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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786900/avian-demographic-responses-to-drought-and-fire-a-community-level-perspective
#1
James F Saracco, Stephen M Fettig, George L San Miguel, David W Mehlman, Steven K Albert
Drought stress is an important consideration for wildlife in arid and semi-arid regions under climate change. Drought can impact plant and animal populations directly, through effects on their physiology, as well as indirectly through effects on vegetation productivity and resource availability, and by creating conditions conducive to secondary disturbance, such as wildfire. We implemented a novel approach to understanding community-level demographic responses of birds and their habitats to these stressors in the context of climate change at 14 study sites in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States...
May 22, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785698/specific-parasites-indirectly-influence-niche-occupation-of-non-hosts-community-members
#2
João Custódio Fernandes Cardoso, Radek Michalko, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga
The coexistence of phylogenetically related species is an attractive topic because of the potentially intense interspecific competition. The most often investigated mechanisms mediating coexistence of these species are environmental filtering and niche partitioning. However, the role of other factors, such as species-specific parasites, is still poorly understood. Along the riparian understory of a tropical forest, we explored niche occupation and coexistence between Chrysso intervales and Helvibis longicauda, two related syntopic web-building spiders...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785604/cadmium-phytoextraction-potential-of-king-grass-pennisetum-sinese-roxb-and-responses-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-to-a-cadmium-pollution-gradient
#3
Li Hu, Ru Wang, Xianglin Liu, Bo Xu, Tuanhui Xie, Yunyun Li, Mingkuang Wang, Guo Wang, Yanhui Chen
Screening for tolerant and high biomass producing plants is important for phytoextraction efforts in remediating agricultural soils contaminated by heavy metals. We carried out a greenhouse experiment involving a soil cadmium (Cd) concentration gradient (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg kg-1 ) to assess growth and phytoextraction capacity of king grass (Pennisetum sinese Roxb.) in soils contaminated by Cd and to explore changes in diversity and structure of rhizosphere soil bacterial communities in response to long-term Cd pollution...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785353/diet-breadth-and-exploitation-of-exotic-plants-shift-the-core-microbiome-of-cephaloleia-a-group-of-tropical-herbivorous-beetles
#4
Chelsea L Blankenchip, Dana E Michels, H Elizabeth Braker, Shana K Goffredi
The beetle genus Cephaloleia has evolved in association with tropical ginger plants and for many species their specific host plant associations are known. Here we show that the core microbiome of six closely related Costa Rican Cephaloleia species comprises only eight bacterial groups, including members of the Acinetobacter , Enterobacteriacea, Pseudomonas , Lactococcus, and Comamonas . The Acinetobacter and Enterobacteriacea together accounted for 35% of the total average 16S rRNA ribotypes recovered from all specimens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785219/assessing-methanogenic-archaeal-community-in-full-scale-anaerobic-sludge-digester-systems-in-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#5
Munawwar A Khan, Poojabahen G Patel, Arpitha G Ganesh, Naushad Rais, Sultan M Faheem, Shams T Khan
Introduction: Anaerobic digestion for methane production comprises of an exceptionally diverse microbial consortium, a profound understanding about which is still constrained. In this study, the methanogenic archaeal communities in three full-scale anaerobic digesters of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant were analyzed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technique. Methods & Materials: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect and quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the sludge samples whereas qPCR was carried out to support the FISH analysis...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785191/antimalarial-activity-of-stem-bark-of-periploca-linearifolia-during-early-and-established-plasmodium-infection-in-mice
#6
Wubetu Yihunie Belay, Abyot Endale Gurmu, Zewdu Birhanu Wubneh
Background: In Ethiopia, stem bark of Periploca linearifolia is used for the treatment of malaria by the local community and demonstrated antimalarial activity in vitro . Despite its in vitro antimalarial activity, no scientific study has been carried out to verify its activity in vivo . Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of Periploca linearifolia stem bark extract in mice. Methods: The dried stem bark of Periploca linearifolia was extracted with 80% methanol and evaluated for its antimalarial activity on both early and established Plasmodium berghei infected mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783785/effects-of-pb-smelting-on-the-soil-bacterial-community-near-a-secondary-lead-plant
#7
Zhanbin Luo, Jing Ma, Fu Chen, Xiaoxiao Li, Shaoliang Zhang
Secondary lead smelting is a widespread industrial activity which has exacerbated Pb or Cd contamination of soil and water across the world. Soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, heavy metal concentrations, and bacterial diversity near a secondary lead plant in Xuzhou, China were examined in this study. The results showed that secondary lead smelting activities influenced nearby soils. Soil acidification decreased one order of magnitude, with a mean value of 7.3. Soil organic matter also showed a downward trend, while potassium and nitrogen appeared to accumulate...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783128/treatment-of-acidic-sulfate-containing-wastewater-using-revolving-algae-biofilm-reactors-sulfur-removal-performance-and-microbial-community-characterization
#8
Haoyuan Zhou, Yanqing Sheng, Xuefei Zhao, Martin Gross, Zhiyou Wen
Industries such as mining operations are facing challenges of treating sulfur-containing wastewater such as acid mine drainage (AMD) generated in their plant. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of a revolving algal biofilm (RAB) reactor to treat AMD with low pH (3.5-4) and high sulfate content (1-4 g/L). The RAB reactors resulted in sulfate removal efficiency up to 46% and removal rate up to 0.56 g/L-day, much higher than those obtained in suspension algal culture. The high-throughput sequencing revealed that the RAB reactor contained diverse cyanobacteria, green algae, diatoms, and acid reducing bacteria that contribute the sulfate removal through various mechanisms...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783046/bacterial-community-of-industrial-raw-sausage-packaged-in-modified-atmosphere-throughout-the-shelf-life
#9
Stefano Raimondi, Maria Rosaria Nappi, Tiziana Maria Sirangelo, Alan Leonardi, Alberto Amaretti, Alessandro Ulrici, Rudy Magnani, Chiara Montanari, Giulia Tabanelli, Fausto Gardini, Maddalena Rossi
Ten lots of industrial raw sausages in modified atmosphere (CO2 30%, O2 70%), produced in the same plant over 7 months, were analyzed at the day after production (S samples) and at the end of shelf life (E samples), after 12 days storage at 7 °C to simulate thermal abuse. Quality of the products was generally compromised by storage at 7 °C, with only 3 E samples without alterations. During the shelf life, the pH decreased for the accumulation of acetic and lactic acids. A few biogenic amines accumulated, remaining below acceptable limits...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782032/leaf-associated-bacterial-microbiota-of-coffee-and-its-correlation-with-manganese-and-calcium-levels-on-leaves
#10
Leandro Pio de de Sousa, Marcio José da da Silva, Jorge Maurício Mondego
Coffee is one of the most valuable agricultural commodities and the plants' leaves are the primary site of infection for most coffee diseases, such as the devastating coffee leaf rust. Therefore, the use of bacterial microbiota that inhabits coffee leaves to fight infections could be an alternative agricultural method to protect against coffee diseases. Here, we report the leaf-associated bacteria in three coffee genotypes over the course of a year, with the aim to determine the diversity of bacterial microbiota...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782021/exploring-the-root-microbiome-extracting-bacterial-community-data-from-the-soil-rhizosphere-and-root-endosphere
#11
Tuesday Simmons, Daniel F Caddell, Siwen Deng, Devin Coleman-Derr
The intimate interaction between plant host and associated microorganisms is crucial in determining plant fitness, and can foster improved tolerance to abiotic stresses and diseases. As the plant microbiome can be highly complex, low-cost, high-throughput methods such as amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene are often preferred for characterizing its microbial composition and diversity. However, the selection of appropriate methodology when conducting such experiments is critical for reducing biases that can make analysis and comparisons between samples and studies difficult...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780374/insight-into-the-variation-of-bacterial-structure-in-atrazine-contaminated-soil-regulating-by-potential-phytoremediator-pennisetum-americanum-l-k-schum
#12
Bo Cao, Ying Zhang, Ziyi Wang, Mengyuan Li, Feng Yang, Duo Jiang, Zhao Jiang
Although plants of the genus Pennisetum can accelerate the removal of atrazine from its rhizosphere, the roles played by this plant in adjusting the soil environment and soil microorganism properties that might contribute to pollutant removal are incompletely understood. We selected Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum ( P. americanum ) as the test plant and investigated the interaction between P. americanum and atrazine-contaminated soil, focusing on the adjustment of the soil biochemical properties as well as bacterial functional and community diversity in the rhizosphere using Biolog EcoPlates and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780370/rhizosphere-protists-change-metabolite-profiles-in-zea-mays
#13
Anke Kuppardt, Thomas Fester, Claus Härtig, Antonis Chatzinotas
Plant growth and productivity depend on the interactions of the plant with the associated rhizosphere microbes. Rhizosphere protists play a significant role in this respect: considerable efforts have been made in the past to reveal the impact of protist-bacteria interactions on the remobilization of essential nutrients for plant uptake, or the grazing induced changes on plant-growth promoting bacteria and the root-architecture. However, the metabolic responses of plants to the presence of protists or to protist-bacteria interactions in the rhizosphere have not yet been analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780175/rapid-identification-of-a-cooling-tower-associated-legionnaires-disease-outbreak-supported-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-of-environmental-samples-new-york-city-2014-2015
#14
Isaac Benowitz, Robert Fitzhenry, Christopher Boyd, Michelle Dickinson, Michael Levy, Ying Lin, Elizabeth Nazarian, Belinda Ostrowsky, Teresa Passaretti, Jennifer Rakeman, Amy Saylors, Elena Shamoonian, Terry-Ann Smith, Sharon Balter
We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires' disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) <1 km from patient residences, a market misting system, a community-wide water system used for heating and cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Legionella DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780173/land-use-in-mountain-grasslands-alters-drought-response-and-recovery-of-carbon-allocation-and-plant-microbial-interactions
#15
Stefan Karlowsky, Angela Augusti, Johannes Ingrisch, Roland Hasibeder, Markus Lange, Sandra Lavorel, Michael Bahn, Gerd Gleixner
Mountain grasslands have recently been exposed to substantial changes in land use and climate and in the near future will likely face an increased frequency of extreme droughts. To date, how the drought responses of carbon (C) allocation, a key process in the C cycle, are affected by land-use changes in mountain grassland is not known.We performed an experimental summer drought on an abandoned grassland and a traditionally managed hay meadow and traced the fate of recent assimilates through the plant-soil continuum...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779257/linking-seed-germination-and-plant-height-a-case-study-of-a-wetland-community-on-the-eastern-tibet-plateau
#16
Kun Liu, Suzhen Cao, Guozhen Du, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Haiyan Bu, Wei Qi, Ting Liang
Seed germination is the earliest trait expressed in a plant's life history, and it can directly affect the expression of post germination traits. Plant height is central to plant ecological strategies, because it is a major determinant of the ability of a species to compete for light. Thus, linking seed germination and plant height at the community level is very important to understanding plant fitness and community structure. Here, we tested storage condition and temperature requirements for germination of 31 species from a wetland plant community on the eastern Tibet Plateau, and analyzed correlation of germination traits with plant height in relation to storage condition...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778158/community-structures-and-population-dynamics-of-candidatus-accumulibacter-in-activated-sludges-of-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-ppk1-as-phylogenetic-marker
#17
Wei Zeng, Limin Zhang, Pengchao Fan, Jingjing Guo, Yongzhen Peng
Candidatus Accumulibacter has been identified as dominant polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR) from wastewater. This study revealed the relevance of community structure, abundance and seasonal population dynamics of Candidatus Accumulibacter to process operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using ppk1 gene as phylogenetic marker. All sludge samples had properties of denitrifying P removal using nitrate as an electron acceptor. Accumulibacter abundance in the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2 O) process was the highest (26% of total bacteria), and higher in winter than in summer with a better EBPR performance...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778055/new-insights-into-the-effects-of-support-matrix-on-the-removal-of-organic-micro-pollutants-and-the-microbial-community-in-constructed-wetlands
#18
Liang Zhang, Tao Lyu, Carlos Andrés Ramírez Vargas, Carlos A Arias, Pedro N Carvalho, Hans Brix
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an eco-friendly and cost-effective technology to remove organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) from wastewater. The support matrix is an important component in CWs as it has a primary role in the growth and development of plants and microbes. However, the roles of the support matrix in CWs in removing OMPs have not been systematically studied. Therefore, in this study, six common materials (sand, zeolite, blast iron slag, petcoke, polonite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete (CAAC)) as support matrixes were firstly investigated by batch tests to explore their adsorption capacities to selected OMPs (ibuprofen, iohexol, tebuconazole and imazalil)...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777991/co-evolutionary-associations-between-root-associated-microbiomes-and-root-transcriptomes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice-varieties
#19
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Fahad Nasir, Xiujun Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
The plants and root-associated microbiomes are closely related. Plant metabolic substances can serve as a nutrient source for the microbiome, and in return, the microbiome can regulate the production of plant metabolic substances. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), as the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), has changed several metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiome during evolution. Thus, the study of the different associations between metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiomes in wild and cultivated rice varieties is important for rice breeding...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777902/chemical-characterization-and-cerebroprotective-effect-of-methanolic-root-extract-of-colebrookea-oppositifolia-in-rats
#20
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Shylaja Hanumanthappa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith is one of the extensively used plants to treat neurological conditions such as epilepsy by the various ethnic communities in sub-Himalayan regions of India such as Bhoxa, Tharu and nomadic Gujjars. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of C. oppositifolia methanolic root (MeCO) extract in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MeCO was characterized for total phenolic content and later subjected for detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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