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Climate change plant distribution

Siri Birkeland, Idunn Elisabeth Borgen Skjetne, Anne Krag Brysting, Reidar Elven, Inger Greve Alsos
Small, isolated, and/or peripheral populations are expected to harbour low levels of genetic variation and may therefore have reduced adaptability to environmental change, including climate warming. In the Arctic, global warming has already caused vegetation change across the region and is acting as a significant stressor on Arctic biodiversity. Many of the rare plants in the Arctic are relicts from early Holocene warm periods, but their ability to benefit from the current warming is dependent on the viability of their populations...
January 20, 2017: AoB Plants
Chengyuan Guo, Linna Ma, Shan Yuan, Renzhong Wang
At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Akana E Noto, Jonathan B Shurin
Climate change shuffles species ranges and creates novel interactions that may either buffer communities against climate change or exacerbate its effect. For instance, facilitation can become more prevalent in salt marshes under stressful conditions while competition is stronger in benign environments. Sea-level rise (SLR) is a consequence of climate change that affects the distribution of stress from inundation and salinity. To determine how interactions early in SLR are affected by changes in these two stressors in Mediterranean-climate marshes, we transplanted marsh turfs to lower elevations to simulate SLR and manipulated cover of the dominant plant species, Salicornia pacifica (formerly Salicornia virginica)...
2017: PloS One
Luis Matías, Juan C Linares, Ángela Sánchez-Miranda, Alistair S Jump
Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity...
January 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
Greg R Guerin, Ben Sparrow, Andrew Tokmakoff, Anita Smyth, Emrys Leitch, Zdravko Baruch, Andrew J Lowe
Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition...
2017: PloS One
Daniel P Bebber, Ángela Delgado Castillo, Sarah J Gurr
Many fungal plant diseases are strongly controlled by weather, and global climate change is thus likely to have affected fungal pathogen distributions and impacts. Modelling the response of plant diseases to climate change is hampered by the difficulty of estimating pathogen-relevant microclimatic variables from standard meteorological data. The availability of increasingly sophisticated high-resolution climate reanalyses may help overcome this challenge. We illustrate the use of climate reanalyses by testing the hypothesis that climate change increased the likelihood of the 2008-2011 outbreak of Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix) in Colombia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Yoan Fourcade, Erik Öckinger
Marginal populations are usually small, fragmented, and vulnerable to extinction, which makes them particularly interesting from a conservation point of view. They are also the starting point of range shifts that result from climate change, through a process involving colonization of newly suitable sites at the cool margin of species distributions. Hence, understanding the processes that drive demography and distribution at high-latitude populations is essential to forecast the response of species to global changes...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
Per-Ola Hedwall, Jörg Brunet, Håkan Rydin
Mires (bogs and fens) are nutrient-limited peatland ecosystems, the vegetation of which is especially sensitive to nitrogen deposition and climate change. The role of mires in the global carbon cycle, and the delivery of different ecosystem services can be considerably altered by changes in the vegetation, which has a strong impact on peat-formation and hydrology. Mire ecosystems are commonly open with limited canopy cover but both nitrogen deposition and increased temperatures may increase the woody vegetation component...
January 2017: Ecology
Watanabe Yoichi, Ichiro Tamaki, Shota Sakaguchi, Jong-Suk Song, Shin-Ichi Yamamoto, Nobuhiro Tomaru
Continental islands provide opportunities for testing the effects of isolation and migration on genetic variation in plant populations. In characteristic of continental islands is that the geographic connections between these islands, which are currently distinguished by seaways, have experienced fluctuations caused by sea-level changes due to climate oscillations during the Quaternary. Plant populations on the islands have migrated between these islands via the exposed seafloors or been isolated. Here, we examined the demographic history of a temperate shrub, Rhododendron weyrichii, which is distributed in the southwestern parts of the Japanese archipelago and on an island of South Korea, using statistical phylogeographic approaches based on the DNA sequences of two chloroplast and eight nuclear loci in samples analyzed from 18 populations on eight continental islands, and palaeodistribution modeling...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Andrea Clavijo McCormick
The attraction of natural enemies towards herbivore-induced plant volatiles is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the majority of published studies are carried under optimal water and nutrient regimes and with just one herbivore. But what happens when additional levels of ecological complexity are added? Does the presence of a second herbivore, microorganisms, and abiotic stress interfere with plant-natural enemy communication? or is communication stable enough to withstand disruption by additional biotic and abiotic factors?Investigating the effects of these additional levels of ecological complexity is key to understanding the stability of tritrophic interactions in natural ecosystems and may aid to forecast the impact of environmental disturbances on these, especially in climate change scenarios, which are often associated with modifications in plant and arthropod species distribution and increased levels of abiotic stress...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Zoltán Bátori, András Vojtkó, Tünde Farkas, Anna Szabó, Krisztina Havadtői, Anna E Vojtkó, Csaba Tölgyesi, Viktória Cseh, László Erdős, István Elek Maák, Gunnar Keppel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dolines are small- to large-sized bowl-shaped depressions of karst surfaces. They may constitute important microrefugia, as thermal inversion often maintains cooler conditions within them. This study aimed to identify the effects of large- (macroclimate) and small-scale (slope aspect and vegetation type) environmental factors on cool-adapted plants in karst dolines of East-Central Europe. We also evaluated the potential of these dolines to be microrefugia that mitigate the effects of climate change on cool-adapted plants in both forest and grassland ecosystems...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Botany
Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Wataru Shinohara, Atsushi Ebihara, Hiroshi Kudoh, Hirotoshi Sato, Yao-Moan Huang, Wen-Liang Chiou
Independent gametophyte ferns are unique among vascular plants because they are sporophyteless and reproduce asexually to maintain their populations in the gametophyte generation. Such ferns had been primarily discovered in temperate zone, and usually hypothesized with (sub)tropical origins and subsequent extinction of sporophyte due to climate change during glaciations. Presumably, independent fern gametophytes are unlikely to be distributed in tropics and subtropics because of relatively stable climates which are less affected by glaciations...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Matthias Schleuning, Jochen Fründ, Oliver Schweiger, Erik Welk, Jörg Albrecht, Matthias Albrecht, Marion Beil, Gita Benadi, Nico Blüthgen, Helge Bruelheide, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, D Matthias Dehling, Carsten F Dormann, Nina Exeler, Nina Farwig, Alexander Harpke, Thomas Hickler, Anselm Kratochwil, Michael Kuhlmann, Ingolf Kühn, Denis Michez, Sonja Mudri-Stojnić, Michaela Plein, Pierre Rasmont, Angelika Schwabe, Josef Settele, Ante Vujić, Christiane N Weiner, Martin Wiemers, Christian Hof
Impacts of climate change on individual species are increasingly well documented, but we lack understanding of how these effects propagate through ecological communities. Here we combine species distribution models with ecological network analyses to test potential impacts of climate change on >700 plant and animal species in pollination and seed-dispersal networks from central Europe. We discover that animal species that interact with a low diversity of plant species have narrow climatic niches and are most vulnerable to climate change...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
Ivana Vejříková, Lukáš Vejřík, Jari Syväranta, Mikko Kiljunen, Martin Čech, Petr Blabolil, Mojmír Vašek, Zuzana Sajdlová, Son Hoang The Chung, Marek Šmejkal, Jaroslava Frouzová, Jiří Peterka
The number of herbivores in populations of ectothermic vertebrates decreases with increasing latitude. At higher latitudes, fish consuming plant matter are exclusively omnivorous. We assess whether omnivorous fish readily shift to herbivory or whether animal prey is typically preferred. We address temperature as the key factor causing their absence at higher latitudes and discuss the potential poleward dispersion caused by climate changes. A controlled experiment illustrates that rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) readily utilize plant matter at water temperatures above 20 °C and avoid its consumption below 20 °C...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
John-Baptist S N Naah, Reginald T Guuroh
Recording local ecological knowledge (LEK) is a useful approach to understanding interactions of the complex social-ecological systems. In spite of the recent growing interest in LEK studies on the effects of climate and land use changes, livestock mobility decisions and other aspects of agro-pastoral systems, LEK on forage plants has still been vastly under-documented in the West African savannas. Using a study area ranging from northern Ghana to central Burkina Faso, we thus aimed at exploring how aridity and socio-demographic factors drive the distributional patterns of forage-related LEK among its holders...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Fedor V Konstantinov
The plant bug fauna of China is highly diverse and relatively poorly documented, with almost 900 currently known species, about a half of which had been revealed during the last two decades (Qi et al. 2003, 2007, Konstantinov & Namyatova 2008, 2009, Konstantinov et al. 2013). Future studies would almost certainly reveal many new species from the region. However, the present day distributions of Chinese plant bugs apparently reflect significant climate change since the Tertiary Period, and are largely influenced by influx of species from other regions...
December 9, 2016: Zootaxa
Ripu M Kunwar, Kedar Baral, Prashant Paudel, Ram P Acharya, Khum B Thapa-Magar, Mary Cameron, Rainer W Bussmann
Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades...
2016: PloS One
Brendan M Rogers, Patrick Jantz, Scott J Goetz
Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of tree species because of critical environmental tolerances related to growth, mortality, reproduction, disturbances, and biotic interactions. How this is realized in 21st century remains uncertain, in large part due to limitations on plant migration and the impacts of landscape fragmentation. Understanding these changes is of particular concern for forest management, which requires information at an appropriately fine spatial resolution. Here we provide a framework and application for tree species vulnerability to climate change in the eastern US that accounts for influential drivers of future distributions...
December 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
Laura Russo
Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks...
November 28, 2016: Insects
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