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Antimicrobial Activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823054/recent-advances-in-synthetic-lipopeptides-as-anti-microbial-agents-designs-and-synthetic-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Infectious diseases impose serious public health burdens and continue to be a global public health crisis. The treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is challenging because only a few viable therapeutic options are clinically available. The emergence and risk of drug-resistant superbugs and the dearth of new classes of antibiotics have drawn increasing awareness that we may return to the pre-antibiotic era. To date, lipopeptides have been received considerable attention because of the following properties: They exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of pathogens, rapid bactericidal activity and have a different antimicrobial action compared with most of the conventional antibiotics used today and very slow development of drug resistance tendency...
August 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823045/killing-activity-of-lfchimera-on-periodontopathic-bacteria-and-multispecies-oral-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#2
Sopita Ruangcharoen, Waraporn Suwannarong, Marie Rossini Carmela T Lachica, Jan G M Bolscher, Kamran Nazmi, Watcharee Khunkitti, Suwimol Taweechaisupapong
Lactoferrin chimera (LFchimera), a heterodimeric peptide containing lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284) and a part of lactoferricin (LFcin17-30), possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, there is no report on the inhibitory effects of LFchimera against multispecies oral biofilms. This study aimed to determine the effects of LFchimera in comparison to chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and minocycline hydrochloride (MH), on in vitro multispecies biofilms derived from subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients harboring Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans...
August 19, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822873/surface-modification-of-an-intraocular-lens-material-by-plasma-assisted-grafting-with-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-for-controlled-release-of-moxifloxacin
#3
A Paula Vieira, Andreia F R Pimenta, Diana Silva, M Helena Gil, Patrícia Alves, Patrícia Coimbra, José L G C Mata, Dimitriya Bozukova, Tiago R Correia, Ilídio J Correia, A Paula Serro, A Jorge Guiomar
Endophthalmitis, an inflammation of the eye due to perioperative infection, may occur after cataract surgery. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) loaded with an antibiotic have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional postoperative endophthalmitis prophylaxis, since the antibiotic is delivered directly to the target site. In this work, an IOL-based antibiotic releasing system was prepared from a copolymer used in the production of IOLs and a fluoroquinolone used in endophthalmitis prophylaxis (moxifloxacin, MFX)...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#4
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822220/eremophilane-type-sesquiterpenes-from-fungi-and-their-medicinal-potential
#5
Kamila Tomoko Yuyama, Diana Fortkamp, Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Eremophilanes are sesquiterpenes with a rearranged carbon skeleton formed both by plants and fungi, however, almost no plant eremophilanes are found in fungi. These eremophilanes possess mainly phytotoxic, antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory properties and in this review fungal eremophilanes with bioactivities of potential medicinal applications are reviewed and discussed. A special focus is set on natural products bearing highly functionalized fatty acids at C-1 or C-3 position of the eremophilane backbone...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822150/-antimicrobial-and-anti-tumor-activities-of-endophytes-from-lycium-barbarum-of-ningxia
#6
Jin-Xia Dai, Xiao-Ning Du
The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in vitro of the fermentation broth of 10 endophytic strains isolated from Lycium barbarum were determined to screen high activity endophytic strains. Sequences analysis of ITS and 16S rDNA was used for molecular identification of the strains. The results showed that 5 endophytic fungi had no inhibitory activity against the tested pathogens. Endophytic actinomycete strain AL6 had a certain inhibitory effect on 3 kinds of pathogenic fungi, and strain AL5 only had strong inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821717/promysalin-is-a-salicylate-containing-antimicrobial-with-a-cell-membrane-disrupting-mechanism-of-action-on-gram-positive-bacteria
#7
Rahul D Kaduskar, Giulia Della Scala, Zaaima J H Al Jabri, Stefania Arioli, Loana Musso, Marco R Oggioni, Sabrina Dallavalle, Diego Mora
Promysalin was previously described as a narrow spectrum molecule with a unique species-specific activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we demonstrate that promysalin is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a microdilution assay. Promysalin acts on Gram-positive bacteria with a mechanism of action involving cell membrane damage with leakage of intracellular components. The evaluation of MICs and MBCs on 11 promysalin analogs, synthesized utilizing diverted total synthesis, allowed the identification of the structural moieties potentially involved in cell membrane interaction and damage...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821610/a-screen-for-kinase-inhibitors-identifies-antimicrobial-imidazopyridine-aminofurazans-as-specific-inhibitors-of-the-listeria-monocytogenes-pasta-kinase-prka
#8
Adam J Schaenzer, Nathan Wlodarchak, David H Drewry, William J Zuercher, Warren E Rose, Rob Striker, John-Demian Sauer
Bacterial signaling systems such as protein kinases and quorum sensing have become increasingly attractive targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents in a time of rising antibiotic resistance. The family of bacterial Penicillin-binding-protein And Serine/Threonine kinase-Associated (PASTA) kinases is of particular interest due to the role of these kinases in regulating resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. As such, small-molecule kinase inhibitors that target PASTA kinases may prove beneficial as treatments adjunctive to β-lactam therapy...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821452/pinocembrin-a-novel-histidine-decarboxylase-inhibitor-with-anti-allergic-potential-in-in-vitro
#9
Hamza Hanieh, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul Islam, Subramanian Saravanan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Kessavane Ragul, Arumugam Durga, Kaliyamoorthy Venugopal, Venugopal Senthilkumar, Palanisamy Senthilkumar, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
Pinocembrin (5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone) is the most abundant chiral flavonoid found in propolis, exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of Pinocembrin on allergic response is unexplored. Thus, current study aimed at investigating the effects of Pinocembrin on IgE-mediated allergic response in vitro. A special emphasis was directed toward histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and other pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary studies, using a microbiological model of Klebsiella pneumoniae, provided first evidences that suggest Pinocembrin as a potential thermal stable inhibitor for HDC...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821240/avbd1-nucleotide-polymorphisms-peptide-antimicrobial-activities-and-microbial-colonisation-of-the-broiler-chicken-gut
#10
Kevin Cadwell, Sherko S Niranji, Vanessa L Armstrong, Catherine A Mowbray, Richard Bailey, Kellie A Watson, Judith Hall
BACKGROUND: The importance of poultry as a global source of protein underpins the chicken genome and associated SNP data as key tools in selecting and breeding healthy robust birds with improved disease resistance. SNPs affecting host peptides involved in the innate defences tend to be rare, but three non-synonymous SNPs in the avian β-defensin (AvBD1) gene encoding the variant peptides NYH, SSY and NYY were identified that segregated specifically to three lines of commercial broiler chickens Line X (LX), Line Y(LY) and Line Z...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821158/synthesis-characterization-bioactivity-and-potential-application-of-phenolic-acid-grafted-chitosan-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Huimin Pu, Shuang Liu, Juan Kan, Changhai Jin
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the grafting of phenolic acid onto chitosan in order to enhance the bioactivity and widen the application of chitosan. Here, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of phenolic acid grafted chitosan (phenolic acid-g-chitosan) in many aspects, including the synthetic method, structural characterization, biological activity, physicochemical property and potential application. In general, four kinds of techniques including carbodiimide based coupling, enzyme catalyzed grafting, free radical mediated grafting and electrochemical methods are frequently used for the synthesis of phenolic acid-g-chitosan...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821119/tailoring-of-temperature-and-ph-responsive-cotton-fabric-with-antimicrobial-activity-effect-of-the-concentration-of-a-bio-barrier-forming-agent
#12
Danaja Štular, Ivan Jerman, Barbara Simončič, Brigita Tomšič
A stimuli-responsive cotton fabric was designed using temperature and pH-responsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (poly-NiPAAm) and chitosan (PNCS) microgel as a carrier of antimicrobially active 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Si-QAC), which forms a bio-barrier on the fibre surface. The influence of Si-QAC on the moisture management and thermoregulation abilities of the PNCS microgel was investigated. Using a pad-dry cure method, Si-QAC was applied to a 100% cotton fabric model in concentrations ranging from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821116/active-release-coating-of-multilayer-assembled-branched-and-ionic-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-onto-poly-ethylene-terephthalate
#13
Leyre Pérez-Álvarez, Leire Ruiz-Rubio, Erlantz Lizundia, Estíbaliz Hernáez, Luis M León, Jose Luis Vilas-Vilela
Branched ionic cyclodextrins multilayers were assembled onto the surface of previously aminolyzed poly(ethylene terephthalate) in order to construct local drug delivery tailored platforms with potential applicability as materials for indwelling medical devices. The construction of the multilayers took place by the alternate deposition of ionic cyclodextrin derivatives and was characterized by surface zeta-potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and, after fluorescent labeling of anionic branched cyclodextrins, by UV-vis spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence spectroscopy...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821108/modified-bacterial-cellulose-based-self-healable-polyeloctrolyte-film-for-wound-dressing-application
#14
Moumita Khamrai, Sovan Lal Banerjee, Patit P Kundu
In this investigation, we prepare a self-healable polyelectrolyte film via crosslinking the cationically charged chitosan (Cts) with anionically modified bacterial cellulose (BC), which is a green source of nano-filler. This polyelectrolyte film is able to show dynamic self-healing activity at physiological pH condition via adapting ionic interaction, a state of non-covalent bond. BC was prepared using Glucanoacetobacter xylinus (MTCC7795) bacteria and after that its surface was modified with anionic poly(acrylic acid) using "grafting from" technique...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821038/the-inhibition-of-lps-induced-inflammation-in-raw264-7-macrophages-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-by-highly-n-acetylated-chitooligosaccharide
#15
Qingsong Xu, Meisi Liu, Qishun Liu, Wenxia Wang, Yuguang Du, Heng Yin
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has been shown to regulate many biological functions, such as antimicrobial effect and antitumor activity. In the present study, highly N-acetylated chitooligosaccharide (NACOS) was prepared by N-acetylation of COS, and the anti-inflammatory activity of NACOS in macrophages were evaluated. The results indicated NACOS significantly suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Furthermore, the increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were repressed by NACOS in a dose dependent manner...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821033/novel-nitroaniline-cellulose-nanohybrids-nitro-radical-photo-release-and-its-antibacterial-action
#16
Prashant Chauhan, Ning Yan
In this study, carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose is surface functionalized by a chromophoric nitro radical (NO) photodonor via covalent bonding. The resulting new photoactive nanohybrid material displays an effective photogeneration of NO radicals upon illumination by light. The release of NO radicals has been chemically detected by various spectroscopic techniques. The bactericidal activity of the novel nanohybrid is effectively demonstrated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria with light...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821026/ultrahigh-antibacterial-efficacy-of-meropenem-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-a-septic-animal-model
#17
Ayat Abdelkader, Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Ola Abdelkader, Mostafa A Hamad, Mahmoud Elsabahy, Omaima N El-Gazayerly
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most significant health challenges worldwide. Meropenem is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic that possesses high activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, it has a short plasma half-life, and thus requiring frequent administration of high doses. For the first time, meropenem-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated as a potential tool to overcome antimicrobial resistance and to improve pharmacokinetics of the drug. Spherical nanosized particles were prepared and demonstrated ultrahigh encapsulation efficiency of meropenem (i...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820111/description-of-actinokineospora-acnipugnans-sp-nov-an-actinomycete-isolated-from-soil-showing-potential-uses-in-cosmetics
#18
Ram Hari Dahal, Dong Seop Shim, Jaisoo Kim
During isolation of soil bacteria having antibacterial functions, an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive bacterium, designated strain R434T, was isolated. Strain R434T showed antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and significant enzyme-inhibitory capability. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the whole-cell sugars were galactose, arabinose and glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain R434T formed a lineage within the family Pseudonocardiaceae...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820083/threonine-deficiency-decreased-intestinal-immunity-and-aggravated-inflammation-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-target-of-rapamycin-signalling-pathways-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-after-infection-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#19
Yu-Wen Dong, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99-21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820051/bisthiourea-derivatives-of-dipeptide-conjugated-benzo-d-isoxazole-as-a-new-class-of-therapeutics-synthesis-and-molecular-docking-studies
#20
H K Kumara, D M Suyoga Vardhan, J Shiva Kumar, D Channe Gowda
We have synthesized a series of bisthiourea derivatives of dipeptides (Lys/lys-Asp and Lys/lys-Trp) conjugated benzo[d]isoxazole and the structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by correlating their physical and spectroscopic data with earlier data. The molecules 1-24 were examined for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by employing human erythrocyte suspension test and it was found that the IC50 values of 9, 12, 21 and 24 were lower than the IC50 of standard references indomethacin and ibuprofen...
August 16, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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