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Climate change plant distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318131/hydrologic-refugia-plants-and-climate-change
#1
REVIEW
Blair C McLaughlin, David D Ackerly, P Zion Klos, Jennifer Natali, Todd E Dawson, Sally E Thompson
Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317232/soil-parent-material-a-major-driver-of-plant-nutrient-limitations-in-terrestrial-ecosystems
#2
Laurent Augusto, David L Achat, Mathieu Jonard, David Vidal, Bruno Ringeval
Because the capability of terrestrial ecosystems to fix carbon is constrained by nutrient availability, understanding how nutrients limit plant growth is a key contemporary question. However, what drives nutrient limitations at global scale remains to be clarified. Using global data on plant growth, plant nutritive status, and soil fertility, we investigated to which extent soil parent materials explain nutrient limitations. We found that N limitation was not linked to soil parent materials, but was best explained by climate: ecosystems under harsh (i...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303196/can-community-structure-track-sea-level-rise-stress-and-competitive-controls-in-tidal-wetlands
#3
Lisa M Schile, John C Callaway, Katharine N Suding, N Maggi Kelly
Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303148/differentiating-wheat-genotypes-by-bayesian-hierarchical-nonlinear-mixed-modeling-of-wheat-root-density
#4
Anton P Wasson, Grace S Chiu, Alexander B Zwart, Timothy R Binns
Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301564/temperature-dependent-phenology-of-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-simulation-and-visualization-of-current-and-future-distributions-along-the-eastern-afromontane
#5
Benignus V Ngowi, Henri E Z Tonnang, Evans M Mwangi, Tino Johansson, Janet Ambale, Paul N Ndegwa, Sevgan Subramanian
There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301488/species-free-species-distribution-models-describe-macroecological-properties-of-protected-area-networks
#6
Jason L Robinson, James A Fordyce
Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289231/flowering-phenology-shifts-in-response-to-biodiversity-loss
#7
Amelia A Wolf, Erika S Zavaleta, Paul C Selmants
Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology-the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264718/exploring-the-floristic-diversity-of-tropical-africa
#8
Marc S M Sosef, Gilles Dauby, Anne Blach-Overgaard, Xander van der Burgt, Luís Catarino, Theo Damen, Vincent Deblauwe, Steven Dessein, John Dransfield, Vincent Droissart, Maria Cristina Duarte, Henry Engledow, Geoffrey Fadeur, Rui Figueira, Roy E Gereau, Olivier J Hardy, David J Harris, Janneke de Heij, Steven Janssens, Yannick Klomberg, Alexandra C Ley, Barbara A Mackinder, Pierre Meerts, Jeike L van de Poel, Bonaventure Sonké, Tariq Stévart, Piet Stoffelen, Jens-Christian Svenning, Pierre Sepulchre, Rainer Zaiss, Jan J Wieringa, Thomas L P Couvreur
BACKGROUND: Understanding the patterns of biodiversity distribution and what influences them is a fundamental pre-requisite for effective conservation and sustainable utilisation of biodiversity. Such knowledge is increasingly urgent as biodiversity responds to the ongoing effects of global climate change. Nowhere is this more acute than in species-rich tropical Africa, where so little is known about plant diversity and its distribution. In this paper, we use RAINBIO - one of the largest mega-databases of tropical African vascular plant species distributions ever compiled - to address questions about plant and growth form diversity across tropical Africa...
March 7, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241403/non-additive-effects-of-simulated-heat-waves-and-predators-on-prey-phenotype-and-transgenerational-phenotypic-plasticity
#9
Arnaud Sentis, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Jacques Brodeur
Understanding the effects of extreme climatic events on species and their interactions is of paramount importance for predicting and mitigating the impacts of climate change on communities and ecosystems. However, the joint effects of extreme climatic events and species interactions on the behaviour and phenotype of organisms remain poorly understood, leaving a substantial gap in our knowledge on the impacts of climatic change on ecological communities. Using an aphid-ladybeetle system, we experimentally investigated the effects of predators and heat shocks on prey body size, microhabitat use, and transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (i...
February 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230069/consistent-role-of-quaternary-climate-change-in-shaping-current-plant-functional-diversity-patterns-across-european-plant-orders
#10
Alejandro Ordonez, Jens-Christian Svenning
Current and historical environmental conditions are known to determine jointly contemporary species distributions and richness patterns. However, whether historical dynamics in species distributions and richness translate to functional diversity patterns remains, for the most part, unknown. The geographic patterns of plant functional space size (richness) and packing (dispersion) for six widely distributed orders of European angiosperms were estimated using atlas distribution data and trait information. Then the relative importance of late-Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change and contemporary environmental factors (climate, productivity, and topography) as determinants of functional diversity of evaluated orders was assesed...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220255/phenological-patterns-of-flowering-across-biogeographical-regions-of-europe
#11
Barbara Templ, Matthias Templ, Peter Filzmoser, Annamária Lehoczky, Eugenija Bakšienè, Stefan Fleck, Hilppa Gregow, Sabina Hodzic, Gunta Kalvane, Eero Kubin, Vello Palm, Danuta Romanovskaja, Višnja Vucˇetic, Ana Žust, Bálint Czúcz
Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211151/phenotypic-distribution-models-corroborate-species-distribution-models-a-shift-in-the-role-and-prevalence-of-a-dominant-prairie-grass-in-response-to-climate-change
#12
Adam B Smith, Jacob Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Sara G Baer, Loretta C Johnson
Phenotypic variation within species can vary widely across environmental gradients but forecasts of species' responses to environmental change often assume species respond homogenously across their ranges. We compared predictions from species and phenotype distribution models under future climate scenarios for Andropogon gerardii, a widely distributed, dominant grass found throughout the central United States. Phenotype data on aboveground biomass, height, leaf width, and chlorophyll content were obtained from 33 populations spanning a ~1000-km gradient that encompassed the majority of the species' environmental range...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#13
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
February 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161152/biogeographical-patterns-of-myrcia-s-l-myrtaceae-and-their-correlation-with-geological-and-climatic-history-in-the-neotropics
#14
Matheus Fortes Santos, Eve Lucas, Paulo Takeo Sano, Sven Buerki, Vanessa Graziele Staggemeier, Félix Forest
Many recent studies discuss the influence of climatic and geological events in the evolution of Neotropical biota by correlating these events with dated phylogenetic hypotheses. Myrtaceae is one of the most diverse Neotropical groups and it therefore a good proxy of plant diversity in the region. However, biogeographic studies on Neotropical Myrtaceae are still very limited. Myrcia s.l. is an informal group comprising three accepted genera (Calyptranthes, Marlierea and Myrcia) making up the second largest Neotropical group of Myrtaceae, totalling about 700 species distributed in nine subgroups...
March 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152098/genome-wide-association-analysis-for-heat-tolerance-at-flowering-detected-a-large-set-of-genes-involved-in-adaptation-to-thermal-and-other-stresses
#15
Tanguy Lafarge, Crisanta Bueno, Julien Frouin, Laval Jacquin, Brigitte Courtois, Nourollah Ahmadi
Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST) under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137319/biological-and-ecological-evidences-suggest-stipa-krylovii-pooideae-contributes-to-optimal-growth-performance-and-population-distribution-of-the-grasshopper-oedaleus-asiaticus
#16
X B Huang, M R McNeill, J C Ma, X H Qin, X B Tu, G C Cao, G J Wang, X Q Nong, Z H Zhang
Oedaleus asiaticus Bey. Bienko is a significant grasshopper pest species occurring in north Asian grasslands. Outbreaks often result in significant loss in grasses and economic losses. Interestingly, we found this grasshopper was mainly restricted to Stipa-dominated grassland. We suspected this may be related to the dominant grasses species, Stipa krylovii Roshev, and hypothesized that S. krylovii contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of O. asiaticus. A 4 year investigation showed that O...
January 31, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135022/structural-overshoot-of-tree-growth-with-climate-variability-and-the-global-spectrum-of-drought-induced-forest-dieback
#17
Alistair S Jump, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Sarah Greenwood, Craig D Allen, Thomas Kitzberger, Rod Fensham, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret
Ongoing climate change poses significant threats to plant function and distribution. Increased temperatures and altered precipitation regimes amplify drought frequency and intensity, elevating plant stress and mortality. Large-scale forest mortality events will have far-reaching impacts on carbon and hydrological cycling, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. However, biogeographical theory and global vegetation models poorly represent recent forest die-off patterns. Furthermore, since trees are sessile and long-lived, their responses to climate extremes are substantially dependent on historical factors...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125286/plant-biodiversity-change-across-scales-during-the-anthropocene
#18
Mark Vellend, Lander Baeten, Antoine Becker-Scarpitta, Véronique Boucher-Lalonde, Jenny L McCune, Julie Messier, Isla H Myers-Smith, Dov F Sax
Plant communities have undergone dramatic changes in recent centuries, although not all such changes fit with the dominant biodiversity-crisis narrative used to describe them. At the global scale, future declines in plant species diversity are highly likely given habitat conversion in the tropics, although few extinctions have been documented for the Anthropocene to date (<0.1%). Nonnative species introductions have greatly increased plant species richness in many regions of the world at the same time that they have led to the creation of new hybrid polyploid species by bringing previously isolated congeners into close contact...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123112/how-the-aridification-of-australia-structured-the-biogeography-and-influenced-the-diversification-of-a-large-lineage-of-australian-cicadas
#19
Christopher L Owen, David C Marshall, Kathy B R Hill, Chris Simon
Over the last 30 million years, Australia's landscape has undergone dramatic cooling and drying due to the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and change in global CO[Formula: see text] levels. Studies have shown that many Australian organisms went extinct during these major cooling events, while others experienced adaptive radiations and increases in diversification rates as a result of exploiting new niches in the arid zone. Despite the many studies on diversification and biogeography in Australia, few have been continent-wide and none have focused on a group of organisms adapted to feeding on plants...
January 25, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117440/elevation-alters-ecosystem-properties-across-temperate-treelines-globally
#20
Jordan R Mayor, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen, Richard D Bardgett, Jean-Christophe Clément, Alex Fajardo, Sandra Lavorel, Maja K Sundqvist, Michael Bahn, Chelsea Chisholm, Ellen Cieraad, Ze'ev Gedalof, Karl Grigulis, Gaku Kudo, Daniel L Oberski, David A Wardle
Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra...
January 25, 2017: Nature
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