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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913024/impact-of-wastewater-treatment-plant-discharge-on-the-contamination-of-river-biofilms-by-pharmaceuticals-and-antibiotic-resistance
#1
Elodie Aubertheau, Thibault Stalder, Leslie Mondamert, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Dagot, Jérôme Labanowski
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceutical residue in surface water. Epilithic biofilms were collected downstream from 12 WWTPs of various types and capacities to study the impacts of their discharge through the changes in biofilm composition (compared to a corresponding upstream biofilm) in terms of pharmaceutical concentrations and bacterial community modifications (microbial diversity and resistance integrons). The biofilm is a promising indicator to evaluate the impacts of WWTPs on the surrounding aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912016/soil-microbial-communities-influence-seedling-growth-of-a-rare-conifer-independent-of-plant-soil-feedback
#2
Jessica L Rigg, Cathy A Offord, Brajesh K Singh, Ian Anderson, Steve Clarke, Jeff R Powell
Plant-soil feedback, the reciprocal relationship between a plant and its associated microbial communities, has been proposed to be an important driver of plant populations and community dynamics. While rarely considered, understanding how plant-soil feedback contributes to plant rarity may have implications for conservation and management of rare species. Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) is a critically endangered species, of which fewer than 100 trees are known to exist in the wild. Seedling survival within the first year after germination and subsequent recruitment of Wollemi pine is limited in the wild...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912009/resource-stoichiometry-and-the-biogeochemical-consequences-of-nitrogen-deposition-in-a-mixed-deciduous-forest
#3
Meghan G Midgley, Richard P Phillips
Ecosystems often show differential sensitivity to chronic nitrogen (N) deposition; hence, a critical challenge is to improve our understanding of how and why site-specific factors mediate biogeochemical responses to N enrichment. We examined the extent to which N impacts on soil carbon (C) and N dynamics depend on microbial resource stoichiometry. We added N to forest plots dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees, which have litter and soil pools rich in organic N and relatively wide C:N ratios, and adjacent forest plots dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees, which have litter and soil pools rich in inorganic N and relatively narrow C:N ratios...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911999/joint-effects-of-nutrient-addition-and-enemy-exclusion-on-exotic-plant-success
#4
Robert W Heckman, Justin P Wright, Charles E Mitchell
Worldwide, ecosystems are increasingly dominated by exotic plant species, a shift hypothesized to result from numerous ecological factors. Two of these, increased resource availability and enemy release, may act in concert to increase exotic success in plant communities (Resource-Enemy Release Hypothesis, R-ERH). To test this, we manipulated the availability of soil nutrients and access of vertebrate herbivores, insect herbivores, and fungal pathogens to intact grassland communities containing both native and exotic species...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#5
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911919/few-ant-species-play-a-central-role-linking-different-plant-resources-in-a-network-in-rupestrian-grasslands
#6
Fernanda V Costa, Marco A R Mello, Judith L Bronstein, Tadeu J Guerra, Renata L Muylaert, Alice C Leite, Frederico S Neves
Ant-plant associations are an outstanding model to study the entangled ecological interactions that structure communities. However, most studies of plant-animal networks focus on only one type of resource that mediates these interactions (e.g, nectar or fruits), leading to a biased understanding of community structure. New approaches, however, have made possible to study several interaction types simultaneously through multilayer networks models. Here, we use this approach to ask whether the structural patterns described to date for ant-plant networks hold when multiple interactions with plant-derived food rewards are considered...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#7
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907259/spectral-diversity-area-relationships-for-assessing-biodiversity-in-a%C3%A2-wildland-agriculture-matrix
#8
Kyla Marie Dahlin
Species-area relationships have long been used to assess patterns of species diversity across scales. Here, this concept is extended to spectral diversity using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over western Michigan. This mixture of mesic forest and agricultural lands offers two end-points on the local-scale diversity continuum; one set of well-mixed forest patches and one set of highly homogeneous agricultural patches. Using the sum of the first three principal component values and the principal components' convex hull volume, spectral diversity was compared within and among these plots and to null expectations for perfectly random and perfectly patchy landscapes...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907121/environmental-and-geographical-factors-structure-soil-microbial-diversity-in-new-caledonian-ultramafic-substrates-a-metagenomic-approach
#9
Véronique Gourmelon, Laurent Maggia, Jeff R Powell, Sarah Gigante, Sara Hortal, Claire Gueunier, Kelly Letellier, Fabian Carriconde
Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905514/seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-seedlings-in-a-high-co2-world-from-physiology-to-herbivory
#10
Gema Hernán, Laura Ramajo, Lorena Basso, Antonio Delgado, Jorge Terrados, Carlos M Duarte, Fiona Tomas
Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902757/evidence-of-facilitation-cascade-processes-as-drivers-of-successional-patterns-of-ecosystem-engineers-at-the-upper-altitudinal-limit-of-the-dry-puna
#11
Luca Malatesta, Federico Maria Tardella, Karina Piermarteri, Andrea Catorci
Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902410/inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-murraya-koenigii-essential-oil-a-study-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-infectious-model
#12
P Sankar Ganesh, Ravishankar Vittal Rai
The global emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat in hospital environments as well as in the community. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and it also infects a wide range of model organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Quorum sensing (QS) mediates cell-to-cell communication in bacteria and has an important role in regulating virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation which are crucial for establishment of the infection...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901306/plants-microorganisms-and-soil-temperatures-contribute-to-a-decrease-in-methane-fluxes-on-a-drained-arctic-floodplain
#13
Min Jung Kwon, Felix Beulig, Iulia Ilie, Marcus Wildner, Kirsten Küsel, Lutz Merbold, Miguel D Mahecha, Nikita Zimov, Sergey A Zimov, Martin Heimann, Edward A G Schuur, Joel E Kostka, Olaf Kolle, Ines Hilke, Mathias Göckede
As surface temperatures are expected to rise in the future, ice-rich permafrost may thaw, altering soil topography and hydrology and creating a mosaic of wet and dry soil surfaces in the Arctic. Arctic wetlands are large sources of CH4 , and investigating effects of soil hydrology on CH4 fluxes is of great importance for predicting ecosystem feedback in response to climate change. In this study, we investigate how a decade-long drying manipulation on an Arctic floodplain influences CH4 -associated microorganisms, soil thermal regimes, and plant communities...
November 7, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901268/forecasting-pollination-declines-through-dna-barcoding-the-potential-contributions-of-macroecological-and-macroevolutionary-scales-of-inquiry
#14
Jana C Vamosi, Yan-Bing Gong, Sarah J Adamowicz, Laurence Packer
While pollinators are widely acknowledged as important contributors to seed production in plant communities, we do not yet have a good understanding of the importance of pollinator specialists for this ecosystem service. Determination of the prevalence of pollinator specialists is often hindered by the occurrence of cryptic species and the limitations of observational data on pollinator visitation rates, two areas where DNA barcoding of pollinators and pollen can be useful. Further, the demonstrated adequacy of pollen DNA barcoding from historical records offers opportunities to observe the effects of pollinator loss over longer timescales, and phylogenetic approaches can elucidate the historical rates of extinction of specialist lineages...
November 30, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900686/shotgun-metagenomic-sequencing-analysis-of-soft-rot-enterobacteriaceae-in-polymicrobial-communities
#15
James Doonan, Sandra Denman, James E McDonald, Peter N Golyshin
Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial communities in necrotic plant lesions allows insights of host-pathogen molecular interactions. Soft-rot Enterobacteriaceae are significant crop pathogens with a wide host range. Reconstructed polymicrobial community DNA from soft-rot affected crops provides details of species relative abundance and functional potential, enabling significant insights into their lifestyle. Here, we describe a workflow for DNA recovery, metagenomic shotgun sequencing and in particular, an in silico analysis of bacterial isolates from affected plant tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900685/assessing-bacterial-and-fungal-diversity-in-the-plant-endosphere
#16
Bernd Wemheuer, Franziska Wemheuer
Plants are colonized various microorganisms including endophytes. These microbes can play an important role in agricultural production as they promote plant growth and/or enhance the resistance of their host plant against diseases and environmental stress conditions. Although culture-independent molecular approaches such as DNA barcoding have greatly enhanced our understanding of bacterial and fungal endophyte communities, there are some methodical problems when investigating endophyte diversity. One main issue are sequence contaminations such as plastid-derived rRNA gene sequences which are co-amplified due to their high homology to bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900356/graphical-dataset-on-important-medicinal-plants-used-for-curing-dental-issues-in-manoor-valley-mansehra-pakistan
#17
Inayat Ur Rahman, Farhana Ijaz, Aftab Afzal, Zafar Iqbal, Niaz Ali, Muhammad Azhar Khan, Muhammad Afzal, Said Muhammad, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Asif
The graphical dataset in this paper is related to the research article entitled "A novel survey of the ethno medicinal knowledge of dental problems in Manoor Valley (Northern Himalaya), Pakistan" (I.U. Rahman, F. Ijaz, Z. Iqbal, A. Afzal, N. Ali, M. Afzal, M.A. Khan, S. Muhammad, G. Qadir, M. Asif, 2016) [1]. This article describes how the local community of Manoor Valley practices cultural / traditional knowledge for dental problems. For the recorded data of 25 medicinal plants, six quantitative ethnomedicinal statistical approaches / equations were used...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899920/impacts-of-fertilization-regimes-on-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-amf-community-composition-were-correlated-with-organic-matter-composition-in-maize-rhizosphere-soil
#18
Chen Zhu, Ning Ling, Junjie Guo, Min Wang, Shiwei Guo, Qirong Shen
The understanding of the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community composition to fertilization is of great significance in sustainable agriculture. However, how fertilization influences AMF diversity and composition is not well-established yet. A field experiment located in northeast China in typical black soil (Chernozem) was conducted and high-throughput sequencing approach was used to investigate the effects of different fertilizations on the variation of AMF community in the rhizosphere soil of maize crop...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899917/insights-into-the-regulation-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-by-application-of-bio-organic-fertilizer-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla-monoculture-regime
#19
Linkun Wu, Jun Chen, Hongmiao Wu, Xianjin Qin, Juanying Wang, Yanhong Wu, Muhammad U Khan, Sheng Lin, Zhigang Xiao, Xiaomian Luo, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere miobiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the 1st-year planted (FP), 2nd-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP) led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899663/large-scale-analysis-of-microrna-expression-epi-transcriptomic-features-and-biogenesis
#20
Dimitrios M Vitsios, Matthew P Davis, Stijn van Dongen, Anton J Enright
MicroRNAs are important genetic regulators in both animals and plants. They have a range of functions spanning development, differentiation, growth, metabolism and disease. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has made it a relatively straightforward task to detect these molecules and their relative expression via sequencing. There are a large number of published studies with deposited datasets. However, there are currently few resources that capitalize on these data to better understand the features, distribution and biogenesis of miRNAs...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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