondrocyte degradation in OA mice model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Mariana Castro Martins, Mandy J Peffers, Katie Lee, Luis M Rubio-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular administration of stanozolol has shown promising results by improving the clinical management of lameness associated with naturally-occurring osteoarthritis (OA) in horses, and by decreasing osteophyte formation and subchondral bone reaction in sheep following surgically induced OA. However, there is limited evidence on the anti-inflammatory and modulatory properties of stanozolol on articular tissues. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of stanozolol on chondrocyte viability and gene expression in normal equine chondrocytes and an inflammatory in vitro system of OA (interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treated chondrocytes)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Chiara Assunta Pilato, Ilaria Stadiotti, Angela Serena Maione, Valentina Saverio, Valentina Catto, Fabrizio Tundo, Antonio Dello Russo, Claudio Tondo, Giulio Pompilio, Michela Casella, Elena Sommariva
A normal adult heart is composed of several different cell types, among which cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells represent an abundant population. The isolation of these cells offers the possibility of studying their involvement in cardiac diseases, and, in addition, provides a useful primary cell model to investigate biological mechanisms. Here, the method for the isolation of C-MSC from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients' bioptic samples is described. The endomyocardial biopsy sampling is guided in the right ventricular areas adjacent to the scar visualized by electro-anatomical mapping...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Boguslaw Sadlik, Grzegorz Jaroslawski, Mariusz Puszkarz, Adrian Blasiak, Tomasz Oldak, Dominika Gladysz, Graeme P Whyte
Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint. More recently, techniques have evolved from 2-step techniques that use autologous chondrocyte expansion to 1-step techniques that make use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto biocompatible scaffolding. Our 1-step technique has been further developed to provide cell-based cartilage repair using MSCs that have the potential to be used in an off-the-shelf manner, without the need for autologous tissue harvest...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Jinling Jia, Jingyu Wang, Junlei Zhang, Mingxing Cui, Xiaohui Sun, Qingjiang Li, Bin Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chondrocyte apoptosis is largely responsible for cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in chondrogenesis and cartilage remodeling. This study explored the effect of miR-125b on inflammatory injury in chondrogenic cells. METHODS: LPS was used to simulate inflammatory injury in murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell lines. Targeting effect of miR-125b on MIP-1α 3'UTR was assessed by dual luciferase activity assay...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Javier Conde, Miguel Otero, Morena Scotece, Vanessa Abella, Rodolfo Gómez, Verónica López, Jesús Pino, Antonio Mera, Mary B Goldring, Oreste Gualillo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The E74-like factor 3 (ELF3) is an inflammatory mediator that participates in cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis. Leptin and other adipokines negatively impact articular cartilage, triggering catabolic and inflammatory responses in chondrocytes. Here, we investigated whether leptin induces ELF3 expression in chondrocytes and the signaling pathway involved in this process. METHODS: We determined mRNA and protein levels of ELF3 by RT-qPCR and Western blotting using cultured human primary chondrocytes and the human T/C-28a2 chondrocyte cell line...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Tomoo Inoue, Yukoh Ohara, Tadaaki Niiro, Toshiki Endo, Teiji Tominaga, Jyun-Ichi Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Chondroma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor that originates in chondrocytes and is commonly seen in the long bones; however, it infrequently occurs in the cervical spine. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We report two patients with cervical periosteal chondroma that originated from the C2 vertebral body and C1 lamina as extramedullary tumors. The first patient was a 28-year-old man who presented with right upper extremity weakness and numbness. Cervical radiography revealed a bony tumor with evidence of severe spinal cord compression...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zhe Ni, Xifu Shang, Guolin Tang, Lei Niu
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs regulate the development of cartilage and osteogenesis. Whether miR-206 participates in the development of human articular cartilage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-206 in human chondrocytes. METHODS: Expression of miR-206 was initially assessed in human osteoarthritis (OA) tissues and articular chondrocytes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yun Bai, Chuan Liu, Lei Fu, Xiaoshan Gong, Ce Dou, Zhen Cao, Hongyu Quan, Jianmei Li, Fei Kang, Jingjin Dai, Chunrong Zhao, Shiwu Dong
Endochondral ossification is crucial for bone formation in both adult bone repair process and embryo long-bone development. In endochondral ossification, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) first differentiate to chondrocyte, BMSC-derived chondrocyte then endure a hypertrophic process to generate new bone. Endochondral ossification-based bone repair is a promising strategy to cure massive bone defect, which is a major clinical issue in orthopedics. However, challenges still remain for this novel strategy...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yubo Sun, Alex J Kiraly, Michael Cox, David R Mauerhan, Edward N Hanley
Phosphocitrate (PC) and its analogue, PC-β ethyl ester, inhibit articular cartilage degeneration in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that PC exerted its disease-modifying effect on osteoarthritis (OA), in part, by inhibiting a molecular program similar to that in the endochondral pathway of ossification. The results demonstrated that severe proteoglycan loss occurred in the superficial and middle zones, as well as in the calcified zone of articular cartilage in the Hartley guinea pigs...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Virginia Piombo, Katja Jochmann, Daniel Hoffmann, Manuela Wuelling, Andrea Vortkamp
Multiple osteochondromas (MO) syndrome is a dominant autosomal bone disorder characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped bony outgrowths that develop at the juxtaposition of the growth plate of endochondral bones. MO has been linked to mutations in either EXT1 or EXT2, two glycosyltransferases required for the synthesis of heparan sulfate (HS). The establishment of mouse mutants demonstrated that a clonal, homozygous loss of Ext1 in a wild type background leads to the development of osteochondromas. Here we investigate mechanisms that might contribute to the variation in the severity of the disease observed in human patients...
March 12, 2018: Bone
Teruyo Nakatani, Tiffany Chen, Joshua Johnson, Jennifer J Westendorf, Nicola C Partridge
Histone deacetylase 4 (Hdac4) is known to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and bone formation. We have previously shown that parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates many aspects of Hdac4 function in osteoblastic cells in vitro; however, in vivo confirmation was previously precluded by pre-weaning lethality of the Hdac4 deficient mice. To analyze the function of Hdac4 in bone in mature animals, we generated mice with osteoblast lineage-specific knockout of Hdac4 (Hdac4ob-/- ) by crossing transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of a 2...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Hyun-Kyu Kim, Seong-Eun Kim, Myung-Jin Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Hak Sung Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the chondroprotective effect of a standardized extract (KBH-JP-040) of the Korean traditional herbs Kalopanax pictus Castor-Aralia, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon, and Astragalus membranaceus Schischkin on in vivo and in vitro osteoarthritis (OA) models. Cultured rat chondrocytes were pre-treated with KBH-JP-040 (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 1 h, then recombinant human IL-1α (rhIL-1α) for 24 h. For the in vivo model, rabbits ( n = 60) were equally divided into experimental groups: normal control (NC), a collagenase-induced OA group, and OA groups treated with KBH-JP-040 (75, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight) and celecoxib (Cx, 100 mg/kg) orally for 28 days...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Weiwei Ruan, Li Cao, Zhonghua Chen, Mingxiang Kong, Qing Bi
Hereditary multiple osteochondroma (HMO) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by multiple outgrowing bony tumors capped by cartilage, generally affecting the metaphyses. The disease is known as hereditary multiple exostoses, familial exostosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses or hereditary malformation of cartilage. The prevalence of HMO in Europe and the Unites States is ~1:100,000, although it has not been reported in China. The disease is often accompanied by pain, asymmetry and skeletal malformations, including forearm and leg bending deformities, limb length discrepancies, and knee internal and external rotation abnormalities...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Dominika Dragosz-Kluska, Tomasz Pis, Katarzyna Pawlik, Filip Kapustka, Wincenty M Kilarski, Jan Kozłowski
Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
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