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Climate change plant distribution

F Labbé, M C Fontaine, C Robin, C Dutech
Historical fluctuations in forests' distribution driven by past climate changes and anthropogenic activities can have large impacts on the demographic history of pathogens that have a long co-evolution history with these host trees. Using a population genetic approach, we investigated that hypothesis by reconstructing the demographic history of Armillaria ostoyae, one of the major pathogens of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), in the largest monospecific pine planted forest in Europe (south-western France)...
September 20, 2017: Heredity
Xiaofeng Zheng, Pengxiang Gao, ShuoXin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The changing climate, particularly in regard to temperature and precipitation, is already affecting tree species' distributions. Pinus armandii, which dominates on the Yungui Plateau and in the Qinba Mountains in China, is of economic, cultural and ecological value. We wish to test the correlations between the distribution shift of P. armandii and changing climate, and figure out how it tracks future climate change. METHODS: We sampled the surface soil at sites throughout the distribution of P...
2017: PeerJ
Benjamin T Julius, Kristen A Leach, Thu M Tran, Rachel A Mertz, David M Braun
Carbohydrate partitioning is the process of carbon assimilation and distribution from source tissues, such as leaves, to sink tissues, such as stems, roots and seeds. Sucrose, the primary carbohydrate transported long distance in many plant species, is loaded into the phloem and unloaded into distal sink tissues. However, many factors, both genetic and environmental, influence sucrose metabolism and transport. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of sugar transporters and sucrose metabolic enzymes is key to improving agriculture...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Wentao Luo, Mai-He Li, Jordi Sardans, Xiao-Tao Lü, Chao Wang, Josep Peñuelas, Zhengwen Wang, Xing-Guo Han, Yong Jiang
Plant carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry play an important role in the maintenance of ecosystem structure and function. To decipher the influence of changing environment on plant C and N stoichiometry at the subcontinental scale, we studied the shoot and root C and N stoichiometry in two widely distributed and dominant genera along a 2,200-km climatic gradient in China's grasslands. Relationships between C and N concentrations and soil climatic variables factors were studied. In contrast to previous theory, plant C concentration and C:N ratios in both shoots and roots increased with increasing soil fertility and decreased with increasing aridity...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Thomas Dirnböck, Ika Djukic, Barbara Kitzler, Johannes Kobler, Janet P Mol-Dijkstra, Max Posch, Gert Jan Reinds, Angela Schlutow, Franz Starlinger, Wieger G W Wamelink
Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N) are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses) in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nutrient enrichment may threaten these habitats. We applied a dynamic geochemical soil model (VSD+) together with a novel niche-based plant response model (PROPS) to 5 forest habitat types (18 forest sites) protected under the EU Directive in Austria...
2017: PloS One
Katherine M Renwick, Caroline Curtis, Andrew R Kleinhesselink, Daniel Schlaepfer, Bethany A Bradley, Cameron L Aldridge, Benjamin Poulter, Peter B Adler
A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species...
September 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
Hannes Gaisberger, Roeland Kindt, Judy Loo, Marco Schmidt, Fidèle Bognounou, Sié Sylvestre Da, Ousmane Boukary Diallo, Souleymane Ganaba, Assan Gnoumou, Djingdia Lompo, Anne Mette Lykke, Elisée Mbayngone, Blandine Marie Ivette Nacoulma, Moussa Ouedraogo, Oumarou Ouédraogo, Charles Parkouda, Stefan Porembski, Patrice Savadogo, Adjima Thiombiano, Guibien Zerbo, Barbara Vinceti
Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change)...
2017: PloS One
Paul W Barnes, Ronald J Ryel, Stephan D Flint
Ongoing changes in Earth's climate are shifting the elevation ranges of many plant species with non-native species often experiencing greater expansion into higher elevations than native species. These climate change-induced shifts in distributions inevitably expose plants to novel biotic and abiotic environments, including altered solar ultraviolet (UV)-B (280-315 nm) radiation regimes. Do the greater migration potentials of non-native species into higher elevations imply that they have more effective UV-protective mechanisms than native species? In this study, we surveyed leaf epidermal UV-A transmittance (TUV A) in a diversity of plant species representing different growth forms to test whether native and non-native species growing above 2800 m elevation on Mauna Kea, Hawaii differed in their UV screening capabilities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Catherine J Collier, Yan X Ow, Lucas Langlois, Sven Uthicke, Charlotte L Johansson, Katherine R O'Brien, Victoria Hrebien, Matthew P Adams
Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri). To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gerald E Rehfeldt, Laura P Leites, Dennis G Joyce, Aaron R Weiskittel
Population responses to climate were assessed using 3-7 yr height growth data gathered for 266 populations growing in 12 common gardens established in the 1980s as part of 5 disparate studies of Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Responses are interpreted according to three concepts: the ecological optimum, the climate where a population is competitively exclusive and in which, therefore, it occurs naturally; the physiological optimum, the climate where a population grows best but is most often competitively excluded; and growth potential, the innate capacity for growth at the physiological optimum...
September 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
Piotr Trębicki, Beatriz Dáder, Simone Vassiliadis, Alberto Fereres
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the main anthropogenic gas which has drastically increased since the industrial revolution, and current concentrations are projected to double by the end of this century. As a consequence, elevated CO2 is expected to alter the earths' climate, increase global temperatures and change weather patterns. This is likely to have both direct and indirect impacts on plants, insect pests, plant pathogens and their distribution, and is therefore problematic for the security of future food production...
August 26, 2017: Insect Science
Laura K Gray, Charles Clarke, G R William Wint, Jonathan A Moran
Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to have profound effects on species distributions over the coming decades. In this paper, we used maximum entropy modelling (Maxent) to estimate the effects of projected changes in climate on extent of climatically-suitable habitat for two Nepenthes pitcher plant species in Borneo. The model results predicted an increase in area of climatically-suitable habitat for the lowland species Nepenthes rafflesiana by 2100; in contrast, the highland species Nepenthes tentaculata was predicted to undergo significant loss of climatically-suitable habitat over the same period...
2017: PloS One
Yoan Fourcade, Thomas Ranius, Erik Öckinger
Prediction of species distributions in an altered climate requires knowledge on how global- and local-scale factors interact to limit their current distributions. Such knowledge can be gained through studies of spatial population dynamics at climatic range margins. Here, using a butterfly (Pyrgus armoricanus) as model species, we first predicted based on species distribution modelling that its climatically suitable habitats currently extend north of its realized range. Projecting the model into scenarios of future climate, we showed that the distribution of climatically suitable habitats may shift northward by an additional 400 km in the future...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Dengmei Fan, Zhixia Sun, Bo Li, Yixuan Kou, Richard G J Hodel, Zhinong Jin, Zhiyong Zhang
Measuring the dispersal of wildlife through landscapes is notoriously difficult. Recently, the categorical least cost path algorithm that integrates population genetic data with species distribution models has been applied to reveal population connectivity. In this study, we use this method to identify the possible dispersal corridors of five plant species (Castanopsis tibetana, Schima superba, Cyclocarya paliurus, Sargentodoxa cuneata, Eomecon chionantha) in the Poyang Lake Basin (PLB, largely coinciding with Jiangxi Province), China, in the late Quaternary...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Stephen P Yanoviak, Evan M Gora, Jeffrey M Burchfield, Phillip M Bitzer, Matteo Detto
Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although lightning kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of lightning-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of lightning on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of lightning are impossible...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Shanshan Zhang, Hongmei Kang, Wenzhong Yang
Climatic change-induced water stress has been found to threaten the viability of trees, especially endangered species, through inhibiting their recruitment. Nyssa yunnanensis, a plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP), consists of only two small populations of eight mature individuals remaining in southwestern China. In order to determine the barriers to regeneration, both in situ and laboratory experiments were performed to examine the critical factors hindering seed germination and seedling establishment...
2017: PloS One
Roland Kallenborn, Eva Brorström-Lundén, Lars-Otto Reiersen, Simon Wilson
A first review on occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is presented. The literature survey conducted here was initiated by the current Assessment of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). This first review on the occurrence and environmental profile of PPCPs in the Arctic identified the presence of 110 related substances in the Arctic environment based on the reports from scientific publications, national and regional assessments and surveys, as well as academic research studies (i...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hongbo Li, Bitao Liu, M Luke McCormack, Zeqing Ma, Dali Guo
Functional traits and their variation mediate plant species coexistence and spatial distribution. Yet, how patterns of variation in belowground traits influence resource acquisition across species and plant communities remains obscure. To characterize diverse belowground strategies in relation to species coexistence and abundance, we assessed four key belowground traits - root diameter, root branching intensity, first-order root length and mycorrhizal colonization - in 27 coexisting species from three grassland communities along a precipitation gradient...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
Kennedy F Rubert-Nason, John J Couture, Elizabeth A Gryzmala, Philip A Townsend, Richard L Lindroth
Anticipated consequences of climate change in temperate regions include early spring warmup punctuated by intermittent hard freezes. Warm weather accelerates leaf flush in perennial woody species, potentially exposing vulnerable young tissues to damaging frosts. We employed a 2×6 randomized factorial design to examine how the interplay of vernal (springtime) freeze damage and genetic variation in a hardwood species (Populus tremuloides) influences tree growth, phytochemistry and interactions with an insect herbivore (Chaitophorus stevensis)...
July 29, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Erin Conlisk, Cristina Castanha, Matthew J Germino, Thomas T Veblen, Jeremy M Smith, Andrew B Moyes, Lara M Kueppers
Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had greater recruitment to their third year (by 323%) than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
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