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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333696/the-plantain-proteome-a-focus-on-allele-specific-proteins-obtained-from-plantain-fruits
#1
Nádia A Campos, Rony Swennen, Sebastien C Carpentier
Proteomics has been applied with great potential to elucidate molecular mechanisms in plants. This is especially valid in the case of non-model crops of which their genome has not been sequenced yet, or is not well annotated. Plantains are a kind of cooking bananas that are economically very important in Africa, India and Latin America. The aim of this work was to characterize the fruit proteome of common dessert bananas and plantains and to identify proteins that are only encoded by the plantain genome. We present the first plantain fruit proteome...
January 15, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333692/measuring-spatial-and-temporal-trends-of-nicotine-and-alcohol-consumption-in-australia-using-wastewater-based-epidemiology
#2
Foon Yin Lai, Coral Gartner, Wayne Hall, Steve Carter, Jake O'Brien, Benjamin J Tscharke, Frederic Been, Cobus Gerber, Jason White, Phong Thai, Raimondo Bruno, Jeremy Prichard, K Paul Kirkbride, Jochen F Mueller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain priority public health issues worldwide. As participation in population-based surveys has fallen, it is increasingly challenging to estimate accurately the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach for estimating substance use at the population level that does not rely on survey participation. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns in nicotine (a proxy for tobacco) and alcohol consumption in the Australian population via WBE...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333264/how-anthropogenic-shifts-in-plant-community-composition-alter-soil-food-webs
#3
REVIEW
Paul Kardol, Jonathan R De Long
There are great concerns about the impacts of soil biodiversity loss on ecosystem functions and services such as nutrient cycling, food production, and carbon storage. A diverse community of soil organisms that together comprise a complex food web mediates such ecosystem functions and services. Recent advances have shed light on the key drivers of soil food web structure, but a conceptual integration is lacking. Here, we explore how human-induced changes in plant community composition influence soil food webs...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330533/soil-contamination-alters-the-willow-root-and-rhizosphere-metatranscriptome-and-the-root-rhizosphere-interactome
#4
Etienne Yergeau, Julien Tremblay, Simon Joly, Michel Labrecque, Christine Maynard, Frederic E Pitre, Marc St-Arnaud, Charles W Greer
Phytoremediation using willows is thought to be a sustainable alternative to traditional remediation techniques involving excavation, transport, and landfilling. However, the complexity of the interaction between the willow and its associated highly diverse microbial communities makes the optimization of phytoremediation very difficult. Here, we have sequenced the rhizosphere metatranscriptome of four willow species and the plant root metatranscriptome for two willow species growing in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated and non-contaminated soils on a former petroleum refinery site...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330518/spartina-alterniflora-invasion-affects-soil-carbon-in-a-c3-plant-dominated-tidal-marsh
#5
Min Wang, Qing Wang, Chenyan Sha, Jiakuan Chen
The carbon cycle is significantly affected by Spartina alterniflora invasion through its impact on blue carbon in many salt marshes. To determine the impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC), we studied the vertical and horizontal distribution of SOC. And stable carbon isotopes were used to explore the impact of the age of S. alterniflora invasion on SOC in Chongming Dongtan wetland located in the Yangtze River estuary, China. The results showed that the SOC concentration was higher in the S. alterniflora community than that in the native Phragmites australis community...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330479/titania-tio2-nanoparticles-enhance-the-performance-of-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria
#6
Salme Timmusk, Gulaim Seisenbaeva, Lawrence Behers
A novel use of nanotitania (TNs) as agents in the nanointerface interaction between plants and colonization of growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is presented. The effectiveness of PGPRs is related to the effectiveness of the technology used for their formulation. TNs produced by the Captigel patented SolGel approach, characterized by the transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used for formulation of the harsh environment PGPR strains. Changes in the biomass of wheat seedlings and in the density of single and double inoculants with and without TNs were monitored during two weeks of stress induced by drought salt and by the pathogen Fusarium culmorum...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329376/soil-microbial-species-loss-affects-plant-biomass-and-survival-of-an-introduced-bacterial-strain-but-not-inducible-plant-defences
#7
Viola Kurm, Wim H van der Putten, Ana Pineda, W H Gera Hol
Background and Aims: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. Methods: To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329087/occurrence-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-in-garden-produce-at-homes-with-a-history-of-pfas-contaminated-drinking-water
#8
Deanna P Scher, James E Kelly, Carin A Huset, Kitrina M Barry, Richard W Hoffbeck, Virginia L Yingling, Rita B Messing
The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills resulted in contamination of groundwater serving as the drinking water supply for the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water, questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce...
December 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327437/intra-species-variation-in-a-widely-distributed-tree-species-regulates-the-responses-of-soil-microbiome-to-different-temperature-regimes
#9
Cui-Jing Zhang, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, John E Drake, Peter B Reich, Mark G Tjoelker, David T Tissue, Jun-Tao Wang, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Plant characteristics in different provenances within a single species may vary in response to climate change, which might alter soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions. We conducted a glasshouse experiment and grew seedlings of three provenances (temperate, subtropical and tropical origins) of a tree species (i.e. Eucalyptus tereticornis) at different growth temperatures (18, 21.5, 25, 28.5, 32 and 35.5°C) for 54 days. At the end of the experiment, bacterial and fungal community composition, diversity and abundance were characterized...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325570/de-novo-assembly-of-the-complex-genome-of-nippostrongylus-brasiliensis-using-minion-long-reads
#10
David Eccles, Jodie Chandler, Mali Camberis, Bernard Henrissat, Sergey Koren, Graham Le Gros, Jonathan J Ewbank
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic genome assembly remains a challenge in part due to the prevalence of complex DNA repeats. This is a particularly acute problem for holocentric nematodes because of the large number of satellite DNA sequences found throughout their genomes. These have been recalcitrant to most genome sequencing methods. At the same time, many nematodes are parasites and some represent a serious threat to human health. There is a pressing need for better molecular characterization of animal and plant parasitic nematodes...
January 11, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#11
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324980/traits-determining-the-digestibility-decomposability-relationships-in-species-from-mediterranean-rangelands
#12
Iris Bumb, Eric Garnier, Sylvain Coq, Johanne Nahmani, Maria Del Rey Granado, Olivier Gimenez, Elena Kazakou
Background and Aims: Forage quality for herbivores and litter quality for decomposers are two key plant properties affecting ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Although there is a positive relationship between palatability and decomposition, very few studies have focused on larger vertebrate herbivores while considering links between the digestibility of living leaves and stems and the decomposability of litter and associated traits. The hypothesis tested is that some defences of living organs would reduce their digestibility and, as a consequence, their litter decomposability, through 'afterlife' effects...
January 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323865/building-capacity-through-urban-agriculture-report-on-the-ask%C3%A3-y-project
#13
Wanda Martin, Lindsey Vold
INTRODUCTION: Many North American cities have a built environment that provides access to energy-dense food and little opportunity for active living. Urban agriculture contributes to a positive environment involving food plant cultivation that includes processing, storing, distributing and composting. It is a means to increase local food production and thereby improve community health. The purpose of this study was to understand how participating in urban agriculture can help to empower young adults and build capacity for growing food in the city...
January 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323767/high-land-use-intensity-exacerbates-shifts-in-grassland-vegetation-composition-after-severe-experimental-drought
#14
Andreas Stampfli, Juliette M G Bloor, Markus Fischer, Michaela Zeiter
Climate change projections anticipate increased frequency and intensity of drought stress but grassland responses to severe droughts and their potential to recover are poorly understood. In many grasslands, high land-use intensity has enhanced productivity and promoted resource-acquisitive species at the expense of resource-conservative ones. Such changes in plant functional composition could affect the resistance to drought and the recovery after drought of grassland ecosystems with consequences for feed productivity resilience and environmental stewardship...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322323/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-associated-microbial-communities-from-dry-grassland-do-not-improve-plant-growth-on-abandoned-field-soil
#15
Hana Pánková, Clémentine Lepinay, Jana Rydlová, Alena Voříšková, Martina Janoušková, Tomáš Dostálek, Zuzana Münzbergová
After abandonment of agricultural fields, some grassland plant species colonize these sites with a frequency equivalent to dry grasslands (generalists) while others are missing or underrepresented in abandoned fields (specialists). We aimed to understand the inability of specialists to spread on abandoned fields by exploring whether performance of generalists and specialists depended on soil abiotic and/or biotic legacy. We performed a greenhouse experiment with 12 species, six specialists and six generalists...
January 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321983/anti-paralytic-medicinal-plants-review
#16
REVIEW
Khaling Mikawlrawng, Roma Rani, Suresh Kumar, Ankur R Bhardwaj, Geeta Prakash
Paralysis is the loss of the ability of one or more muscles to move, due to disruption of signaling between the nervous system and muscles. The most common causes of paralysis are stroke, head injury, spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis. The search for cure of paralysis is yet to be found. Many ethnobotanical surveys have reported the use of medicinal plants by various ethnic communities in treating and curing paralysis. The present review discusses the use of medicinal plants in India for ameliorating and curing paralytic conditions, as well as discuses some of the important developments in future possible applications of medicinal plants in treatment of paralysis...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321897/nutrient-stoichiometry-and-land-use-rather-than-species-richness-determine-plant-functional-diversity
#17
Verena Busch, Valentin H Klaus, Caterina Penone, Deborah Schäfer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Jörg Müller, Stephanie A Socher, Ülo Niinemets, Josep Peñuelas, Norbert Hölzel, Markus Fischer, Till Kleinebecker
Plant functional traits reflect individual and community ecological strategies. They allow the detection of directional changes in community dynamics and ecosystemic processes, being an additional tool to assess biodiversity than species richness. Analysis of functional patterns in plant communities provides mechanistic insight into biodiversity alterations due to anthropogenic activity. Although studies have consi-dered of either anthropogenic management or nutrient availability on functional traits in temperate grasslands, studies combining effects of both drivers are scarce...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321893/opposing-deer-and-caterpillar-foraging-preferences-may-prevent-reductions-in-songbird-prey-biomass-in-historically-overbrowsed-forests
#18
R Keating Godfrey, Ellen H Yerger, Timothy J Nuttle
Overbrowsing by ungulates decimates plant populations and reduces diversity in a variety of ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which changes to plant community composition influence other trophic levels are poorly understood. In addition to removal of avian nesting habitat, browsing is hypothesized to reduce bird density and diversity through reduction of insect prey on browse-tolerant hosts left behind by deer. In this study, we excluded birds from branches of six tree species to quantify differences in songbird prey removal across trees that vary in deer browse preference...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321883/quantifying-the-effects-of-ecological-constraints-on-trait-expression-using-novel-trait-gradient-analysis-parameters
#19
Gianluigi Ottaviani, James L Tsakalos, Gunnar Keppel, Ladislav Mucina
Complex processes related to biotic and abiotic forces can impose limitations to assembly and composition of plant communities. Quantifying the effects of these constraints on plant functional traits across environmental gradients, and among communities, remains challenging. We define ecological constraint (Ci ) as the combined, limiting effect of biotic interactions and environmental filtering on trait expression (i.e., the mean value and range of functional traits). Here, we propose a set of novel parameters to quantify this constraint by extending the trait-gradient analysis (TGA) methodology...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#20
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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