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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323909/integrating-the-effects-of-latitude-and-altitude-on-the-spatial-differentiation-of-plant-community-diversity-in-a-mountainous-ecosystem-in-china
#1
Manhou Xu, Li Ma, Yanyan Jia, Min Liu
Varying patterns of plant community diversity along geographical gradients are a significant topic in biodiversity research. Here, to explore the integrated effects of latitude and altitude on the plant community diversity in a mountainous ecosystem, we set Guancen Mountain in the northern section, Guandi Mountain in the middle section, and Wulu Mountain in the southern section of the Lvliang Mountains as study areas, and the plant community diversity (basal diameter and height of tree and species diversity indices of shrub and herb) was measured horizontally at different latitude gradients and vertically at different altitude gradients in late July 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319292/high-n-dry-experimental-nitrogen-deposition-exacerbates-native-shrub-loss-and-nonnative-plant-invasion-during-extreme-drought
#2
Justin M Valliere, Irina C Irvine, Louis Santiago, Edith B Allen
Hotter, longer, and more frequent global change-type drought events may profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystems by triggering widespread vegetation mortality. However, severe drought is only one component of global change, and ecological effects of drought may be compounded by other drivers, such as anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and nonnative plant invasion. Elevated N deposition, for example, may reduce drought tolerance through increased plant productivity, thereby contributing to drought-induced mortality...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319155/relationships-between-abiotic-environment-plant-functional-traits-and-animal-body-size-at-mount-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#3
David Schellenberger Costa, Alice Classen, Stefan Ferger, Maria Helbig-Bonitz, Marcell Peters, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Michael Kleyer
The effect-response framework states that plant functional traits link the abiotic environment to ecosystem functioning. One ecosystem property is the body size of the animals living in the system, which is assumed to depend on temperature or resource availability, among others. For primary consumers, resource availability may directly be related to plant traits, while for secondary consumers the relationship is indirect. We used plant traits to describe resource availability along an elevational gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319109/the-broad-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-using-a-whole-food-plant-based-diet-in-the-community-for-obesity-ischaemic-heart-disease-or-diabetes
#4
N Wright, L Wilson, M Smith, B Duncan, P McHugh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is little randomised evidence using a whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet as intervention for elevated body mass index (BMI) or dyslipidaemia. We investigated the effectiveness of a community-based dietary programme. Primary end points: BMI and cholesterol at 6 months (subsequently extended). SUBJECTS: Ages 35-70, from one general practice in Gisborne, New Zealand. Diagnosed with obesity or overweight and at least one of type 2 diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318787/municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent-induced-effects-on-freshwater-mussel-populations-and-the-role-of-mussel-refugia-in-recolonizing-an-extirpated-reach
#5
Patricia L Gillis, Rodney McInnis, Joseph Salerno, Shane R de Solla, Mark R Servos, Erin M Leonard
Global human population and urbanization continually increase the volume of wastewater entering aquatic environments. Despite efforts to treat these effluents, they contribute a diverse suite of substances that enter watersheds at concentrations that have the potential to elicit adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The relationship between wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent exposure and biological responses within aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood, especially at the population level. To examine the effect of WWTP effluents on sentinel invertebrates, freshwater mussels were assessed in the Grand River, Ontario, in populations associated with the outfall of a major WWTP...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317443/deterioration-of-the-anammox-process-at-decreasing-temperatures-and-long-srts
#6
Maaike Hoekstra, Florence A de Weerd, Robbert Kleerebezem, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
The implementation of autotrophic nitrogen removal in the mainstream of a municipal wastewater treatment plant is currently pursued. Among the crucial unknown factors are the kinetic properties of anaerobic ammonium oxidising (anammox) bacteria at low temperatures, as typically encountered for sewage in winter. In this study we investigated the adaptation of a fast growing anammox culture to a lower temperature. In a membrane bioreactor a highly enriched anammox community was obtained at 30, 25 and 20°C. The culture grew as free cells and small flocs (50 -150µm)...
March 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317278/species-traits-help-predict-small-mammal-responses-to-habitat-homogenization-by-an-invasive-grass
#7
Joseph P Ceradini, Anna D Chalfoun
Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species' responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species' traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#8
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317109/what-if-plant-functional-types-conceal-species-specific-responses-to-environment-study-on-arctic-shrub-communities
#9
Patrick Saccone, Kristiina Hoikka, Risto Virtanen
Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316099/patterns-of-temporal-and-enemy-niche-use-by-a-community-of-leaf-cone-moths-caloptilia-coexisting-on-maples-acer-as-revealed-by-metabarcoding
#10
Ryosuke Nakadai, Atsushi Kawakita
The diversity of herbivorous insects is often considered a function of host plant diversity. However, recent research has uncovered many examples of closely related herbivores using the same host plant(s), suggesting that partitioning of host plants is not the only mechanism generating diversity. Herbivores sharing hosts may utilize different parts of the same plant, but such resource partitioning is often not apparent; hence, the factors that allow closely related herbivores to coexist are still largely undetermined...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316068/contribution-by-vertebrates-to-seed-dispersal-effectiveness-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-a-community-wide-approach
#11
M Nogales, A González-Castro, B Rumeu, A Traveset, P Vargas, P Jaramillo, J M Olesen, R Heleno
Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment are crucial phases in the life cycle of all spermatophyte plants. The net contribution of seed dispersers to plant establishment is known as seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) and is defined as the product of a quantitative (number of seeds dispersed) and a qualitative (probability of recruitment) component. In Galápagos, we studied the direct contribution to SDE (number of seeds dispersed and effect on seedling emergence) provided by the five island groups of frugivores (giant tortoises, lizards, medium-sized passerine birds, small non-finch passerine birds and finches) in the two main habitats in this archipelago: the lowland and the highland zones, and found 16 vertebrate species dispersing 58 plant species...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316049/structure-and-function-of-the-bacterial-communities-during-rhizoremediation-of-hexachlorobenzene-in-constructed-wetlands
#12
Cuiping Zhang, Bei Wang, Xiaoyan Dai, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Yuanqing Zhou
Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) are considered to be effective for treating organic pollutants. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites sp., Typha sp. serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic pollutants. However, it is still not clear how soil bacterial communities respond to macrophytes and pollutants during the process. For this purpose, the seedlings of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia were planted respectively in the VF CWs added with HCB at a dose of 2 mg/kg...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315955/symbiosis-with-systemic-fungal-endophytes-promotes-host-escape-from-vector-borne-disease
#13
L I Perez, P E Gundel, H J Marrero, A González Arzac, M Omacini
Plants interact with a myriad of microorganisms that modulate their interactions within the community. A well-described example is the symbiosis between grasses and Epichloë fungal endophytes that protects host plants from herbivores. It is suggested that these symbionts could play a protective role for plants against pathogens through the regulation of their growth and development and/or the induction of host defences. However, other endophyte-mediated ecological mechanisms involved in disease avoidance have been scarcely explored...
March 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306345/a-retrospective-study-on-non-drug-related-poisoning-in-the-community-among-children-from-south-india
#14
Debasis Das Adhikari, Saibal Das, Blessed Winston A, Kaysina Vazhudhi, Aniket Kumar, Margaret Shanthi Fx, Indira Agarwal
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence, demographic distribution, types and outcomes across various non-drug related poisonings among children attending a tertiary care center in south India. METHODS: All children from 0-16 years who presented to the Paediatric Emergency Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore with non-drug related poisoning from October 2004 to September 2013 were included. RESULTS: Out of the total 997 cases of poisoning, 629 (63...
March 17, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303196/can-community-structure-track-sea-level-rise-stress-and-competitive-controls-in-tidal-wetlands
#15
Lisa M Schile, John C Callaway, Katharine N Suding, N Maggi Kelly
Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303193/biodiversity-in-agricultural-landscapes-the-effect-of-apple-cultivar-on-epiphyte-diversity
#16
C Robin Stevenson, Chantel Davies, Jennifer K Rowntree
In natural systems, extended phenotypes of trees can be important in determining the species composition and diversity of associated communities. Orchards are productive systems where trees dominate, and can be highly biodiverse, but few studies have considered the importance of tree genetic background in promoting associated biodiversity. We tested the effect of apple cultivar (plant genetic background) on the diversity and composition of the associated epiphytic bryophyte community across a total of seven cultivars in five productive East Anglian orchards where each orchard contained two cultivars...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303188/facilitation-between-woody-and-herbaceous-plants-that-associate-with-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-temperate-european-forests
#17
Stavros D Veresoglou, Monika Wulf, Matthias C Rillig
In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303183/contrasting-effects-of-plant-inter-and-intraspecific-variation-on-community-trait-responses-to-restoration-of-a-sandy-grassland-ecosystem
#18
Xiaoan Zuo, Xiyuan Yue, Peng Lv, Qiang Yu, Min Chen, Jing Zhang, Yongqing Luo, Shaokun Wang, Jing Zhang
Changes in plant community traits along an environmental gradient are caused by interspecific and intraspecific trait variation. However, little is known about the role of interspecific and intraspecific trait variation in plant community responses to the restoration of a sandy grassland ecosystem. We measured five functional traits of 34 species along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China. We examined how community-level traits varied with habitat changes and soil gradients using both abundance-weighted and non-weighted averages of trait values...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303178/composition-of-riparian-litter-input-regulates-organic-matter-decomposition-implications-for-headwater-stream-functioning-in-a-managed-forest-landscape
#19
Johan Lidman, Micael Jonsson, Ryan M Burrows, Mirco Bundschuh, Ryan A Sponseller
Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303127/functional-characterization-of-endophytic-fungal-community-associated-with-oryza-sativa-l-and-zea-mays-l
#20
Momota Potshangbam, S Indira Devi, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Gary A Strobel
In a natural ecosystem, the plant is in a symbiotic relationship with beneficial endophytes contributing huge impact on its host plant. Therefore, exploring beneficial endophytes and understanding its interaction is a prospective area of research. The present work aims to characterize the fungal endophytic communities associated with healthy maize and rice plants and to study the deterministic factors influencing plant growth and biocontrol properties against phytopathogens, viz, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotium oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pyricularia oryzae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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