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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214038/maximising-synergy-among-tropical-plant-systematists-ecologists-and-evolutionary-biologists
#1
REVIEW
Timothy R Baker, R Toby Pennington, Kyle G Dexter, Paul V A Fine, Helen Fortune-Hopkins, Euridice N Honorio, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Bente B Klitgård, Gwilym P Lewis, Haroldo C de Lima, Peter Ashton, Christopher Baraloto, Stuart Davies, Michael J Donoghue, Maria Kaye, W John Kress, Caroline E R Lehmann, Abel Monteagudo, Oliver L Phillips, Rodolfo Vasquez
Closer collaboration among ecologists, systematists, and evolutionary biologists working in tropical forests, centred on studies within long-term permanent plots, would be highly beneficial for their respective fields. With a key unifying theme of the importance of vouchered collection and precise identification of species, especially rare ones, we identify four priority areas where improving links between these communities could achieve significant progress in biodiversity and conservation science: (i) increasing the pace of species discovery; (ii) documenting species turnover across space and time; (iii) improving models of ecosystem change; and (iv) understanding the evolutionary assembly of communities and biomes...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211583/in%C3%A2-situ-temperature-response-of-photosynthesis-of-42-tree-and-liana-species-in-the-canopy-of-two-panamanian-lowland-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-rainfall-regimes
#2
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle, but little is known about the temperature response of photosynthetic carbon uptake in tropical species, and how this varies within and across forests. We determined in situ photosynthetic temperature-response curves for upper canopy leaves of 42 tree and liana species from two tropical forests in Panama with contrasting rainfall regimes. On the basis of seedling studies, we hypothesized that species with high photosynthetic capacity - light-demanding, fast-growing species - would have a higher temperature optimum of photosynthesis (TOpt ) than species with low photosynthetic capacity - shade-tolerant, slow-growing species - and that, therefore, TOpt would scale with the position of a species on the slow-fast continuum of plant functional traits...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181524/lack-of-phylogenetic-signals-within-environmental-niches-of-tropical-tree-species-across-life-stages
#3
Caicai Zhang, Jie Yang, Liqing Sha, Xiuqin Ci, Jie Li, Min Cao, Calum Brown, Nathan G Swenson, Luxiang Lin
The lasting imprint of phylogenetic history on current day ecological patterns has long intrigued biologists. Over the past decade ecologists have increasingly sought to quantify phylogenetic signals in environmental niche preferences and, especially, traits to help uncover the mechanisms driving plant community assembly. However, relatively little is known about how phylogenetic patterns in environmental niches and traits compare, leaving significant uncertainty about the ecological implications of trait-based analyses...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148744/a-phosphorus-threshold-for-mycoheterotrophic-plants-in-tropical-forests
#4
Merlin Sheldrake, Nicholas P Rosenstock, Daniel Revillini, Pål Axel Olsson, S Joseph Wright, Benjamin L Turner
The majority of terrestrial plants associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which typically facilitate the uptake of limiting mineral nutrients by plants in exchange for plant carbon. However, hundreds of non-photosynthetic plant species-mycoheterotrophs-depend entirely on AM fungi for carbon as well as mineral nutrition. Mycoheterotrophs can provide insight into the operation and regulation of AM fungal relationships, but little is known about the factors, fungal or otherwise, that affect mycoheterotroph abundance and distribution...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135760/landscape-scale-gpp-and-carbon-density-inform-patterns-and-impacts-of-an-invasive-tree-across-wet-forests-of-hawaii
#5
Jomar M Barbosa, Gregory P Asner, R Flint Hughes, M Tracy Johnson
Plant invasion typically occurs within a landscape-scale framework of abiotic and biotic conditions, often resulting in emergent feedbacks among environment, ecosystem functions, and the dominance of invasive species. Understanding the mechanisms underlying successful invasions is an important component of conservation and management efforts, but this has been poorly investigated in a spatially explicit manner. Knowing where and why invasion patterns change throughout the landscape enables managers to use context-specific controls on the spread of invasive species...
October 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031168/flowering-phenology-growth-forms-and-pollination-syndromes-in-tropical-dry-forest-species-influence-of-phylogeny-and-abiotic-factors
#6
Jorge Cortés-Flores, Karen Beatriz Hernández-Esquivel, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Analyses of the influence of temporal variation in abiotic factors on flowering phenology of tropical dry forest species have not considered the possible response of species with different growth forms and pollination syndromes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we investigated the relationship between flowering phenology, abiotic factors, and plant functional attributes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationship among species, in a dry forest community in Mexico...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031166/very-small-relict-populations-suggest-high-extinction-debt-of-gingers-in-primary-forest-fragments-of-a-tropical-city
#7
Matti A Niissalo, Jana Leong-Škorničková, Gillian S Khew, Edward L Webb
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tropical plant communities in fragmented forests are likely to experience an extinction debt, i.e., the habitat cannot support as many species as are present due to reduced habitat size and connectivity. There are few estimates of the number of species that represent extinction debt, and the number of extinctions over time has rarely been recorded. We recorded population sizes to assess threats and extinctions in gingers (sensu Zingiberales) in fragmented rainforest in Singapore, ca...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984635/sources-of-variation-in-foliar-secondary-chemistry-in-a-tropical-forest-tree-community
#8
Brian E Sedio, Juan Camilo Rojas Echeverri, Cristopher A P Boya, S Joseph Wright
Specialist herbivores and pathogens could induce negative conspecific density dependence among their hosts and thereby contribute to the diversity of plant communities. A small number of hyperdiverse genera comprise a large portion of tree diversity in tropical forests. These closely related congeners are likely to share natural enemies. Diverse defenses could still allow congeners to partition niche space defined by natural enemies, but interspecific differences in defenses would have to exceed intraspecific variation in defenses...
December 16, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928045/using-avian-functional-traits-to-assess-the-impact-of-land-cover-change-on-ecosystem-processes-linked-to-resilience-in-tropical-forests
#9
Tom P Bregman, Alexander C Lees, Hannah E A MacGregor, Bianca Darski, Nárgila G de Moura, Alexandre Aleixo, Jos Barlow, Joseph A Tobias
Vertebrates perform key roles in ecosystem processes via trophic interactions with plants and insects, but the response of these interactions to environmental change is difficult to quantify in complex systems, such as tropical forests. Here, we use the functional trait structure of Amazonian forest bird assemblages to explore the impacts of land-cover change on two ecosystem processes: seed dispersal and insect predation. We show that trait structure in assemblages of frugivorous and insectivorous birds remained stable after primary forests were subjected to logging and fire events, but that further intensification of human land use substantially reduced the functional diversity and dispersion of traits, and resulted in communities that occupied a different region of trait space...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928036/the-value-of-trophic-interactions-for-ecosystem-function-dung-beetle-communities-influence-seed-burial-and-seedling-recruitment-in-tropical-forests
#10
Hannah M Griffiths, Richard D Bardgett, Julio Louzada, Jos Barlow
Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924430/nutrient-enrichment-effects-on-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-an-andean-tropical-montane-forest
#11
Camille S Delavaux, Tessa Camenzind, Jürgen Homeier, Rosa Jiménez-Paz, Mark Ashton, Simon A Queenborough
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition are increasing worldwide largely due to increased fertilizer use and fossil fuel combustion. Most work with N and P deposition in natural ecosystems has focused on temperate, highly industrialized, regions. Tropical regions are becoming more developed, releasing large amounts of these nutrients into the atmosphere. Nutrient enrichment in nutrient-poor systems such as tropical montane forest can represent a relatively large shift in nutrient availability, especially for sensitive microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
December 6, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923573/the-impacts-of-selective-logging-and-clear-cutting-on-woody-plant-diversity-after-40years-of-natural-recovery-in-a-tropical-montane-rain-forest-south-china
#12
Yi Ding, Runguo Zang, Xinghui Lu, Jihong Huang
Historically, clear-cutting and selective logging have been the commercial logging practices. However, the effect of these pervasive timber extraction methods on biodiversity in tropical forests is still poorly understood. In this study, we compared abiotic factors, species diversity, community composition, and structure between ca. 40-year-old clear-cut (MCC); ca. 40-year-old selectively logged (MSL); and tropical old growth montane rain forests (MOG) on Hainan Island, China. Results showed that there were a large number of trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) <30cm in the two logged forests...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870051/chemical-similarity-and-local-community-assembly-in-the-species-rich-tropical-genus-piper
#13
Diego Salazar, M Alejandra Jaramillo, Robert J Marquis
Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870044/foliar-bacteria-and-soil-fertility-mediate-seedling-performance-a-new-and-cryptic-dimension-of-niche-differentiation
#14
Eric A Griffin, M Brian Traw, Peter J Morin, Jonathan N Pruitt, S Joseph Wright, Walter P Carson
The phyllosphere (comprising the leaf surface and interior) is one of the world's largest microbial habitats and is host to an abundant and diverse array of bacteria. Nonetheless, the degree to which bacterial communities are benign, harmful, or beneficial to plants in situ is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the net effect of reducing bacterial abundance and diversity would vary substantially among host species (from harmful to beneficial) and this would be strongly mediated by soil resource availability...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861539/vertical-structure-of-phyllosphere-fungal-communities-in-a-tropical-forest-in-thailand-uncovered-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#15
Ayako Izuno, Mamoru Kanzaki, Taksin Artchawakom, Chongrak Wachrinrat, Yuji Isagi
Phyllosphere fungi harbor a tremendous species diversity and play important ecological roles. However, little is known about their distribution patterns within forest ecosystems. We examined how species diversity and community composition of phyllosphere fungi change along a vertical structure in a tropical forest in Thailand. Fungal communities in 144 leaf samples from 19 vertical layers (1.28-34.4 m above ground) of 73 plant individuals (27 species) were investigated by metabarcoding analysis using Ion Torrent sequencing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859202/higher-%C3%AE-diversity-observed-for-herbs-over-woody-plants-is-driven-by-stronger-habitat-filtering-in-a-tropical-understory
#16
Stephen J Murphy, Kara Salpeter, Liza S Comita
Herbaceous plants are a key component of tropical forests. Previous work indicates that herbs contribute substantially to the species richness of tropical plant communities. However, the processes structuring tropical herb diversity, and how they contrast with woody communities, have been underexplored. Within the understory of a 50-ha forest dynamics plot in central Panama, we compared the diversity, distribution, and abundance of vascular herbaceous plants with woody seedlings (i.e., tree and lianas <1 cm DBH and ≥20 cm tall)...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859154/generalist-birds-promote-tropical-forest-regeneration-and-increase-plant-diversity-via-rare-biased-seed-dispersal
#17
Tomás A Carlo, Juan M Morales
Regenerated forests now compose over half of the world's tropical forest cover and are increasingly important as providers of ecosystem services, freshwater, and biodiversity conservation. Much of the value and functionality of regenerating forests depends on the plant diversity they contain. Tropical forest diversity is strongly shaped by mutualistic interactions between plants and fruit-eating animals (frugivores) that disperse seeds. Here we show how seed dispersal by birds can influence the speed and diversity of early successional forests in Puerto Rico...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857167/significant-phylogenetic-signal-and-climate-related-trends-in-leaf-caloric-value-from-tropical-to-cold-temperate-forests
#18
Guangyan Song, Ying Li, Jiahui Zhang, Meiling Li, Jihua Hou, Nianpeng He
Leaf caloric value (LCV) is a useful index to represent the conversion efficiency of leaves for solar energy. We investigated the spatial pattern of LCV and explored the factors (phylogeny, climate, and soil) that influence them at a large scale by determining LCV standardized by leaf area in 920 plant species from nine forest communities along the 3700 km North-South Transect of Eastern China. LCV ranged from 0.024 to 1.056 kJ cm(-2) with an average of 0.151 kJ cm(-2). LCV declined linearly with increasing latitude along the transect...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755754/impacts-of-land-use-on-indian-mangrove-forest-carbon-stocks-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#19
R K Bhomia, R A MacKenzie, D Murdiyarso, S D Sasmito, J Purbopuspito
Globally, mangrove forests represents only 0.7% of world's tropical forested area but are highly threatened due to susceptibility to climate change, sea level rise, and increasing pressures from human population growth in coastal regions. Our study was carried out in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (BCA), the second-largest mangrove area in eastern India. We assessed total ecosystem carbon (C) stocks at four land use types representing varying degree of disturbances. Ranked in order of increasing impacts, these sites included dense mangrove forests, scrub mangroves, restored/planted mangroves, and abandoned aquaculture ponds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755700/taxonomic-and-functional-divergence-of-tree-assemblages-in-a-fragmented-tropical-forest
#20
Julia C Sfair, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Bráulio A Santos, Marcelo Tabarelli
Tropical forests are being exposed to increasing levels of habitat loss and fragmentation, threatening the maintenance of global biodiversity. However, the effect that land-use change may have on the spatial dissimilarities in taxonomic and functional composition of remaining assemblages (i.e., taxonomic/functional β-diversity) remains poorly understood. We examined a large vegetation database from an old and severely fragmented Atlantic forest landscape to test two alternative hypotheses: (1) tree assemblages experience a taxonomic and functional homogenization (reduced β-diversity) between forest fragments and along forest edges, or alternatively, (2) these edge-affected forests show increased taxonomic and functional differentiation (increased β-diversity) when compared to forest interior (reference) stands...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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