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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087662/terpenoids-in-plant-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-reinforced-defence-against-herbivorous-insects
#1
REVIEW
Esha Sharma, Garima Anand, Rupam Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Plants, though sessile, employ various strategies to defend themselves against herbivorous insects and convey signals of an impending herbivore attack to other plant(s). Strategies include the production of volatiles that include terpenoids and the formation of symbiotic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). This constitutes a two-pronged above-ground/below-ground attack-defence strategy against insect herbivores. SCOPE: Terpenoids represent an important constituent of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that deter herbivores and/or attract their predators...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087661/disturbance-by-an-endemic-rodent-in-an-arid-shrubland-is-a-habitat-filter-effects-on-plant-invasion-and-taxonomical-functional-and-phylogenetic-community-structure
#2
Víctor M Escobedo, Rodrigo S Rios, Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Gisela C Stotz, Ernesto Gianoli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disturbance often drives plant invasion and may modify community assembly. However, little is known about how these modifications of community patterns occur in terms of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic structure. This study evaluated in an arid shrubland the influence of disturbance by an endemic rodent on community functional divergence and phylogenetic structure as well as on plant invasion. It was expected that disturbance would operate as a habitat filter favouring exotic species with short life cycles...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087658/are-winter-and-summer-dormancy-symmetrical-seasonal-adaptive-strategies-the-case-of-temperate-herbaceous-perennials
#3
REVIEW
Lauren M Gillespie, Florence A Volaire
BACKGROUND: Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. SCOPE: This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086808/a-quiet-harvest-linkage-between-ritual-seed-selection-and-the-historical-use-of-the-finger-bladed-knife-as-a-traditional-plant-breeding-tool-in-ifugao-philippines
#4
REVIEW
Kevin M Murphy
The transverse harvest knife, also commonly called the finger or finger-bladed knife, has been utilized by rice farmers in southeast Asia for many centuries. The finger knife persisted in many traditional cultures long after the introduction of the sickle, a tool which provided farmers with the means to execute a much faster harvest. Several theories in interpretative archaeology have attempted to account for this rejection of more modern technological innovations. These theories, which include community-based social organization ideas and practical reasons for the continued use of the finger knife, are presented in this paper...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080994/global-food-and-fibre-security-threatened-by-current-inefficiencies-in-fungal-identification
#5
REVIEW
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079008/walking-a-tightrope-a-perspective-of-resveratrol-effects-on-breast-cancer
#6
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078982/phytochemicals-a-novel-and-prominent-source-of-anti-cancer-drugs-against-colorectal-cancer
#7
Ravikiran Mahadevappa, Hang Fai Kwok
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant disease whose incidence and mortality rates are greatly influenced by environmental factors. Under-treatment of CRC such as a poor diagnostic evaluation, less aggressive surgery, less intensive chemotherapy results in metastasizing of the primary tumor cells and recurrence of cancer. Prolonged chemotherapy treatment against cancer is hazardous to the patients, which also limits its use in cancer therapy. Current research in developing a novel anti-cancer agent, direct towards finding a better anti-metastatic and an anti-invasive drug with reduced side effects...
January 12, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078388/high-stocking-density-controls-phillyrea-angustifolia-in-mediterranean-grasslands
#8
François Mesléard, Nicole Yavercovski, Gaétan Lefebvre, Loic Willm, Anne Bonis
Extensive grazing applied in the form of low instantaneous pressure over a long period is a widespread management practice in protected areas. However this kind of stocking method does not always achieve the expected results, in particular because it fails to limit colonization by woody plants.This is the case in the relict xero-halophytic grasslands of the northern Mediterranean coastal region, subjected to widespread colonization by the shrub Phillyrea angustifolia despite the presence of extensive grazing...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077773/low-functional-diversity-promotes-niche-changes-in-natural-island-pollinator-communities
#9
Masayoshi K Hiraiwa, Atushi Ushimaru
Functional diversity loss among pollinators has rapidly progressed across the globe and is expected to influence plant-pollinator interactions in natural communities. Although recent findings suggest that the disappearance of a certain pollinator functional group may cause niche expansions and/or shifts in other groups, no study has examined this prediction in natural communities with high plant and pollinator diversities. By comparing coastal pollination networks on continental and oceanic islands, we examined how community-level flower visit patterns are influenced by the relative biomass of long-tongued pollinators (RBLP)...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076412/significant-local-scale-plant-insect-species-richness-relationship-independent-of-abiotic-effects-in-the-temperate-cape-floristic-region-biodiversity-hotspot
#10
Jurene E Kemp, Allan G Ellis
Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074270/tree-leaf-litter-composition-drives-temporal-variation-in-aquatic-beetle-colonization-and-assemblage-structure-in-lentic-systems
#11
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater systems are a major resource and primary drivers of ecosystem processes and structure. Spatial variation in tree species distributions and forest composition control litter inputs across landscapes, but inputs to individual lentic habitat patches are determined by adjacent plant communities. In small, ephemeral, fishless ponds, resource quality and abundance can be the most important factor affecting habitat selection preferences of colonizing animals. We used a landscape of experimental mesocosms to assess how natural populations of aquatic beetles respond over time to variation in tree leaf litter composition (pine or hardwood)...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074233/microbial-diversity-in-different-compartments-of-an-aquaponics-system
#12
Zala Schmautz, Andreas Graber, Sebastian Jaenicke, Alexander Goesmann, Ranka Junge, Theo H M Smits
Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system...
January 10, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074042/different-clades-and-traits-yield-similar-grassland-functional-responses
#13
Elisabeth J Forrestel, Michael J Donoghue, Erika J Edwards, Walter Jetz, Justin C O du Toit, Melinda D Smith
Plant functional traits are viewed as key to predicting important ecosystem and community properties across resource gradients within and among biogeographic regions. Vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), are increasingly being modeled as a function of the quantitative traits of species, which are used as proxies for photosynthetic rates and nutrient and water-use efficiency. These approaches rely on an assumption that a certain trait value consistently confers a specific function or response under given environmental conditions...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073965/spread-of-mcr-1-carrying-enterobacteriaceae-in-sewage-water-from-spain
#14
C M Ovejero, J F Delgado-Blas, W Calero-Caceres, M Muniesa, B Gonzalez-Zorn
OBJECTIVES: The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been identified worldwide in human and animal sources, while its occurrence in the environment is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of mcr-1-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae in water samples obtained from rivers and waste water treatment plants in the area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: The presence of mcr-1 was detected by PCR. Bacterial identification was performed via MALDI-TOF MS...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072854/functional-richness-and-identity-do-not-strongly-affect-invasibility-of-constructed-dune-communities
#15
Tanya J Mason, Kristine French, Dianne F Jolley
Biotic effects are often used to explain community structure and invasion resistance. We evaluated the contribution of functional richness and identity to invasion resistance and abiotic resource availability using a mesocosm experiment. We predicted that higher functional richness would confer greater invasion resistance through greater resource sequestration. We also predicted that niche pre-emption and invasion resistance would be higher in communities which included functional groups similar to the invader than communities where all functional groups were distinct from the invader...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070812/plant-species-diversity-reduces-n2o-but-not-ch4-emissions-from-constructed-wetlands-under-high-nitrogen-levels
#16
Wenjuan Han, Mengmeng Shi, Jie Chang, Yuan Ren, Ronghua Xu, Chongbang Zhang, Ying Ge
Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used for treating wastewater. CWs also are the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) due to high pollutant load. It has been reported that plant species diversity can enhance nitrogen (N) removal efficiency in CWs for treating wastewater. However, the influence of plant species diversity on GHG emissions from CWs in habitats with high N levels still lack research. This study established four species richness levels (1, 2, 3, 4) and 15 species compositions by using 75 simulated vertical flow CWs microcosms to investigate the effects of plant species diversity on the GHG emissions and N removal efficiency of CWs with a high N level...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070700/clouds-homogenize-shoot-temperatures-transpiration-and-photosynthesis-within-crowns-of-abies-fraseri-pursh-poiret
#17
J Melissa Hernandez-Moreno, Nicole M Bayeur, Harold D Coley, Nicole M Hughes
Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070285/the-contribution-of-nitrogen-deposition-to-the-eutrophication-signal-in-understorey-plant-communities-of-european-forests
#18
Han F van Dobben, Wim de Vries
We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and temporal effects of deposition can be detected by a multiple regression approach using data from managed forests over a relatively short time interval, in which changes in the tree layer are limited. To characterize the vegetation, we used indicators derived from cover percentages per species using multivariate statistics and indicators derived from the presence/absence, that is, species numbers and Ellenberg's indicator values...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069559/proteomic-insights-into-mannan-degradation-and-protein-secretion-by-the-forest-floor-bacterium-chitinophaga-pinensis
#19
Johan Larsbrink, Tina R Tuveng, Phillip B Pope, Vincent Bulone, Vincent G H Eijsink, Harry Brumer, Lauren S McKee
: Together with fungi, saprophytic bacteria are central to the decomposition and recycling of biomass in forest environments. The Bacteroidetes phylum is abundant in diverse habitats, and several species have been shown to be able to deconstruct a wide variety of complex carbohydrates. The genus Chitinophaga is often enriched in hotspots of plant and microbial biomass degradation. We present a proteomic assessment of the ability of Chitinophaga pinensis to grow on and degrade mannan polysaccharides, using an agarose plate-based method of protein collection to minimise contamination with exopolysaccharides and proteins from lysed cells, and to reflect the realistic setting of growth on a solid surface...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069308/partition-and-fate-analysis-of-fluoroquinolones-in-sewage-sludge-during-anaerobic-digestion-with-thermal-hydrolysis-pretreatment
#20
Ning Li, Huajie Liu, Yonggang Xue, Hongyang Wang, Xiaohu Dai
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotics that play an important role in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. FQs can reach wastewater treatment plants from different routes, and eventually accumulate in activated sludge. In this study, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) with HPLC-FLD detection method was utilized to investigate the partition and fate of FQs in digested sludge when thermal hydrolysis was used as pretreatment. As a result, thermal hydrolysis showed minor effects on the fate of FQs in batch anaerobic digestion processes, while anaerobic digestion alone removed >60% FQs and finally assisted in the mitigation of the inhibitory effects to microbial communities...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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