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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222375/on-site-nutrient-recovery-and-removal-from-source-separated-urine-by-phosphorus-precipitation-and-short-cut-nitrification-denitrification
#1
Song Yao, Liping Chen, Detian Guan, Zhongguo Zhang, Xiujun Tian, Aimin Wang, Guotian Wang, Qian Yao, Dangcong Peng, Jiuyi Li
Source separation and treatment of human urine have been recognized as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional urban drainage, not only reducing nutrient loads on municipal wastewater treatment plants, but recovering valuable resources from waste streams. In this work, on-site phosphorus (P) recovery from real urine was carried out by using the brine from a reverse osmosis process as the flush water for urine-diverting toilets and a P precipitant, while nitrogen (N) was removed via short-cut nitrification-denitrification (SCND) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR)...
February 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#2
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221374/climate-change-perils-for-dioecious-plant-species
#3
REVIEW
Kevin R Hultine, Kevin C Grady, Troy E Wood, Stephen M Shuster, John C Stella, Thomas G Whitham
Climate change, particularly increased aridity, poses a significant threat to plants and the biotic communities they support. Dioecious species may be especially vulnerable to climate change given that they often exhibit spatial segregation of the sexes, reinforced by physiological and morphological specialization of each sex to different microhabitats. In dimorphic species, the overexpression of a trait by one gender versus the other may become suppressed in future climates. Data suggest that males will generally be less sensitive to increased aridity than co-occurring females and, consequently, extreme male-biased sex ratios are possible in a significant number of populations...
August 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220873/response-of-rhizosphere-soil-microbial-to-deyeuxia-angustifolia-encroaching-in-two-different-vegetation-communities-in-alpine-tundra
#4
Lin Li, Ming Xing, Jiangwei Lv, Xiaolong Wang, Xia Chen
Deyeuxia angustifolia (Komarov) Y. L Chang is an herb species originating from the birch forests in the Changbai Mountain. Recently, this species has been found encroaching into large areas in the western slopes of the alpine tundra in the Changbai Mountain, threatening the tundra ecosystem. In this study, we systematically assessed the response of the rhizosphere soil microbial to D. angustifolia encroaching in alpine tundra by conducting experiments for two vegetation types (shrubs and herbs) by real-time PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing methods...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220489/international-survey-on-the-use-and-welfare-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-in-research
#5
K Lidster, G D Readman, M J Prescott, S F Owen
A survey was conducted regarding zebrafish Danio rerio use for scientific research with a focus on: anaesthesia and euthanasia; housing and husbandry; breeding and production; refinement opportunities. A total of 98 survey responses were received from laboratories in 22 countries in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Australia. There appears a clear and urgent need to identify the most humane methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia. Aversive responses to MS-222 were widely observed raising concerns about the use of this anaesthetic for D...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220113/diverse-plant-associated-pleosporalean-fungi-from-saline-areas-ecological-tolerance-and-nitrogen-status-dependent-effects-on-plant-growth
#6
Yuan Qin, Xueyu Pan, Christian Kubicek, Irina Druzhinina, Komal Chenthamara, Jessy Labbé, Zhilin Yuan
Similar to mycorrhizal mutualists, the rhizospheric and endophytic fungi are also considered to act as active regulators of host fitness (e.g., nutrition and stress tolerance). Despite considerable work in selected model systems, it is generally poorly understood how plant-associated fungi are structured in habitats with extreme conditions and to what extent they contribute to improved plant performance. Here, we investigate the community composition of root and seed-associated fungi from six halophytes growing in saline areas of China, and found that the pleosporalean taxa (Ascomycota) were most frequently isolated across samples...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219786/the-effect-of-the-source-of-microorganisms-on-adaptation-of-hydrolytic-consortia-dedicated-to-anaerobic-digestion-of-maize-silage
#7
Krzysztof Poszytek, Adam Pyzik, Adam Sobczak, Leszek Lipinski, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities...
February 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219522/molecular-assessment-of-the-bacterial-community-associated-with-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-cultivation-in-cameroon
#8
Papa Saliou Sarr, Akifumi Sugiyama, Aime Didier Boyogueno Begoude, Kazufumi Yazaki, Shigeru Araki, Eiji Nawata
Bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient cycles and plant development. Their distribution and activity may depend on location and environmental heterogeneity. This study characterized soil bacterial communities in cassava fields of Eastern (Andom) and Southern (Bityili) Cameroon using molecular tools. In both sites, two improved varieties (TMS-96/1414; TMS-92/0326) and a local variety (Local) were grown in a randomized block design. Composite bulk soils were collected at 10months after planting from cassava plots...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217137/reshaping-plant-biology-qualitative-and-quantitative-descriptors-for-plant-morphology
#9
REVIEW
Mathilde Balduzzi, Brad M Binder, Alexander Bucksch, Cynthia Chang, Lilan Hong, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi, Christophe Pradal, Erin E Sparks
An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214038/maximising-synergy-among-tropical-plant-systematists-ecologists-and-evolutionary-biologists
#10
REVIEW
Timothy R Baker, R Toby Pennington, Kyle G Dexter, Paul V A Fine, Helen Fortune-Hopkins, Euridice N Honorio, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Bente B Klitgård, Gwilym P Lewis, Haroldo C de Lima, Peter Ashton, Christopher Baraloto, Stuart Davies, Michael J Donoghue, Maria Kaye, W John Kress, Caroline E R Lehmann, Abel Monteagudo, Oliver L Phillips, Rodolfo Vasquez
Closer collaboration among ecologists, systematists, and evolutionary biologists working in tropical forests, centred on studies within long-term permanent plots, would be highly beneficial for their respective fields. With a key unifying theme of the importance of vouchered collection and precise identification of species, especially rare ones, we identify four priority areas where improving links between these communities could achieve significant progress in biodiversity and conservation science: (i) increasing the pace of species discovery; (ii) documenting species turnover across space and time; (iii) improving models of ecosystem change; and (iv) understanding the evolutionary assembly of communities and biomes...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213542/plant-community-and-nitrogen-deposition-as-drivers-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-prokaryotic-diversity-in-reconstructed-oil-sands-soils-and-natural-boreal-forest-soils
#11
Jacynthe Masse, Cindy E Prescott, Sébastien Renaut, Yves Terrat, Sue J Grayston
The Athabasca Oil Sands deposit is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. Following surface mining, companies are required to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities. The objective of this study was to assess if soil prokaryotic α- and β-diversity in oil-sands soils reconstructed 20-30 years previously, and planted to one of three vegetation types (coniferous or deciduous trees and grassland) were similar to those found in natural boreal-forest soils subject to wildfire disturbance...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213015/lettuce-and-fruits-as-a-source-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-spp
#12
Ana Carvalheira, Joana Silva, Paula Teixeira
The role of ready-to-eat products as a reservoir of pathogenic species of Acinetobacter remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of Acinetobacter species in lettuces and fruits marketed in Portugal, and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from 77.9% of the samples and these microorganisms were also found as endophytes (i.e. present within the plant tissue) in 12 of 20 samples of lettuces analysed. Among 253 isolates that were identified as belonging to this genus, 181 presented different PFGE profiles, representing different strains...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211583/in%C3%A2-situ-temperature-response-of-photosynthesis-of-42-tree-and-liana-species-in-the-canopy-of-two-panamanian-lowland-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-rainfall-regimes
#13
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle, but little is known about the temperature response of photosynthetic carbon uptake in tropical species, and how this varies within and across forests. We determined in situ photosynthetic temperature-response curves for upper canopy leaves of 42 tree and liana species from two tropical forests in Panama with contrasting rainfall regimes. On the basis of seedling studies, we hypothesized that species with high photosynthetic capacity - light-demanding, fast-growing species - would have a higher temperature optimum of photosynthesis (TOpt ) than species with low photosynthetic capacity - shade-tolerant, slow-growing species - and that, therefore, TOpt would scale with the position of a species on the slow-fast continuum of plant functional traits...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211331/sulfamethoxazole-and-cod-increase-abundance-of-sulfonamide-resistance-genes-and-change-bacterial-community-structures-within-sequencing-batch-reactors
#14
Xueping Guo, Weihai Pang, Chunling Dou, Daqiang Yin
The abundant microbial community in biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may potentially enhance the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance genes with the presence of antibiotics. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was designed to investigate response of sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII) and bacterial communities to various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater. The SMX concentrations (0.001 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) decreased with treatment time and higher SMX level was more difficult to remove...
February 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208653/molecular-characterization-of-mycolactone-producing-mycobacteria-from-aquatic-environments-in-buruli-ulcer-non-endemic-areas-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#15
Marcellin B Tano, Christelle Dassi, Lydia Mosi, Marina Koussémon, Bassirou Bonfoh
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), particularly mycolactone producing mycobacteria (MPM), are bacteria found in aquatic environments causing skin diseases in humans like Buruli ulcer (BU). Although the causative agent for BU, Mycobacterium ulcerans has been identified and associated with slow-moving water bodies, the real transmission route is still unknown. This study aimed to characterize MPMs from environmental aquatic samples collected in a BU non-endemic community, Adiopodoumé, in Côte d'Ivoire. Sixty samples were collected in four types of matrices (plant biofilms, water filtrate residues, plant detritus and soils) from three water bodies frequently used by the population...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207957/phylogenetic-relatedness-explains-highly-interconnected-and-nested-symbiotic-networks-of-woody-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-a-chinese-subtropical-forest
#16
Liang Chen, Yong Zheng, Cheng Gao, Xiang-Cheng Mi, Ke-Ping Ma, Tesfaye Wubet, Liang-Dong Guo
Elucidating symbiotic relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants contributes to a better understanding of their reciprocally dependent co-existence and community assembly. However, the main drivers of plant and AMF community assembly remain unclear. In this study, we examined AMF communities from 166 root samples of 17 woody plant species from 10 quadrats in a Chinese subtropical forest using 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene to describe symbiotic AMF-plant association. Our results show the woody plant-AMF networks to be highly interconnected and nested, but in anti-modular and anti-specialized manners...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207158/integration-of-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-photorespirometry-techniques-to-understand-production-dynamics-in-macroaglal-communities
#17
Leigh W Tait, Ian Hawes, David R Schiel
Global declines of macroalgal beds in coastal waters have prompted a plethora of studies attempting to understand the drivers of change within dynamic nearshore ecosystems. Photosynthetic measurements are good tools for assessing the consequences of numerous stressors of macroalgae, but there is somewhat of a disconnection between studies that focus on organism-specific ecophysiological responses and those that address causes and consequences of shifts in macroalgal productivity. Our goal is to highlight the applications of two complementary tools for measuring photosynthesis - variable chlorophyll-a fluorescence and photorespirometry - and provide guidance for the integration of physiology and ecology to understand the drivers of change in macroalgal communities...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205577/epigenetic-signatures-of-invasive-status-in-populations-of-marine-invertebrates
#18
Alba Ardura, Anastasija Zaiko, Paloma Morán, Serge Planes, Eva Garcia-Vazquez
Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) recent invasion in Europe (two-year old), while in older introductions such epigenetic signature of invasion was progressively reduced...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205289/functionally-dissimilar-neighbors-accelerate-litter-decomposition-in-two-grass-species
#19
Lou Barbe, Vincent Jung, Andreas Prinzing, Anne-Kristel Bittebiere, Olaf Butenschoen, Cendrine Mony
Plant litter decomposition is a key regulator of nutrient recycling. In a given environment, decomposition of litter from a focal species depends on its litter quality and on the efficiency of local decomposers. Both may be strongly modified by functional traits of neighboring species, but the consequences for decomposition of litter from the focal species remain unknown. We tested whether decomposition of a focal plant's litter is influenced by the functional-trait dissimilarity to the neighboring plants. We cultivated two grass species (Brachypodium pinnatum and Elytrigia repens) in experimental mesocosms with functionally similar and dissimilar neighborhoods, and reciprocally transplanted litter...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202454/pollinator-mediated-interactions-in-experimental-arrays-vary-with-neighbor-identity
#20
Melissa K Ha, Christopher T Ivey
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Local ecological conditions influence the impact of species interactions on evolution and community structure. We investigated whether pollinator-mediated interactions between coflowering plants vary with plant density, coflowering neighbor identity, and flowering season. METHODS: We conducted a field experiment in which flowering time and floral neighborhood were manipulated in a factorial design. Early- and late-flowering Clarkia unguiculata plants were placed into arrays with C...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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