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Climate change plant distribution

Paula I Marcora, Paula A Tecco, Sebastián R Zeballos, Isabell Hensen
Steep climatic gradients boost morphological and physiological adjustments in plants, with consequences on performance. The three principal woody species of the Sierras Grandes Mountains of central Argentina have marked differences in sapling performance along their altitudinal distribution. We hypothesize that the steep gradient of climatic conditions across the species' altitudinal distribution promotes trait differences between populations of different altitudes that are inherited by the following generation...
October 7, 2016: Plant Biology
Maria Pia Gatto, Renato Cabella, Monica Gherardi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. METHODS: The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. RESULTS: Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Angelica Marsberg, Martin Kemler, Fahimeh Jami, Jan H Nagel, Alisa Postma-Smidt, Sanushka Naidoo, Michael J Wingfield, Pedro W Crous, Joseph Spatafora, Cedar N Hesse, Barbara Robbertse, Bernard Slippers
: Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesises the current understanding of B...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jake M Alexander, Jeffrey M Diez, Simon P Hart, Jonathan M Levine
Climate change will likely reshuffle ecological communities, causing novel species interactions that could profoundly influence how populations and communities respond to changing conditions. Nonetheless, predicting the impacts of novel interactions is challenging, partly because many methods of inference are contingent on the current configuration of climatic variables and species distributions. Focusing on competition, we argue that experiments designed to quantify novel interactions in ways that can inform species distribution models are urgently needed, and suggest an empirical agenda to pursue this goal, illustrated using plants...
September 15, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Jonathan P Evans, Ashley B Morris
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Sprouting in woody plant species allows for the long-term persistence of small, isolated populations experiencing changing environments and can preserve genetic diversity in these populations despite the infrequent recruitment of sexually produced individuals. We examined demographic data collected over a 10-yr period for Tilia americana var. caroliniana populations in the context of genetic structure as an empirical case study of this concept. METHODS: Two back-barrier islands on the Georgia coast of the United States were completely censused for Tilia americana var...
September 2016: American Journal of Botany
Robin Aguilée, Gaël Raoul, François Rousset, Ophélie Ronce
Species may survive climate change by migrating to track favorable climates and/or adapting to different climates. Several quantitative genetics models predict that species escaping extinction will change their geographical distribution while keeping the same ecological niche. We introduce pollen dispersal in these models, which affects gene flow but not directly colonization. We show that plant populations may escape extinction because of both spatial range and ecological niche shifts. Exact analytical formulas predict that increasing pollen dispersal distance slows the expected spatial range shift and accelerates the ecological niche shift...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jinbo Xiong, Shangling Xiong, Peng Qian, Demin Zhang, Lian Liu, Yuejun Fei
Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant...
December 2016: AMB Express
Sara E Kuebbing, Martin A Nuñez
Human activity is creating a global footprint by changing the climate, altering habitats and reshuffling the distribution of species. The movement of species around the globe has led to the naturalization and accumulation of multiple non-native species within ecosystems, which is frequently associated with habitat disturbance and changing environmental conditions. However, interactions among species will also influence community composition, but little is known about the full range of direct and indirect interactions among native and non-native species...
2016: Nature Plants
Tristan Charles-Dominique, T Jonathan Davies, Gareth P Hempson, Bezeng S Bezeng, Barnabas H Daru, Ronny M Kabongo, Olivier Maurin, A Muthama Muasya, Michelle van der Bank, William J Bond
Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guixiang Li, Guorui Xu, Congcong Shen, Yong Tang, Yuxin Zhang, Keming Ma
Above- and below-ground organisms are closely linked, but how elevational distribution pattern of soil microbes shifting across the treeline still remains unknown. Sampling of 140 plots with transect, we herein investigated soil bacterial distribution pattern from a temperate forest up to a subalpine meadow along an elevational gradient using Illumina sequencing. Our results revealed distinct elevational patterns of bacterial diversity above and below the treeline in responding to changes in soil conditions: a hollow elevational pattern in the forest (correlated with soil temperature, pH, and C:N ratio) and a significantly decreasing pattern in the meadow (correlated with soil pH, and available phosphorus)...
September 5, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Treena I Burgess, John K Scott, Keith L Mcdougall, Michael J C Stukely, Colin Crane, William A Dunstan, Frances Brigg, Vera Andjic, Diane White, Tim Rudman, Frans Arentz, Noboru Ota, Giles E St J Hardy
Globally, Phytophthora cinnamomi is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species and active management is required to reduce impact and prevent spread in both horticulture and natural ecosystems. Conversely, there are regions thought to be suitable for the pathogen where no disease is observed. We developed a climex model for the global distribution of P. cinnamomi based on the pathogen's response to temperature and moisture and by incorporating extensive empirical evidence on the presence and absence of the pathogen...
September 6, 2016: Global Change Biology
Vásquez-Cruz Marilyn, Sosa Victoria
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We reconstructed aspects of the evolutionary history of Lindleya, a shrubby element in the rose family, as a model for identifying the ancestral area of the biota of the Chihuahuan Desert and for understanding the effect that pre-Pleistocene or Pleistocene climate fluctuations had on the evolution of the plants of this desert. METHODS: We conducted phylogenetic, biogeographic, and phylogeographic analyses based on one nuclear DNA and two plastid markers sequenced for 20 populations comprising 153 accessions and representing the species' entire distribution range...
September 2016: American Journal of Botany
Miodrag Stevanović, Alexander Popp, Hermann Lotze-Campen, Jan Philipp Dietrich, Christoph Müller, Markus Bonsch, Christoph Schmitz, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Florian Humpenöder, Isabelle Weindl
Climate change threatens agricultural productivity worldwide, resulting in higher food prices. Associated economic gains and losses differ not only by region but also between producers and consumers and are affected by market dynamics. On the basis of an impact modeling chain, starting with 19 different climate projections that drive plant biophysical process simulations and ending with agro-economic decisions, this analysis focuses on distributional effects of high-end climate change impacts across geographic regions and across economic agents...
August 2016: Science Advances
Chi-Chun Huang, Tsai-Wen Hsu, Hao-Ven Wang, Zin-Huang Liu, Yi-Yen Chen, Chi-Te Chiu, Chao-Li Huang, Kuo-Hsiang Hung, Tzen-Yuh Chiang
Postglacial climate changes alter geographical distributions and diversity of species. Such ongoing changes often force species to migrate along the latitude/altitude. Altitudinal gradients represent assemblage of environmental, especially climatic, variable factors that influence the plant distributions. Global warming that triggered upward migrations has therefore impacted the alpine plants on an island. In this study, we examined the genetic structure of Juniperus morrisonicola, a dominant alpine species in Taiwan, and inferred historical, demographic dynamics based on multilocus analyses...
2016: PloS One
Haleh Khodaverdi, Trevor Fowles, Emily Bick, Christian Nansen
Increases in severity and frequency of drought periods, average global temperatures, and more erratic fluctuations in rainfall patterns due to climate change are predicted to have a dramatic impact on agricultural production systems. Insect pest populations in agricultural and horticultural systems are also expected to be impacted, both in terms of their spatial and temporal distributions and in their status as pest species. In this opinion-based article, we discuss how indirect effects of drought may adversely affect the performance of systemic insecticides and also lead to increased risk of insect pests developing behavioral insecticide resistance...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Luis E Escobar, Meggan E Craft
Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angelo Rita, Marco Borghetti, Luigi Todaro, Antonio Saracino
In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern, and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival, and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Glenn R Moncrieff, Simon Scheiter, Liam Langan, Antonio Trabucco, Steven I Higgins
The extent of the savannah biome is expected to be profoundly altered by climatic change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Contrasting projections are given when using different modelling approaches to estimate future distributions. Furthermore, biogeographic variation within savannahs in plant function and structure is expected to lead to divergent responses to global change. Hence the use of a single model with a single savannah tree type will likely lead to biased projections. Here we compare and contrast projections of South American, African and Australian savannah distributions from the physiologically based Thornley transport resistance statistical distribution model (TTR-SDM)-and three versions of a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) designed and parametrized separately for specific continents...
September 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Karl von Koerber, Nadine Bader, Claus Leitzmann
'Wholesome Nutrition' is a concept of sustainable nutrition that was developed at the University of Giessen in the 1980s. In this concept, health and the ecologic, economic, social and cultural dimensions of nutrition are equally important. In 1992 at the UN-Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro the definition of 'Sustainable Development' comprised the dimensions environment, economy and society. Additionally to these three 'classical' dimensions of sustainability, we included 'health' as the fourth dimension because nutrition has far reaching effects on human health...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Helena Tukiainen, Joseph J Bailey, Richard Field, Katja Kangas, Jan Hjort
Improved understanding of threatened species diversity is important for long-term conservation planning and natural area management, especially under ongoing global change. Geodiversity - the diversity of earth surface materials, forms and processes - may be a useful biodiversity surrogate for conservation planning, as well as having conservation value itself. Links between geodiversity and species richness have been demonstrated; establishing whether geodiversity also relates to threatened species' diversity and distribution patterns is a logical next step for conservation biology...
August 1, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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