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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644027/facilitation-influences-patterns-of-perennial-species-abundance-and-richness-in-a-subtropical-dune-system
#1
Cecilia E S Dalotto, Rafael B Sühs, Michele S Dechoum, Francisco I Pugnaire, Nivaldo Peroni, Tânia T Castellani
Positive interactions in plant communities are under-reported in subtropical systems most likely because they are not identified as stressful environments. However, environmental factors or disturbance can limit plant growth in any system and lead to stressful conditions. For instance, salinity and low nutrient and water availability generate a gradient of stressful conditions in coastal systems depending on distance to shore. In a tropical coastal system in SE Brazil, we aimed to assess whether Guapira opposita , a shrub common in restinga environments, acted as nurse involved in ecological succession and which factors influenced its facilitation process...
April 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624669/effects-of-hurricanes-and-climate-oscillations-on-annual-variation-in-reproduction-in-wet-forest-puerto-rico
#2
Jess K Zimmerman, J Aaron Hogan, Christopher J Nytch, John E Bithorn
Interannual changes in global climate and weather disturbances may influence reproduction in tropical forests. Phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are known to produce interannual variation in reproduction, as do severe storms such as hurricanes. Using stationary trap-based phenology data collected fortnightly from 1993 to 2014 from a hurricane-affected (1989 Hugo, 1998 Georges) subtropical wet forest in northeastern Puerto Rico, we conducted a time series analysis of flowering and seed production...
April 6, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610984/fruit-traits-and-temporal-abundance-shape-plant-frugivore-interaction-networks-in-a-seasonal-tropical-forest
#3
Michelle Ramos-Robles, Wesley Dáttilo, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo, Ellen Andresen
Interactions between fleshy fruited plants and frugivores are crucial for the structuring and functioning of biotic communities, particularly in tropical forests where both groups are diverse and play different roles in network organization. However, it remains poorly understood how different groups of frugivore species and fruit traits contribute to network structure. We recorded interactions among 28 plant species and three groups of frugivores (birds, bats, and non-flying mammals) in a seasonal forest in Mexico to determine which species contribute more to network structure and evaluate the importance of each species...
April 2, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603256/rare-genotype-advantage-promotes-survival-and-genetic-diversity-of-a-tropical-palm
#4
Luke Browne, Jordan Karubian
Negative density dependence, where survival decreases as density increases, is a well-established driver of species diversity at the community level, but the degree to which a similar process might act on the density or frequency of genotypes within a single plant species to maintain genetic diversity has not been well studied in natural systems. In this study, we determined the maternal genotype of naturally dispersed seeds of the palm Oenocarpus bataua within a tropical forest in northwest Ecuador, tracked the recruitment of each seed, and assessed the role of individual-level genotypic rarity on survival...
March 30, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566709/cultural-significance-of-the-flora-of-a-tropical-dry-forest-in-the-doche-vereda-villavieja-huila-colombia
#5
Jeison Herley Rosero-Toro, Luz Piedad Romero-Duque, Dídac Santos-Fita, Felipe Ruan-Soto
BACKGROUND: In Colombia, ethnobotanical studies regarding plant cultural significance (CS) in tropical dry forests are scarce and mainly focused on the Caribbean region. Different authors have indicated that the plants with the most uses are those of greater cultural importance. Additionally, gender differences in knowledge and interest in natural resources has been widely recorded. This study evaluated the cultural significance of plants in the Doche community, in the Department of Huila...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561869/quantity-and-quality-of-seed-dispersal-by-a-large-arboreal-frugivore-in-small-and-large-atlantic-forest-fragments
#6
Óscar M Chaves, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Colin A Chapman
Seed dispersal is a key process driving the structure, composition, and regeneration of tropical forests. Larger frugivores play a crucial role in community structuring by dispersing large seeds not dispersed by smaller frugivores. We assessed the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) provide seed dispersal services for a wide assemblage of plant species in both small and large Atlantic forest fragments. Although fruit availability often decreases in small fragments compared with large ones, we predicted that brown howlers are efficient seed dispersers in quantitative and qualitative terms in both forest types given their high dietary flexibility...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531240/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-soil-bacterial-communities-as-a-function-of-amazon-forest-phenology
#7
Erika Buscardo, József Geml, Steven K Schmidt, Helena Freitas, Hillândia Brandão da Cunha, Laszlo Nagy
Most tropical evergreen rain forests are characterised by varying degrees of precipitation seasonality that influence plant phenology and litterfall dynamics. Soil microbes are sensitive to soil water:air ratio and to nutrient availability. We studied if within-year seasonality in precipitation and litterfall-derived nutrient input resulted in predictable seasonal variation in soil bacterial diversity/microbial functional groups in an Amazonian forest. We characterised the spatio-temporal dynamics of microbial communities from the plot to the stand scales and related them to precipitation seasonality and spatial variability in soil characteristics...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529431/increased-anthropogenic-disturbance-and-aridity-reduce-phylogenetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ant-communities-in-caatinga-dry-forest
#8
Xavier Arnan, Gabriela B Arcoverde, Marcio R Pie, José D Ribeiro-Neto, Inara R Leal
Anthropogenic disturbance and climate change are major threats to biodiversity. The Brazilian Caatinga is the world's largest and most diverse type of seasonally dry tropical forest. It is also one of the most threatened, but remains poorly studied. Here, we analyzed the individual and combined effects of anthropogenic disturbance (three types: livestock grazing, wood extraction, and miscellaneous use of forest resources) and increasing aridity on taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional ant diversity in the Caatinga...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518596/traditional-and-formal-ecological-knowledge-to-assess-harvesting-and-conservation-of-a-mexican-tropical-dry-forest
#9
Columba Monroy-Ortiz, Edmundo García-Moya, Angélica Romero-Manzanares, Mario Luna-Cavazos, Rafael Monroy
This research integrates Traditional and Formal Ecological Knowledge (TEK / FEK) of a Tropical Dry Forest in central Mexico, in order to assess harvesting and conservation of the non-timber forest species. We were interested in: knowing the structure and diversity of the forest community; identifying which are the tree resources of common interest to the users through participatory workshops. A further interest was to identify those resources which are important to local people in terms of preservation; explaining the relationship of the species with some environmental factors; and visualizing which management practices endanger or facilitate the conservation of species...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515609/long-term-vegetation-dynamics-in-a-megadiverse-hotspot-the-ice-age-record-of-a-pre-montane-forest-of-central-ecuador
#10
Encarni Montoya, Hayley F Keen, Carmen X Luzuriaga, William D Gosling
Tropical ecosystems play a key role in many aspects of Earth system dynamics currently of global concern, including carbon sequestration and biodiversity. To accurately understand complex tropical systems it is necessary to parameterise key ecological aspects, such as rates of change (RoC), species turnover, dynamism, resilience, or stability. To obtain a long-term (>50 years) perspective on these ecological aspects we must turn to the fossil record. However, compared to temperate zones, collecting continuous sedimentary archives in the lowland tropics is often difficult due to the active landscape processes, with potentially frequent volcanic, tectonic, and/or fluvial events confounding sediment deposition, preservation, and recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513673/genomic-diversity-is-similar-between-atlantic-forest-restorations-and-natural-remnants-for-the-native-tree-casearia-sylvestris-sw
#11
João Paulo Gomes Viana, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro Siqueira, Fabiano Lucas Araujo, Carolina Grando, Patricia Sanae Sujii, Ellida de Aguiar Silvestre, Mariana Novello, José Baldin Pinheiro, Marcelo Mattos Cavallari, Pedro H S Brancalion, Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Anete Pereira de Souza, Julian Catchen, Maria I Zucchi
The primary focus of tropical forest restoration has been the recovery of forest structure and tree taxonomic diversity, with limited attention given to genetic conservation. Populations reintroduced through restoration plantings may have low genetic diversity and be genetically structured due to founder effects and genetic drift, which limit the potential of restoration to recover ecologically resilient plant communities. Here, we studied the genetic diversity, genetic structure and differentiation using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers between restored and natural populations of the native tree Casearia sylvestris in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513656/pervasive-phosphorus-limitation-of-tree-species-but-not-communities-in-tropical-forests
#12
Benjamin L Turner, Tania Brenes-Arguedas, Richard Condit
Phosphorus availability is widely assumed to limit primary productivity in tropical forests, but support for this paradigm is equivocal. Although biogeochemical theory predicts that phosphorus limitation should be prevalent on old, strongly weathered soils, experimental manipulations have failed to detect a consistent response to phosphorus addition in species-rich lowland tropical forests. Here we show, by quantifying the growth of 541 tropical tree species across a steep natural phosphorus gradient in Panama, that phosphorus limitation is widespread at the level of individual species and strengthens markedly below a threshold of two parts per million exchangeable soil phosphate...
March 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491176/the-combined-impacts-of-experimental-defaunation-and-logging-on-seedling-traits-and-diversity
#13
Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Jedediah F Brodie
Animals can have both positive (e.g. via seed dispersal) and negative (e.g. via herbivory) impacts on plants. The net effects of these interactions remain difficult to predict and may be affected by overhunting and habitat disturbance, two widespread threats to tropical forests. Recent studies have documented their separate effects on plant recruitment but our understanding of how defaunation and logging interact to influence tropical tree communities is limited. From 2013 to 2016, we followed the fate of marked tree seedlings ( n = 1489) from 81 genera in and outside experimental plots...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466479/tree-community-variation-in-a-tropical-continental-island-according-to-slope-aspect-and-human-interference
#14
Nathan B Gonçalves, Felipe C Nettesheim, Marilena M S Conde
Associating description of unrecorded tropical tree community structure to sampling approaches that can help determine mechanisms behind floristic variation is important to further the comprehension of how plant species coexist at tropical forests. Thus, this study had the goals of (i) evaluating tree community structure on the continental island of Marambaia (23°4'37.09"S; 43°59'2.15"W) and (ii) testing the prediction that there are local scale changes in a tropical tree community structure between slopes facing different geographic orientation and with distinct human interference history...
February 19, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460277/plant-responses-to-fertilization-experiments-in-lowland-species-rich-tropical-forests
#15
S Joseph Wright, Benjamin L Turner, Joseph B Yavitt, Kyle E Harms, Michael Kaspari, Edmund V J Tanner, Jelena Bujan, Eric A Griffin, Jordan R Mayor, Sarah C Pasquini, Merlin Sheldrake, Milton N Garcia
We present a meta-analysis of plant responses to fertilization experiments conducted in lowland, species-rich, tropical forests. We also update a key result and present the first species-level analyses of tree growth rates for a 15-year factorial nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) experiment conducted in central Panama. The update concerns community-level tree growth rates, which responded significantly to the addition of N and K together after 10 years of fertilization (Wright et al. 2011) but not after 15 years (this study)...
February 20, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451871/environmental-heterogeneity-blurs-the-signature-of-dispersal-syndromes-on-spatial-patterns-of-woody-species-in-a-moist-tropical-forest
#16
Pablo Ramón, Eduardo Velázquez, Adrián Escudero, Marcelino de la Cruz
We assessed the relative importance of dispersal limitation, environmental heterogeneity and their joint effects as determinants of the spatial patterns of 229 species in the moist tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island (Panama). We differentiated five types of species according to their dispersal syndrome; autochorous, anemochorous, and zoochorous species with small, medium-size and large fruits. We characterized the spatial patterns of each species and we checked whether they were best fitted by Inhomogeneous Poisson (IPP), Homogeneous Poisson cluster (HPCP) and Inhomogeneous Poisson cluster processes (IPCP) by means of the Akaike Information Criterion...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428967/consequences-of-interspecific-variation-in-defenses-and-herbivore-host-choice-for-the-ecology-and-evolution-of-inga-a-speciose-rainforest-tree
#17
REVIEW
Phyllis D Coley, María-José Endara, Thomas A Kursar
We summarize work on a speciose Neotropical tree genus, Inga (Fabaceae), examining how interspecific variation in anti-herbivore defenses may have evolved, how defenses shape host choice by herbivores and how they might regulate community composition and influence species radiations. Defenses of expanding leaves include secondary metabolites, extrafloral nectaries, rapid leaf expansion, trichomes, and synchrony and timing of leaf production. These six classes of defenses are orthogonal, supporting independent evolutionary trajectories...
February 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#18
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321479/contrasting-patterns-of-leaf-trait-variation-among-and-within-species-during-tropical-dry-forest-succession-in-costa-rica
#19
Géraldine Derroire, Jennifer S Powers, Catherine M Hulshof, Luis E Cárdenas Varela, John R Healey
A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to environmental changes along a successional gradient...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299260/individual-size-variation-reduces-spatial-variation-in-abundance-of-tree-community-assemblage-not-of-tree-populations
#20
Hua-Feng Wang, Meng Xu
Research on individual trait variation has gained much attention because of its implication for ecosystem functions and community ecology. The effect of individual variation on population and community abundance (number of individuals) variation remains scarcely tested. Using two established ecological scaling laws (Taylor's law and abundance-size relationship), we derived a new scaling relationship between the individual size variation and spatial variation of abundance. Tested against multi-plot tree data from Diaoluo Mountain tropical forest in Hainan, China, the new scaling relationship showed that individual size variation reduced the spatial variation of community assemblage abundance, but not of taxon-specific population abundance...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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