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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645709/aquatic-biodiversity-in-sedimentation-ponds-receiving-road-runoff-what-are-the-key-drivers
#1
Zhenhua Sun, John E Brittain, Ekaterina Sokolova, Helene Thygesen, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Sebastien Rauch, Sondre Meland
Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645648/promotion-of-iron-nutrition-and-growth-on-peanut-by-paenibacillus-illinoisensis-and-bacillus-sp-strains-in-calcareous-soil
#2
Di Liu, Qianqian Yang, Ke Ge, Xiuna Hu, Guozhen Qi, Binghai Du, Kai Liu, Yanqin Ding
This study aimed to explore the effects of two siderophore-producing bacterial strains on iron absorption and plant growth of peanut in calcareous soil. Two siderophore-producing bacterial strains, namely, YZ29 and DZ13, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peanut, were identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis and Bacillus sp., respectively. In potted experiments, YZ29 and DZ13 enhanced root activity, chlorophyll and active iron content in leaves, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of plants and increased the quality of peanut kernels and plant biomass over control...
June 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645232/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-the-plant-microbiota
#3
Stéphane Hacquard, Stijn Spaepen, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Paul Schulze-Lefert
The innate immune system of plants recognizes microbial pathogens and terminates their growth. However, recent findings suggest that at least one layer of this system is also engaged in cooperative plant-microbe interactions and influences host colonization by beneficial microbial communities. This immune layer involves sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate quantitative immune responses to control host-microbial load, whereas diversification of MAMPs and PRRs emerges as a mechanism that locally sculpts microbial assemblages in plant populations...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645185/soil-prokaryotic-communities-in-chernobyl-waste-disposal-trench-t22-are-modulated-by-organic-matter-and-radionuclide-contamination
#4
Nicolas Theodorakopoulos, Laureline Février, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Richard Christen, Laurie Piette, Sviatoslav Levchuk, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Claire Sergeant, Catherine Berthomieu, Virginie Chapon
After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest, and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645029/phytoavailability-of-cr-in-silene-vulgaris-the-role-of-soil-plant-genotype-and-bacterial-rhizobiome
#5
P García-Gonzalo, A E Pradas Del Real, M Pirredda, M J Gismera, M C Lobo, A Pérez-Sanz
Understanding the metal behavior at the soil-root interface is of utmost significance for a successful implementation of phytoremediation. In this study, we investigated the differences in chromium (Cr) uptake, chemical changes in soil solution and the shifts in rhizosphere bacterial communities of two genotypes of Silene vulgaris (SV21, SV38) with different tolerance to Cr. A greenhouse experiment was performed in two soils that differed on pH and organic matter (OM) content. An industrial sludge with high content in Cr was used as pollution source...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645013/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-human-serum-and-urine-samples-from-a-residentially-exposed-community
#6
Rachel Rogers Worley, Susan McAfee Moore, Bruce C Tierney, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Sean Campbell, Million B Woudneh, Jeffrey Fisher
BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are considered chemicals of emerging concern, in part due to their environmental and biological persistence and the potential for widespread human exposure. In 2007, a PFAS manufacturer near Decatur, Alabama notified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) it had discharged PFAS into a wastewater treatment plant, resulting in environmental contamination and potential exposures to the local community. OBJECTIVES: To characterize PFAS exposure over time, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) collected blood and urine samples from local residents...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644442/linking-the-development-and-functioning-of-a-carnivorous-pitcher-plant-s-microbial-digestive-community
#7
David W Armitage
Ecosystem development theory predicts that successional turnover in community composition can influence ecosystem functioning. However, tests of this theory in natural systems are made difficult by a lack of replicable and tractable model systems. Using the microbial digestive associates of a carnivorous pitcher plant, I tested hypotheses linking host age-driven microbial community development to host functioning. Monitoring the yearlong development of independent microbial digestive communities in two pitcher plant populations revealed a number of trends in community succession matching theoretical predictions...
June 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643278/health-risks-of-environmental-exposure-to-metals-and-herbicides-in-the-pardo-river-brazil
#8
Carolina S Machado, Brisa M Fregonesi, Renato I S Alves, Karina A A Tonani, Jordi Sierra, Bruno S Martinis, Beatriz S Celere, Montse Mari, Marta Schuhmacher, Martí Nadal, Jose L Domingo, Susana Segura-Muñoz
Mixture of metals and herbicides in rivers may pose relevant risks for the health of surrounding communities. Humans may be exposed to river pollution through intake of contaminated water and fish, as well as irrigated agricultural products. The aim of this study was to assess the human health risks of environmental exposure to metals and herbicides through water and fish intake in the Pardo River. Metals (Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Tl, Sn, V, and Zn) were analyzed in river water and in edible fish...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643082/the-influence-of-solar-power-plants-on-microclimatic-conditions-and-the-biotic-community-in-chilean-desert-environments
#9
Anna Suuronen, Christian Muñoz-Escobar, Anssi Lensu, Markku Kuitunen, Natalia Guajardo Celis, Pablo Espinoza Astudillo, Marcos Ferrú, Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Marcelo Miranda, Jussi V K Kukkonen
The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642991/extensive-overlap-of-tropical-rainforest-bacterial-endophytes-between-soil-plant-parts-and-plant-species
#10
Emmanuel Haruna, Noraziah M Zin, Dorsaf Kerfahi, Jonathan M Adams
The extent to which distinct bacterial endophyte communities occur between different plant organs and species is poorly known and has implications for bioprospecting efforts. Using the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we investigated the diversity patterns of bacterial endophyte communities of three rainforest plant species, comparing leaf, stem, and root endophytes plus rhizosphere soil community. There was extensive overlap in bacterial communities between plant organs, between replicate plants of the same species, between plant species, and between plant organ and rhizosphere soil, with no consistent clustering by compartment or host plant species...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642625/testing-the-environmental-filtering-concept-in-global-drylands
#11
Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Nicolas Gross, Fernando T Maestre, Vincent Maire, Francesco de Bello, Carlos Roberto Fonseca, Jens Kattge, Enrique Valencia, Jan Leps, Pierre Liancourt
1. The environmental filtering hypothesis predicts that the abiotic environment selects species with similar trait values within communities. Testing this hypothesis along multiple - and interacting - gradients of climate and soil variables constitutes a great opportunity to better understand and predict the responses of plant communities to ongoing environmental changes. 2. Based on two key plant traits, maximum plant height and specific leaf area (SLA), we assessed the filtering effects of climate (mean annual temperature and precipitation, precipitation seasonality), soil characteristics (soil pH, sand content and total phosphorus) and all potential interactions on the functional structure and diversity of 124 dryland communities spread over the globe...
July 2017: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642608/ocean-acidification-as-a-driver-of-community-simplification-via-the-collapse-of-higher-order-and-rise-of-lower-order-consumers
#12
S Vizzini, B Martínez-Crego, C Andolina, A Massa-Gallucci, S D Connell, M C Gambi
Increasing oceanic uptake of CO2 is predicted to drive ecological change as both a resource (i.e. CO2 enrichment on primary producers) and stressor (i.e. lower pH on consumers). We use the natural ecological complexity of a CO2 vent (i.e. a seagrass system) to assess the potential validity of conceptual models developed from laboratory and mesocosm research. Our observations suggest that the stressor-effect of CO2 enrichment combined with its resource-effect drives simplified food web structure of lower trophic diversity and shorter length...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642497/interactive-effects-of-plant-neighbourhood-and-ontogeny-on-insect-herbivory-and-plant-defensive-traits
#13
Xoaquín Moreira, Gaétan Glauser, Luis Abdala-Roberts
Plant ontogenetic stage and features of surrounding plant neighbourhoods can strongly influence herbivory and defences on focal plants. However, the effects of both factors have been assessed independently in previous studies. Here we tested for the independent and interactive effects of neighbourhood type (low vs. high frequency of our focal plant species in heterospecific stands) and ontogeny on leaf herbivory, physical traits and chemical defences of the English oak Quercus robur. We further tested whether plant traits were associated with neighbourhood and ontogenetic effects on herbivory...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641173/population-dynamics-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-microbial-fuel-cells-started-with-three-different-inoculum-sources
#14
Shun'ichi Ishii, Shino Suzuki, Yuko Yamanaka, Angela Wu, Kenneth H Nealson, Orianna Bretschger
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one of the bioelectrochemical systems that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matters and recover energy as electric power. Here, we explored how the established electrogenic microbial communities were influenced by three different inoculum sources; anaerobic sludge of the wastewater plant, rice paddy field soil, and coastal lagoon sediment. We periodically characterized both electricity generation with sucrose consumption and 16S rRNA-basis microbial community composition...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640496/distance-decay-relationships-in-foliar-fungal-endophytes-are-driven-by-rare-taxa
#15
Ryoko Oono, Anna Rasmussen, Emilie Lefèvre
Foliar fungal endophytes represent a diverse and species-rich plant microbiome. Their biogeography provides essential clues to their cryptic relationship with hosts and the environment in which they disperse. We present species composition, diversity, and dispersal patterns of endophytic fungi associated with needles of Pinus taeda trees across regional scales in the absence of strong environmental gradients as well as within individual trees. An empirical designation of rare and abundant taxa enlightens us on the structure of endophyte communities...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639414/brachiaria-grasses-brachiaria-spp-harbor-a-diverse-bacterial-community-with-multiple-attributes-beneficial-to-plant-growth-and-development
#16
Collins Mutai, Joyce Njuguna, Sita Ghimire
Endophytic and plant-associated bacteria were isolated from plants and rhizoplane soil of naturally grown Brachiaria grasses at International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi, Kenya. Eighty-four bacterial strains were isolated from leaf tissues, root tissues, and rhizoplane soil on nutrient agar and 869 media. All bacterial strains were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic unit using 16S rDNA primers and were characterized for the production of Indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, and ACC deaminase; phosphate solubilization; siderophore production; antifungal properties; and plant biomass production...
June 21, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638879/traditional-knowledge-of-medicinal-plants-in-tribes-of-tripura-in-northeast-india
#17
Maria Debbarma, Nazir A Pala, Munesh Kumar, Rainer W Bussmann
BACKGROUND: The present study was carried out in Mandwi area and its outskirts of Tripura district of tribal areas Autonomous district council to document the available ethno-medicinal plants and their traditional application among Mandwi tribes. METHODOLOGY: Field explorations were carried out during the months of March-June 2013. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted particularly with Tripuri tribe in Mandai area, with the help of local medicine men, locally known as bhoidho (Tripuri)...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638057/the-variation-in-the-rhizosphere-microbiome-of-cotton-with-soil-type-genotype-and-developmental-stage
#18
Qinghua Qiao, Furong Wang, Jingxia Zhang, Yu Chen, Chuanyun Zhang, Guodong Liu, Hui Zhang, Changle Ma, Jun Zhang
Plant roots and soil microorganisms interact with each other mainly in the rhizosphere. Changes in the community structure of the rhizosphere microbiome are influenced by many factors. In this study, we determined the community structure of rhizosphere bacteria in cotton, and studied the variation of rhizosphere bacterial community structure in different soil types and developmental stages using TM-1, an upland cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Hai 7124, a sea island cotton cultivar (G. barbadense L...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637865/an-evolutionarily-distinct-family-of-polysaccharide-lyases-removes-rhamnose-capping-of-complex-arabinogalactan-proteins
#19
José Munoz-Munoz, Alan Cartmell, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Baslé, Bernard Henrissat, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota utilizes complex carbohydrates as major nutrients. The requirement for efficient glycan degrading systems exerts a major selective selection pressure on this microbial community. Thus, we propose that this microbial ecosystem represents a substantial resource for discovering novel carbohydrate active enzymes. To test this hypothesis we screened the potential enzymatic functions of hypothetical proteins encoded by genes of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that were upregulated by arabinogalactan arabinogalactan proteins or AGPs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637838/experimental-species-removals-impact-the-architecture-of-pollination-networks
#20
Berry J Brosi, Kyle Niezgoda, Heather M Briggs
Mutualistic networks are key for the creation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet are threatened by global environmental change. Most simulation models assume that network structure remains static after species losses, despite theoretical and empirical reasons to expect dynamic responses. We assessed the effects of experimental single bumblebee species removals on the structure of entire flower visitation networks. We hypothesized that network structure would change following processes linking interspecific competition with dietary niche breadth...
June 2017: Biology Letters
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