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Plant Community

Francisco X Nascimento, Margarida Espada, Pedro Barbosa, Márcio J Rossi, Cláudia S L Vicente, Manuel Mota
The aim of this study is to understand the biological role of Serratia quinivorans BXF1, a bacterium commonly found associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the plant parasitic nematode responsible for pine wilt disease. Therefore, we studied strain BXF1 effect in pine wilt disease. We found that strain BXF1 promoted in vitro nematode reproduction. Moreover, the presence of bacteria led to the absence of nematode chitinase gene (Bxcht-1) expression, suggesting an effect for bacterial chitinase in nematode reproduction...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Marcel D Torode, Kirk L Barnett, Sarah L Facey, Uffe N Nielsen, Sally A Power, Scott N Johnson
Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (-50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Alissa J Brown, Douglas H Deutschman, Jessica Braswell, Dana McLaughlin
Granivorous animals may prefer to predate or cache seed of certain plant species over others. Multiple studies have documented preference for larger, non-native seed by granivores. To accomplish this, researchers have traditionally used indirect inference by relating patterns of seed removal to the species composition of the granivorous animal community. To measure seed removal, researchers present seed to granivorous animals in the field using equipment intended to exclude certain animal taxa while permitting access to others...
2016: PloS One
Huong Nguyen, Jerome Vanclay, John Herbohn, Jennifer Firn
There is growing interest in multi-species tropical plantations but little information exists to guide their design and silviculture. The Rainforestation Farming system is the oldest tropical polyculture planting system in the Philippines and provides a unique opportunity to understand the underlying processes affecting tree performance within diverse plantings. Data collected from 85 plots distributed across the 18 mixed-species plantations in the Philippines was used to identify the factors influencing growth, probability of harvest, and death of trees in these complex plantings...
2016: PloS One
David Samuel Johnson, R Scott Warren, Linda A Deegan, Thomas J Mozdzer
In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2) ) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Siavash Isazadeh, Shameem Jauffur, Dominic Frigon
Effect of ecological variables on community assembly of heterotrophic bacteria at eight full-scale and two pilot-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (AS-WWTPs) were explored by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In total, 39 samples covering a range of abiotic factors spread over space and time were analyzed. A core bacterial community of 24 families detected in at least six of the eight AS-WWTPs was defined. In addition to the core families, plant-specific families (observed at <50% AS-WWTPs) were found to be also important in the community structure...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Matthew D Hladilek, Karen F Gaines, James M Novak, David A Collard, Daniel B Johnson, Thomas Canam
Despite our dependency on treatment facilities to condition wastewater for eventual release to the environment, our knowledge regarding the effects of treated water on the local watershed is extremely limited. Responses of lotic systems to the treated wastewater effluent have been traditionally investigated by examining the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and community structure; however, these studies do not address the microbial diversity of the water systems. In the present study, planktonic and benthic bacterial community structure were examined at 14 sites (from 60 m upstream to 12,100 m downstream) and at two time points along an aquatic system receiving treated effluent from the Charleston Wastewater Treatment Plant (Charleston, IL)...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
K Huusko, A L Ruotsalainen, A M Markkola
Soil fungal community and dominant mycorrhizal types are known to shift along with plant community changes during primary succession. However, it is not well understood how and why root fungal symbionts and colonization types vary within the plant host when the host species is able to thrive both at young and at old successional stages with different light and nutrient resource availability. We asked (i) how root fungal colonization of Deschampsia flexuosa (Poaceae) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE) changes along a postglacial primary successional land uplift gradient...
October 19, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Luís Catarino, Philip J Havik, Bucar Indjai, Maria M Romeiras
This dataset presents an annotated list of medicinal plants used by local communities in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa), in a total of 218 species. Data was gathered by means of herbarium and bibliographic research, as well as fieldwork. Biological and ecological information is provided for each species, including in-country distribution, geographical range, growth form and main vegetation types. The dataset was used to prepare a paper on the medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau "Medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau: therapeutic applications, ethnic diversity and knowledge transfer" (Catarino et al...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Işıl Bavunoğlu, Musa Balta, Zeynep Türkmen
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in herbal products as a self-medication method in recent years. Some plant extracts either turn into drugs over time or are consumed directly without treatment. One of these plants is Nerium oleander L., which is a potentially lethal plant, since it has cardiac glycosides. However, numerous researches of its extracts have been performed against cancer cell lines in recent literature. This contradiction leads to misinterpretation and induces the prevalence of intoxication or fatal cases...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Magda Silva Carneiro, Caroline Cambraia Furtado Campos, Luiz Alberto Beijo, Flavio Nunes Ramos
Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition...
2016: PloS One
Jianshuang Wu, Susanne Wurst, Xianzhou Zhang
The biodiversity-productivity relationship is still under debate for alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau. We know little about direct and indirect effects of biotic and abiotic drivers on this relationship, especially in regard to plant functional trait diversity. Here, we examine how aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and precipitation use efficiency (PUE) respond to climate, soil and community structure across alpine grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau. We found that both ANPP and PUE showed nonlinear patterns along water availability and site altitude variation, which together accounted for 80...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mincheol Kim, Ji Young Jung, Dominique Laffly, Hye Young Kwon, Yoo Kyung Lee
Primary succession after glacier retreat has been widely studied in plant communities, but bacterial succession is still poorly understood. In particular, few studies of microbial succession have been performed in the Arctic. We investigated the shifts in bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties along a successional gradient in a 100-year glacier foreland of the High Arctic. Multivariate analyses revealed that time after glacier retreat played a key role in associated bacterial community structure during succession...
October 17, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
R K Bhomia, R A MacKenzie, D Murdiyarso, S D Sasmito, J Purbopuspito
Globally, mangrove forests represents only 0.7% of world's tropical forested area but are highly threatened due to susceptibility to climate change, sea level rise, and increasing pressures from human population growth in coastal regions. Our study was carried out in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (BCA), the second-largest mangrove area in eastern India. We assessed total ecosystem carbon (C) stocks at four land use types representing varying degree of disturbances. Ranked in order of increasing impacts, these sites included dense mangrove forests, scrub mangroves, restored/planted mangroves, and abandoned aquaculture ponds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
J Gonzalo N Irisarri, Justin D Derner, Lauren M Porensky, David J Augustine, Justin L Reeves, Kevin E Mueller
Grazing intensity elicits changes in the composition of plant functional groups in both shortgrass steppe (SGS) and northern mixed-grass prairie (NMP) in North America. How these grazing intensity-induced changes control aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responses to precipitation remains a central open question, especially in light of predicted climate changes. Here, we evaluated effects of four levels (none, light, moderate, and heavy) of long-term (>30 yr) grazing intensity in SGS and NMP on: (1) ANPP; (2) precipitation-use efficiency (PUE, ANPP : precipitation); and (3) precipitation marginal response (PMR; slope of a linear regression model between ANPP and precipitation)...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Juli Carrillo, Evan Siemann
Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above or below ground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Bérenger Bourgeois, Eduardo González, Anne Vanasse, Isabelle Aubin, Monique Poulin
The disruption of hydrological connectivity by human activities such as flood regulation or land-use changes strongly impacts riparian plant communities. However, landscape-scale processes have generally been neglected in riparian restoration projects as opposed to local conditions, even though such processes might largely influence community recovery. We surveyed plant composition of field edges and riverbanks in 51 riparian zones restored by tree planting (565 1-m(2) plots) within two agricultural watersheds in southeastern Québec, Canada...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ayesha I T Tulloch, Jean-Baptiste Pichancourt, Carl R Gosper, Angela Sanders, Iadine Chadès
Changed fire regimes have led to declines of fire-regime-adapted species and loss of biodiversity globally. Fire affects population processes of growth, reproduction, and dispersal in different ways, but there is little guidance about the best fire regime(s) to maintain species population processes in fire-prone ecosystems. We use a process-based approach to determine the best range of fire intervals for keystone plant species in a highly modified Mediterranean ecosystem in southwestern Australia where current fire regimes vary...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Chhaya M Werner, Kurt J Vaughn, Katharine L Stuble, Kristina Wolf, Truman P Young
The order of species arrival can dramatically alter the trajectory of community development. While there is experimental evidence that priority effects can be important drivers of community structure early on, the persistence and duration of these effects is unclear. Here we report on a community assembly experiment in which a mix of four native grasses and a mix of four native forbs were planted on their own, together, or with one-year priority over the other guild. We found positive effects of priority for both grasses and forbs in the initial years of the experiment...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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