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Antimicrobial Activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635681/antimicrobial-activity-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-ti-6al-4v-metal-oxide
#1
Nina A Reger, Wilson S Meng, Ellen S Gawalt
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635669/modulation-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-production-by-viruses
#2
REVIEW
Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Gill Diamond
While initially identified as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, constitutively expressed in epithelia, human β-defensin (hBD)-1 is now recognized to have a more complex pattern of expression of its gene, DEFB1, as well as activities that extend beyond direct antimicrobial. These observations suggest a complex role for hBD-1 in the host defense against viral infections, as evidenced by its expression in cells involved in viral defense, and its gene regulation in response to viral challenge. This regulation is observed both in vitro and in vivo in humans, as well as with the murine homolog, mBD-1...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#3
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635307/synthesis-evaluation-and-modeling-of-some-triazolothienopyrimidinones-as-anti-inflammatory-and-antimicrobial-agents
#4
Adnan A Bekhit, Ahmed M Farghaly, Ragab M Shafik, Mona Ma Elsemary, Mai S El-Shoukrofy, Alaa El-Din A Bekhit, Tamer M Ibrahim
AIM: New triazolotetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidinone derivatives were synthesized. EXPERIMENTAL: Their structures were confirmed, and their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activities and ulcerogenic potentials were evaluated. RESULTS: Compounds 7a, 10a and 11a showed minimal ulcerogenic effect and high selectivity toward human recombinant COX-2 over COX-1 enzyme with IC50 values of 1.39, 1.22 and 0.56 μM, respectively. Their docking outcome correlated with their biological activity and confirmed the high selectivity binding toward COX-2...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#5
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634477/metabolomic-analysis-and-mode-of-action-of-metabolites-of-tea-tree-oil-involved-in-the-suppression-of-botrytis-cinerea
#6
Jiayu Xu, Xingfeng Shao, Yonghua Li, Yingying Wei, Feng Xu, Hongfei Wang
Tea tree oil (TTO), a volatile essential oil, has been widely used as an antimicrobial agent. However, the mechanism underlying TTO antifungal activity is not fully understood. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomics survey was undertaken to identify changes in metabolite production in Botrytis cinerea cells treated with TTO. Significant differences in 91 metabolites were observed, including 8 upregulated and 83 downregulated metabolites in TTO-treated cells. The results indicate that TTO inhibits primary metabolic pathways through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634472/antifungal-activity-against-filamentous-fungi-of-ts1-a-multifunctional-toxin-from-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom
#7
Welligton M Santussi, Karla C F Bordon, Ana P N Rodrigues Alves, Camila T Cologna, Suraia Said, Eliane C Arantes
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The search for new AMPs has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv), its fractions and its major toxin Ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. The fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography of Tsv. The growth inhibition of 11 pathogenic and non-pathogenic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634471/a-chitin-binding-protein-purified-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-presents-anticandidal-activity-by-increasing-cell-membrane-permeability-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#8
João X S Neto, Mirella L Pereira, Jose T A Oliveira, Lady C B Rocha-Bezerra, Tiago D P Lopes, Helen P S Costa, Daniele O B Sousa, Bruno A M Rocha, Thalles B Grangeiro, José E C Freire, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Marina D P Lobo, Raimunda S N Brilhante, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634338/coumarin-benzimidazole-hybrids-as-a-potent-antimicrobial-agent-synthesis-and-biological-elevation
#9
L Ravithej Singh, Srinivasa Rao Avula, Sneha Raj, Akanksha Srivastava, Gopala Reddy Palnati, C K M Tripathi, Mukesh Pasupuleti, Koneni V Sashidhara
Molecular hybridization approach is an emerging tool in drug discovery for designing new pharmacophores with biological activity. A novel, new series of coumarin-benzimidazole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Among all the synthesized molecules, compound (E)-3-(2-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-1-((4-chlorobenzyl)oxy)imino)ethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one showed the most promising broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634040/1-2-4-triazole-and-1-3-4-oxadiazole-analogues-synthesis-mo-studies-in-silico-molecular-docking-studies-antimalarial-as-dhfr-inhibitor-and-antimicrobial-activities
#10
Sampark S Thakkar, Parth Thakor, Hiren Doshi, Arabinda Ray
1,2,4-Triazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues are of interest due to their potential activity against microbial and malarial infections. In search of suitable antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds, we report here the synthesis, characterization and biological activities of 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues (SS 1-SS 10). The molecules were characterized by IR, mass, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and elemental analysis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was investigated against pathogenic strains, the results were explained with the help of DFT and PM6 molecular orbital calculations...
May 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634035/psoriasis-associated-late-cornified-envelope-lce-proteins-have-antibacterial-activity
#11
Hanna Niehues, Lam C Tsoi, Danique A van der Krieken, Patrick A M Jansen, Merel A W Oortveld, Diana Rodijk-Olthuis, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen, Wiljan J A J Hendriks, Richard W Helder, Joke A Bouwstra, Ellen H van den Bogaard, Philip E Stuart, Rajan P Nair, James T Elder, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Joost Schalkwijk
Terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocytes express a large number of structural and antimicrobial proteins that are involved in the physical barrier function of the stratum corneum and provide innate cutaneous host defense. Late cornified envelope (LCE) genes, located in the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1, encode a family of 18 proteins of unknown function, whose expression is largely restricted to epidermis. Deletion of two members, LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3B/C-del), is a widely replicated psoriasis risk factor that interacts with the major psoriasis-psoriasis risk gene HLA-C*06...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633850/stabilization-of-nano-structured-zno-particles-onto-the-surface-of-cotton-fibers-using-different-surfactants-and-their-antimicrobial-activity
#12
Issa M El-Nahhal, Abdelraouf A Elmanama, Nizam M El Ashgar, Nadia Amara, Mohamed Selmane, Mohamed M Chehimi
ZnO NPs were prepared and deposited onto cotton fibers via ultrasound irradiation successfully. Different surfactants (SDS, HY, CTAB, TX-100) have been used to stabilize, homogenize the coated ZnO NPs and control their shape and size as encapsulated species. The use of surfactants has improved the durability of ZnO NPs and decreased its leaching in particular SDS. The small mean crystallite size for ZnO particles due to the use of surfactants is the main reason for decreasing the leached of ZnO particles from cotton substrate...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633584/variation-of-alkaloid-contents-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-papaver-rhoeas-l-growing-in-turkey-and-northern-cyprus
#13
İlkcan Çoban, Gizem Gülsoy Toplan, Berna Özbek, Çağlayan Unsal Gürer, Günay Sarıyar
CONTEXT: Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae) corn poppy, widely distributed in Turkey, is used to make a cough syrup for children, as a tea for disturbed sleep, for pain relief and as a sedative in folk medicine. OBJECTIVE: Samples of P. rhoeas collected from eight different locations in Turkey and three from northern Cyprus were investigated for their alkaloid content and screened for their antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the aerial parts of P...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633446/genetic-indicators-of-drug-resistance-in-the-highly-repetitive-genome-of-trichomonas-vaginalis
#14
Martina Bradic, Sally D Warring, Grace E Tooley, Paul Scheid, William E Secor, Kirkwood M Land, Po-Jung Huang, Ting-Wen Chen, Chi-Ching Lee, Petrus Tang, Steven A Sullivan, Jane M Carlton
Trichomonas vaginalis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted parasite, causes ∼283 million trichomoniasis infections annually and is associated with pregnancy complications and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The antimicrobial drug metronidazole is used for treatment, but in a fraction of clinical cases, the parasites can become resistant to this drug. We undertook sequencing of multiple clinical isolates and lab derived lines to identify genetic markers and mechanisms of metronidazole resistance...
June 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633414/an-extended-model-of-heartwood-secondary-metabolism-informed-by-functional-genomics
#15
Jose M Celedon, Jörg Bohlmann
The development of heartwood (HW) and the associated accumulation of secondary metabolites, which are also known as 'specialized metabolites' or 'extractives', is an important feature of tree biology. Heartwood development can affect tree health with broader implications for forest health. Heartwood development also defines a variety of wood quality traits that are important in the forest industry such as durability and colour of wood products. In the bioproducts industry, HW provides a source of high-value small molecules such as fragrances and antimicrobials...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632895/genome-mining-reveals-high-incidence-of-putative-lipopeptide-biosynthesis-nrps-pks-clusters-containing-fatty-acyl-amp-ligase-genes-in-biofilm-forming-cyanobacteria
#16
Tomáš Galica, Pavel Hrouzek, Jan Mareš
Cyanobacterial lipopeptides exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal bioactivities with potential for use in pharmaceutical research. However, due to their haemolytic activity and cytotoxic effects against human cells, they may pose a health issue if produced in substantial amounts in the environment. In bacteria, lipopeptides can be synthesized via several well-evidenced mechanisms. In one of them, fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) initiates the biosynthesis by activation of a fatty acyl residue. We have performed a bioinformatic survey of the cyanobacterial genomic information available in the public databases for the presence of FAAL-containing non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase (NRPS/PKS) biosynthetic clusters, as a genetic basis for lipopeptide biosynthesis...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632788/high-throughput-identification-and-rational-design-of-synergistic-small-molecule-pairs-for-combating-and-bypassing-antibiotic-resistance
#17
Morgan A Wambaugh, Viplendra P S Shakya, Adam J Lewis, Matthew A Mulvey, Jessica C S Brown
Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#18
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631307/interventions-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-erysipelas-and-cellulitis
#19
REVIEW
Adam Dalal, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Daniel Mimouni, Sujoy Ray, Walford Days, Emmilia Hodak, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631214/identification-of-bufadienolides-from-the-boreal-toad-anaxyrus-boreas-active-against-a-fungal-pathogen
#20
Kelly Barnhart, Megan E Forman, Thomas P Umile, Jordan Kueneman, Valerie McKenzie, Irene Salinas, Kevin P C Minbiole, Douglas C Woodhams
Amphibian granular glands provide a wide range of compounds on the skin that defend against pathogens and predators. We identified three bufadienolides-the steroid-like compounds arenobufagin, gamabufotalin, and telocinobufagin-from the boreal toad, Anaxyrus boreas, through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Compounds were detected both after inducing skin gland secretions and in constitutive mucosal rinses from toads. We described the antimicrobial properties of each bufadienolide against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), an amphibian fungal pathogen linked with boreal toad population declines...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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