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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466479/tree-community-variation-in-a-tropical-continental-island-according-to-slope-aspect-and-human-interference
#1
Nathan B Gonçalves, Felipe C Nettesheim, Marilena M S Conde
Associating description of unrecorded tropical tree community structure to sampling approaches that can help determine mechanisms behind floristic variation is important to further the comprehension of how plant species coexist at tropical forests. Thus, this study had the goals of (i) evaluating tree community structure on the continental island of Marambaia (23°4'37.09"S; 43°59'2.15"W) and (ii) testing the prediction that there are local scale changes in a tropical tree community structure between slopes facing different geographic orientation and with distinct human interference history...
February 19, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460277/plant-responses-to-fertilization-experiments-in-lowland-species-rich-tropical-forests
#2
S Joseph Wright, Benjamin L Turner, Joseph B Yavitt, Kyle E Harms, Michael Kaspari, Edmund V J Tanner, Jelena Bujan, Eric A Griffin, Jordan R Mayor, Sarah C Pasquini, Merlin Sheldrake, Milton N Garcia
We present a meta-analysis of plant responses to fertilization experiments conducted in lowland, species-rich, tropical forests. We also update a key result and present the first species-level analyses of tree growth rates for a 15-year factorial nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) experiment conducted in central Panama. The update concerns community-level tree growth rates, which responded significantly to the addition of N and K together after 10 years of fertilization (Wright et al. 2011) but not after 15 years (this study)...
February 20, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451871/environmental-heterogeneity-blurs-the-signature-of-dispersal-syndromes-on-spatial-patterns-of-woody-species-in-a-moist-tropical-forest
#3
Pablo Ramón, Eduardo Velázquez, Adrián Escudero, Marcelino de la Cruz
We assessed the relative importance of dispersal limitation, environmental heterogeneity and their joint effects as determinants of the spatial patterns of 229 species in the moist tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island (Panama). We differentiated five types of species according to their dispersal syndrome; autochorous, anemochorous, and zoochorous species with small, medium-size and large fruits. We characterized the spatial patterns of each species and we checked whether they were best fitted by Inhomogeneous Poisson (IPP), Homogeneous Poisson cluster (HPCP) and Inhomogeneous Poisson cluster processes (IPCP) by means of the Akaike Information Criterion...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428967/consequences-of-interspecific-variation-in-defenses-and-herbivore-host-choice-for-the-ecology-and-evolution-of-inga-a-speciose-rainforest-tree
#4
REVIEW
Phyllis D Coley, María-José Endara, Thomas A Kursar
We summarize work on a speciose Neotropical tree genus, Inga (Fabaceae), examining how interspecific variation in anti-herbivore defenses may have evolved, how defenses shape host choice by herbivores and how they might regulate community composition and influence species radiations. Defenses of expanding leaves include secondary metabolites, extrafloral nectaries, rapid leaf expansion, trichomes, and synchrony and timing of leaf production. These six classes of defenses are orthogonal, supporting independent evolutionary trajectories...
February 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#5
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321479/contrasting-patterns-of-leaf-trait-variation-among-and-within-species-during-tropical-dry-forest-succession-in-costa-rica
#6
Géraldine Derroire, Jennifer S Powers, Catherine M Hulshof, Luis E Cárdenas Varela, John R Healey
A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to environmental changes along a successional gradient...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299260/individual-size-variation-reduces-spatial-variation-in-abundance-of-tree-community-assemblage-not-of-tree-populations
#7
Hua-Feng Wang, Meng Xu
Research on individual trait variation has gained much attention because of its implication for ecosystem functions and community ecology. The effect of individual variation on population and community abundance (number of individuals) variation remains scarcely tested. Using two established ecological scaling laws (Taylor's law and abundance-size relationship), we derived a new scaling relationship between the individual size variation and spatial variation of abundance. Tested against multi-plot tree data from Diaoluo Mountain tropical forest in Hainan, China, the new scaling relationship showed that individual size variation reduced the spatial variation of community assemblage abundance, but not of taxon-specific population abundance...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237862/abiotic-niche-partitioning-and-negative-density-dependence-drive-tree-seedling-survival-in-a-tropical-forest
#8
Daniel J Johnson, Richard Condit, Stephen P Hubbell, Liza S Comita
In tropical tree communities, processes occurring during early life stages play a critical role in shaping forest composition and diversity through differences in species' performance. Predicting the future of tropical forests depends on a solid understanding of the drivers of seedling survival. At the same time, factors determining spatial and temporal patterns of seedling survival can play a large role in permitting species coexistence in diverse communities. Using long-term data on the survival of more than 45 000 seedlings of 238 species in a Neotropical forest, we assessed the relative importance of key abiotic and biotic neighbourhood variables thought to influence individual seedling survival and tested whether species vary significantly in their responses to these variables, consistent with niche differences...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236703/rural-protein-insufficiency-in-a-wildlife-depleted-west-african-farm-forest-landscape
#9
Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen, Guy Cowlishaw, Katherine Homewood, J Marcus Rowcliffe
INTRODUCTION: Wildlife is an important source of protein for many people in developing countries. Yet wildlife depletion due to overexploitation is common throughout the humid tropics and its effect on protein security, especially for vulnerable households, is poorly understood. This is problematic for both sustainable rural development and conservation management. METHODS: This study investigates a key dimension of protein security in a cash-crop farming community living in a wildlife-depleted farm-forest landscape in SW Ghana, a region where protein-energy malnutrition persists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228017/two-decades-of-climate-driving-the-dynamics-of-functional-and-taxonomic-diversity-of-a-tropical-small-mammal-community-in-western-mexico
#10
Edgard David Mason-Romo, Ariel A Farías, Gerardo Ceballos
Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196341/vapor-pressure-deficit-predicts-epiphyte-abundance-across-an-elevational-gradient-in-a-tropical-montane-region
#11
Sybil G Gotsch, Kenneth Davidson, Jessica G Murray, Vanessa J Duarte, Danel Draguljić
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are important ecosystems to study and preserve because of their high biodiversity and critical roles in local and regional ecosystem processes. TMCFs may be particularly affected by changes in climate because of the narrow bands of microclimate they occupy and the vulnerability of TMCF species to projected increases in cloud base heights and drought. A comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of TMCFs is lacking and difficult to attain because of variation in topography within and across TMCF sites...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184976/distinctive-soil-archaeal-communities-in-different-variants-of-tropical-equatorial-forest
#12
Dorsaf Kerfahi, Binu M Tripathi, J W Ferry Slik, Rahayu S Sukri, Salwana Jaafar, Jonathan M Adams
Little is known of how soil archaeal community composition and diversity differ between local variants of tropical rainforests. We hypothesized that (1) as with plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria, the soil archaeal community would differ between different variants of tropical forest; (2) that spatially rarer forest variants would have a less diverse archaeal community than common ones; (3) that a history of forest disturbance would decrease archaeal alpha- and beta-diversity; and (4) that archaeal distributions within the forest would be governed more by deterministic than stochastic factors...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163572/root-and-rhizosphere-bacterial-phosphatase-activity-varies-with-tree-species-and-soil-phosphorus-availability-in-puerto-rico-tropical-forest
#13
Kristine G Cabugao, Collin M Timm, Alyssa A Carrell, Joanne Childs, Tse-Yuan S Lu, Dale A Pelletier, David J Weston, Richard J Norby
Tropical forests generally occur on highly weathered soils that, in combination with the immobility of phosphorus (P), often result in soils lacking orthophosphate, the form of P most easily metabolized by plants and microbes. In these soils, mineralization of organic P can be the major source for orthophosphate. Both plants and microbes encode for phosphatases capable of mineralizing a range of organic P compounds. However, the activity of these enzymes depends on several edaphic factors including P availability, tree species, and microbial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127217/adding-landscape-genetics-and-individual-traits-to-the-ecosystem-function-paradigm-reveals-the-importance-of-species-functional-breadth
#14
Antonio R Castilla, Nathaniel S Pope, Megan O'Connell, María F Rodriguez, Laurel Treviño, Alonso Santos, Shalene Jha
Animal pollination mediates both reproduction and gene flow for the majority of plant species across the globe. However, past functional studies have focused largely on seed production; although useful, this focus on seed set does not provide information regarding species-specific contributions to pollen-mediated gene flow. Here we quantify pollen dispersal for individual pollinator species across more than 690 ha of tropical forest. Specifically, we examine visitation, seed production, and pollen-dispersal ability for the entire pollinator community of a common tropical tree using a series of individual-based pollinator-exclusion experiments followed by molecular-based fractional paternity analyses...
November 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118136/variably-hungry-caterpillars-predictive-models-and-foliar-chemistry-suggest-how-to-eat-a-rainforest
#15
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M Redmond, Margaret E Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E Miller, George D Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of host plant use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here, we used standardized food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in a species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions for two hectares of an exhaustively sampled forest...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084355/variation-in-the-resilience-of-cloud-forest-vascular-epiphytes-to-severe-drought
#16
Sybil G Gotsch, Todd E Dawson, Danel Draguljić
Epiphytes are common in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) and play many important ecological roles, but the degree to which these unique plants will be affected by changes in climate is unknown. We investigated the drought responses of three vascular epiphyte communities bracketing the cloud base during a severe, El Niño-impacted dry season. Epiphytes were instrumented with sap flow probes in each site. Leaf water potential and pressure-volume curve parameters were also measured before and during the drought...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075461/ants-as-ecological-indicators-of-rainforest-restoration-community-convergence-and-the-development-of-an-ant-forest-indicator-index-in-the-australian-wet-tropics
#17
Michael J Lawes, Anthony M Moore, Alan N Andersen, Noel D Preece, Donald C Franklin
Ecosystem restoration can help reverse biodiversity loss, but whether faunal communities of forests undergoing restoration converge with those of primary forest over time remains contentious. There is a need to develop faunal indicators of restoration success that more comprehensively reflect changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Ants are an ecologically dominant faunal group and are widely advocated as ecological indicators. We examine ant species and functional group responses on a chronosequence of rainforest restoration in northern Australia, and develop a novel method for selecting and using indicator species...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049301/plant-dna-barcodes-and-assessment-of-phylogenetic-community-structure-of-a-tropical-mixed-dipterocarp-forest-in-brunei-darussalam-borneo
#18
Jacqueline Heckenhauer, Kamariah Abu Salim, Mark W Chase, Kyle G Dexter, R Toby Pennington, Sylvester Tan, Maria Ellen Kaye, Rosabelle Samuel
DNA barcoding is a fast and reliable tool to assess and monitor biodiversity and, via community phylogenetics, to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes that may be responsible for the community structure of forests. In this study, DNA barcodes for the two widely used plastid coding regions rbcL and matK are used to contribute to identification of morphologically undetermined individuals, as well as to investigate phylogenetic structure of tree communities in 70 subplots (10 × 10m) of a 25-ha forest-dynamics plot in Brunei (Borneo, Southeast Asia)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#19
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973927/soilborne-fungi-have-host-affinity-and-host-specific-effects-on-seed-germination-and-survival-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#20
Carolina Sarmiento, Paul-Camilo Zalamea, James W Dalling, Adam S Davis, Simon M Stump, Jana M U'Ren, A Elizabeth Arnold
The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for explaining the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Its central tenet-that recruits experience high mortality near conspecifics and at high densities-assumes a degree of host specialization in interactions between plants and natural enemies. Studies confirming JC effects have focused primarily on spatial distributions of seedlings and saplings, leaving major knowledge gaps regarding the fate of seeds in soil and the specificity of the soilborne fungi that are their most important antagonists...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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