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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161655/the-association-between-ambient-temperature-and-mortality-in-south-africa-a-time-series-analysis
#1
Noah Scovronick, Francesco Sera, Fiorella Acquaotta, Diego Garzena, Simona Fratianni, Caradee Y Wright, Antonio Gasparrini
BACKGROUND: There is an extensive literature describing temperature-mortality associations in developed regions, but research from developing countries, and Africa in particular, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis using daily temperature data and a national dataset of all 8.8 million recorded deaths in South Africa between 1997 and 2013. Mortality and temperature data were linked at the district municipality level and relationships were estimated with a distributed lag non-linear model with 21 days of lag, and pooled in a multivariate meta-analysis...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158117/cold-acclimation-and-cognitive-performance-a-review
#2
Douglas M Jones, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements...
November 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157328/peer-effects-on-self-regulation-in-adolescence-depend-on-the-nature-and-quality-of-the-peer-interaction
#3
Kevin M King, Katie A McLaughlin, Jennifer Silk, Kathryn C Monahan
Adolescence is a critical period for the development of self-regulation, and peer interactions are thought to strongly influence regulation ability. Simple exposure to peers has been found to alter decisions about risky behaviors and increase sensitivity to rewards. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of the type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). Little is known about how the nature of interactions with peers influences different dimensions of self-regulation...
November 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154047/association-of-diurnal-temperature-range-with-daily-mortality-in-england-and-wales-a-nationwide-time-series-study
#4
Yunquan Zhang, Minjin Peng, Lu Wang, Chuanhua Yu
BACKGROUND: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) reflects within-day temperature variability and is closely associated with climate change. In comparison to temperature extremes, up-to-date DTR-health evidence at the regional and national scales has been still very limited worldwide, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide nationwide estimates for DTR-associated effects on mortality, and explore whether season and regional-level characteristics modify DTR-mortality relation in United Kingdom...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151156/deep-rnaseq-indicates-protective-mechanisms-of-cold-tolerant-indica-rice-plants-during-early-vegetative-stage
#5
Raul Antonio Sperotto, Artur Teixeira de Araújo Junior, Janete Mariza Adamski, Denise Cargnelutti, Felipe Klein Ricachenevsky, Ben-Hur Neves de Oliveira, Renata Pereira da Cruz, Rinaldo Pires Dos Santos, Leila Picolli da Silva, Janette Palma Fett
Cold-tolerance in rice may be related to increased cellulose deposition in the cell wall, membrane fatty acids unsaturation and differential expression of several newly identified genes. Low temperature exposure during early vegetative stages limits rice plant's growth and development. Most genes previously related to cold tolerance in rice are from the japonica subspecies. To help clarify the mechanisms that regulate cold tolerance in young indica rice plants, comparative transcriptome analysis of 6 h cold-treated (10 °C) leaves from two genotypes, cold-tolerant (CT) and cold-sensitive (CS), was performed...
November 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146150/the-effect-of-cold-acclimation-on-active-ion-transport-in-cricket-ionoregulatory-tissues
#6
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Soheila Khazraeenia, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini, Natalia G Li, Brent J Sinclair
Cold-acclimated insects defend ion and water transport function during cold exposure. We hypothesized that this is achieved via enhanced active transport. The Malpighian tubules and rectum are likely targets for such transport modifications, and recent transcriptomic studies indicate shifts in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (NKA) and V-ATPase expression in these tissues following cold acclimation. Here we quantify the effect of cold acclimation (one week at 12°C) on active transport in the ionoregulatory organs of adult Gryllus pennsylvanicus field crickets...
November 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143709/acute-and-chronic-cold-exposure-differentially-affects-the-browning-of-porcine-white-adipose-tissue
#7
Y Gao, N R Qimuge, J Qin, R Cai, X Li, G Y Chu, W J Pang, G S Yang
Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal's response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141343/-study-on-influence-of-air-temperature-on-daily-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-mortality-in-ningbo
#8
B B Lu, S H Gu, A H Wang, T Ge, Y Wang, X H Li, G Z Xu
Objective: To study the influence of daily air temperature on daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality in residents in Ningbo. Methods: A time-series analysis using distributional lag non-linear model (DLNM) was conducted to estimate the attributable numbers and fraction of average air temperature on the daily COPD mortality in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, by controlling the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollutants and other weather variables. Results: A reverse J-shape relationship was found between the average air temperature and COPD mortality, and the minimum-mortality temperature (MMT) was 25...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139032/radium-biophysics-and-radiobiology-tracing-the-history-of-radiobiology-in-twentieth-century-china
#9
Christine Yi Lai Luk
Radiobiology assesses the biological hazards of exposure to radioactive substances and nuclear radiation. This article explores the history of radiobiology in twentieth-century China by examining the overlapping of radium research and biophysics, from roughly the 1920s Nationalist period to the 1960s Communist period; from the foreign purchase of radium by the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board during the Republican era, to the institutional establishment of radiobiology as a subset of biophysics in the People's Republic...
November 2, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138470/obesity-promoting-and-anti-thermogenic-effects-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-mice
#10
Akira Ishii, Goro Katsuura, Hirotaka Imamaki, Hiroyuki Kimura, Keita P Mori, Takashige Kuwabara, Masato Kasahara, Hideki Yokoi, Kousaku Ohinata, Tomoko Kawanishi, Junichi Tsuchida, Yuji Nakamoto, Kazuwa Nakao, Motoko Yanagita, Masashi Mukoyama, Kiyoshi Mori
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, lipocalin 2 or LCN2) is an iron carrier protein whose circulating level is increased by kidney injury, bacterial infection and obesity, but its metabolic consequence remains elusive. To study physiological role of LCN2 in energy homeostasis, we challenged female Lcn2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with high fat diet (HFD) or cold exposure. Under normal diet, physical constitutions of Lcn2 KO and WT mice were indistinguishable. During HFD treatment, Lcn2 KO mice exhibited larger brown adipose tissues (BAT), consumed more oxygen, ate more food and gained less body weights as compared to WT mice...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138350/the-dead-box-rna-helicase-rh50-is-a-23s-4-5s-rrna-maturation-factor-that-functionally-overlaps-with-the-plastid-signaling-factor-gun1
#11
Francesca Paieri, Luca Tadini, Nikolay Manavski, Tatjana Kleine, Roberto Ferrari, Pietro Angelo Morandini, Paolo Pesaresi, Jörg Meurer, Dario Leister
DEAD-box RNA helicases (DBRHs) modulate RNA secondary structure, allowing RNA molecules to adopt the conformations required for interaction with their target proteins. RH50 is a chloroplast-located DBRH that co-localizes and is co-expressed with GUN1, a central factor in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. When combined with mutations that impair plastid gene expression (prors1-1, prpl11-1, prps1-1, prps21-1, prps17-1 and prpl24-1), rh50 and gun1 mutations evoke similar patterns of epistatic effects. These observations, together with the synergistic growth phenotype of the double mutant rh50-1 gun1-102, suggest that RH50 and GUN1 are functionally related and that this function is associated with plastid gene expression, in particular ribosome functioning...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138018/anti-tumor-effects-of-cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-on-vestibular-schwannoma-demonstrate-its-feasibility-as-an-intra-operative-adjuvant-treatment
#12
Yeo Jun Yoon, Michelle J Suh, Hyun Young Lee, Hae June Lee, Eun Ha Choi, In Seok Moon, Kiwon Song
Vestibular schwannoma (VS), although a benign intracranial tumor, causes morbidities by brainstem compression. Since chemotherapy is not very effective in most Nf2-negative schwannomas, surgical removal or radiation therapy is required. However, depending on the size and site of the tumor, these approaches may cause loss of auditory or vestibular functions, and severely decrease the post-surgical wellbeing. Here, we examined the feasibility of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) as an intra-operative adjuvant treatment for VS after surgery...
November 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134977/metformin-effects-are-augmented-by-chronic-intermittent-cold-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-male-wistar-rats
#13
A O Ige, O I Iwaloye, E O Adewoye
This study investigated the effects of metformin on some glucose regulatory indices in high fat diet (HFD) fedmale Wistar rats exposed to room temperature and chronic intermittent cold stress (CICS). Thirty rats were randomly dividedinto 5 groups. Group 1(control) was maintained on standard rat chow while groups 2-5 were maintained on HFD for 8weeksrespectively prior to experimental procedures. Control, group 2(HFD untreated) and group 3(HFD+metformin (250mg/kg)were exposed to room temperature while groups 4(HFD untreated+CICS) and 5(HFD+CICS+metformin) were exposed toCICS for 21days...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#14
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134130/recent-progress-in-the-research-of-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein
#15
REVIEW
Peng Zhong, He Huang
Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a cold-shock protein which can be induced after exposure to a moderate cold-shock in different species ranging from amphibians to humans. Expression of CIRP can also be regulated by hypoxia, UV radiation, glucose deprivation, heat stress and H2O2, suggesting that CIRP is a general stress-response protein. In response to stress, CIRP can migrate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and regulate mRNA stability through its binding site on the 3'-UTR of its targeted mRNAs...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133253/the-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-responses-of-live-chinese-shrimp-fenneropenaeuschinensis-to-low-temperature-and-air-exposure
#16
Zihan Xu, Joe M Regenstein, Dandan Xie, Wenjing Lu, Xingchen Ren, Jiajia Yuan, Linchun Mao
Low temperature and air exposure were the key attributes for waterless transportation of fish and shrimp. In order to investigate the oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of the live shrimp Fenneropenaeuschinensis in the mimic waterless transportation, live Chinese shrimp were cooled at 13 °C for 3 min, stored in oxygen at 15 °C for 12 h, and then revived in water at 25 °C. The survival rate of shrimp under this waterless transportation system was over 86.67%. The ultrastructure of hepatopancreas cells were observed while activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), antisuperoxide anion free radicals (ASAFR), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative mRNA expressions of CAT and GSH-Px in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas were determined...
November 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133227/chilling-effect-on-termination-of-reproductive-diapause-in-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#17
Shaohui Wu, Olga S Kostromytska, Fangsen Xue, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
Diapausing adults of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis, were collected from their hibernating sites at different times in autumn and winter, and subjected to different conditions to observe diapause termination by dissecting and measuring the reproductive organs. When diapausing weevils were maintained under laboratory cold conditions (10 h light at 6°C:14 h dark at 4°C) from early December to late March, the sizes of reproductive organs of both sexes increased or fluctuated slightly, and very few females had developing oocytes, suggesting that most adults did not resume development during the chilling period...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129757/respiration-based-monitoring-of-metabolic-rate-following-cold-exposure-in-two-invasive-anoplophora-species-depending-on-acclimation-regime
#18
M Javal, A Roques, G Roux, M Laparie
The Asian and Citrus longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB) and A. chinensis (CLB) respectively, are two closely related invasive species with overlapping native ranges. Although both species have rather similar biological characteristics, they differ in their invasion patterns. ALB shows numerous, but local, outbreaks in urban areas of North-East America, Western and Central Europe, whereas CLB has colonized a large part of Northern Italy. Temperature is pivotal in setting distribution limits of ectotherms...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127030/hybridization-improved-bacteria-resistance-in-abalone-evidence-from-physiological-and-molecular-responses
#19
Shuang Liang, Xuan Luo, Weiwei You, Caihuan Ke
Hybridization is an effective way of improving germplasm in abalone, as it often generates benign traits in the hybrids. The hybrids of Haliotis discus hannai and H. gigantea have shown heterosis in terms of disease resistance than one or both parental species. In the present study, to elucidate the physiological and molecular mechanism of this heterosis, we analyzed the dynamic changes of several immune indexes including survival rate, total circulating haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species level (ROS) and phenoloxidase activity (PO) in two parental species, H...
November 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125703/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-mavatrep-jnj-39439335-a-trpv1-antagonist-in-healthy-japanese-and-caucasian-men-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-sequential-group-phase-1-study
#20
Prasarn Manitpisitkul, Kevin Shalayda, Lucille Russell, Panna Sanga, Bhavna Solanki, Joseph Caruso, Yuki Iwaki, John A Moyer
This single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential-group phase 1 study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of mavatrep (JNJ-39439335), a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist, in healthy Japanese and caucasian subjects. In part 1, a single-ascending-dose study, 50 subjects (25 each healthy Japanese and caucasians) were enrolled and received a single oral dose of 10, 25, or 50 mg mavatrep. Caucasian subjects were matched to Japanese subjects with respect to age (±5 years) and body mass index (±5 kg/m(2) )...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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