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Antimicrobial Activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452197/essential-oils-from-origanum-vulgare-and-salvia-officinalis-exhibit-antibacterial-and-anti-biofilm-activities-against-streptococcus-pyogenes
#1
Niluni M Wijesundara, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452081/chronic-nosema-ceranae-infection-inflicts-comprehensive-and-persistent-immunosuppression-and-accelerated-lipid-loss-in-host-apis-mellifera-honey-bees
#2
Wenfeng Li, Yanping Chen, Steven C Cook
Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana and the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Until relatively recently, A. mellifera honey bees were naïve to N. ceranae infection. Symptoms of nosemosis, or Nosema disease, in the infected hosts include immunosuppression, damage to gut epithelium, nutrient and energetic stress, precocious foraging and reduced longevity of infected bees. Links remain unclear between immunosuppression, the symptoms of nutrient and energetic stress, and precocious foraging behavior of hosts...
February 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451823/evaluation-of-fetal-intestinal-cell-growth-and-antimicrobial-biofunctionalities-of-donor-human-milk-after-preparative-processes
#3
Pasinee Kanaprach, Nutkridta Pongsakul, Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Chatchai Muanprasat, Sarayut Supapannachart, Pracha Nuntnarumit, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Donor human milk is considered the next best nutrition following mother's own milk to prevent neonatal infection and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants who are admitted at neonatal intensive care unit. However, donor milk biofunctionalities after preparative processes have rarely been documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate biofunctionalities preserved in donor milk after preparative processes by cell-based assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten pools of donor milk were produced from 40 independent specimens...
February 16, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451719/primary-sebocytes-and-sebaceous-gland-cell-lines-for-studying-sebaceous-lipogenesis-and-sebaceous-gland-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Marlon R Schneider, Christos C Zouboulis
Sebocytes, the major cell type in sebaceous glands (SGs), are differentiated epithelial cells that gradually accumulate lipids and eventually disrupt, releasing their content (sebum) in a secretory process known as holocrine secretion. Via the hair canal, sebum reaches the skin surface, where it has several known or postulated functions, including pheromonal, thermoregulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Altered sebum secretion and/or structural SG changes have also been involved in the pathogenesis of skin diseases, such as acne vulgaris and some forms of alopecia...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451704/mait-cells-and-microbial-immunity
#5
Erin W Meermeier, Melanie J Harriff, Elham Karamooz, David M Lewinsohn
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, the most abundant T cell subset in humans, are increasingly being recognized for their importance in microbial immunity. MAIT cells accumulate in almost every mucosal tissue examined, including the lung, liver, and intestinal tract, where they can be activated through T cell receptor (TCR) triggering as well as cytokine stimulation in response to a host of microbial products. In this review, we specifically discuss MAIT cell responses to bacterial and fungal infections, with a focus on responses that are both MR1-dependent and -independent, the evidence for diversity in MAIT TCR usage in response to discrete microbial products, protective immunity induced by MAIT cells, and MAIT cell antimicrobial functions in the context of these infections...
February 16, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451043/murepavadin-a-new-antibiotic-class-in-the-pipeline
#6
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Glenn E Dale, Antoni Torres
With the increase in multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, antimicrobials with a novel mechanism of action are needed that can target these infections. Areas covered: Intravenous murepavadin is in Phase 3 development for the treatment of HABP/VABP due to P. aeruginosa. This paper summarizes the available information on the discovery, the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and the clinical pharmacology of murepavadin to date. Expert commentary: P. aeruginosa has an intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics due to high cellular impermeability and efficient drug efflux mechanisms, and the recent increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant P...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451019/antimicrobial-substances-from-the-rare-actinomycete-nonomuraea-rhodomycinica-nr4-asc07-t
#7
Khomsan Supong, Paranee Sripreechasak, Wongsakorn Phongsopitanun, Somboon Tanasupawat, Kannawat Danwisetkanjana, Nantiya Bunbamrung, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut
Nonomuraea rhodomycinica NR4-ASC07 T is a rare actinomycete isolated from soil in Sirindhorn peat swamp forest. The crude extract of its culture broth exhibited antimicrobial and anticancer against diverse human pathogens and cancer cells. The chemical investigation of the crude extract led to the isolation of two new metabolites named nonomuric acid (1) and 3-hydroxy deoxydaunorubicinol aglycone (2), along with two known bioactive compounds [ε-rhodomycinone (3) and 7-deoxy-13-dihydrocarminomycinone (4)]. Compounds 1 and 3 showed antimalarial activity with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 8...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451013/pradimicin-ird-from-amycolatopsis-sp-ird-009-and-its-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activities
#8
Anelize Bauermeister, Felipe A Calil, Francisco das C L Pinto, Talita C T Medeiros, Larissa C Almeida, Leonardo J Silva, Itamar S de Melo, Tiago D Zucchi, Letícia V Costa-Lotufo, Luiz A B Moraes
A new polycyclic antibiotic, pradimicin-IRD, was isolated from actinobacteria Amycolatopsis sp. IRD-009 recovered from soil of Brazilian rainforest undergoing restoration area. This molecule is the major compound produced in solid culture media. The new compound was detected by a focused method of precursor ion (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer) developed previously to identify unusual aminoglycosyl sugar moieties. The compound was isolated and its structure was, therefore, elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450858/in-source-reduction-of-disulfide-bonded-peptides-monitored-by-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#9
Bradley B Stocks, Jeremy E Melanson
Many peptides with antimicrobial activity and/or therapeutic potential contain disulfide bonds as a means to enhance stability, and their quantitation is often performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Disulfides can be reduced during ESI under commonly used instrument conditions, which has the potential to hinder accurate peptide quantitation. We demonstrate that this in-source reduction (ISR) is predominantly observed for peptides infused from acidic solutions and subjected to elevated ESI voltages (3-4 kV)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450151/comparison-of-antimicrobial-activities-of-natural-essential-oils-and-synthetic-fragrances-against-selected-environmental-pathogens
#10
Paula L Vieira-Brock, Brent M Vaughan, David L Vollmer
Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay...
December 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449610/phaeophleospora-vochysiae-savi-glienke-sp-nov-isolated-from-vochysia-divergens-found-in-the-pantanal-brazil-produces-bioactive-secondary-metabolites
#11
Daiani C Savi, Khaled A Shaaban, Francielly Maria Wilke Ramos Gos, Larissa V Ponomareva, Jon S Thorson, Chirlei Glienke, Jürgen Rohr
Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449386/draft-genome-sequence-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-nrrl-b-442-a-potential-probiotic-strain
#12
Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy, Fahad H Alqahtani, Ion Mandoiu, Mary Anne Amalaradjou
Lactic acid bacteria are known to exhibit probiotic properties through various mechanisms, including competitive exclusion, pathogen inhibition, production of antimicrobial substances, and maintenance of eubiosis. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of a novel probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain NRRL B-442, which exhibits potent antivirulence activity against Salmonella enterica .
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449370/structural-basis-for-antibody-targeting-of-the-broadly-expressed-microbial-polysaccharide-poly-n-acetyl-glucosamine
#13
Caroline Soliman, Anna K Walduck, Elizabeth Yuriev, Jack S Richards, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Gerald B Pier, Paul A Ramsland
In response to the widespread emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes, new therapeutic agents are required for many human pathogens. A non-mammalian polysaccharide, poly- N -acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG), is produced by bacteria, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Antibodies that bind to PNAG and its deacetylated form (dPNAG) exhibit promising in vitro and in vivo activities against many microbes. A human IgG1 mAb (F598) that binds both PNAG and dPNAG has opsonic and protective activities against multiple microbial pathogens and is undergoing preclinical and clinical assessments as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449345/antimicrobial-activity-of-a-novel-bioengineered-honey-against-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilms-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Rachel S Newby, Matthew Dryden, Raymond N Allan, Rami J Salib
The opportunistic pathogen non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) plays an important role in many chronic respiratory diseases including otitis media, chronic rhinosinusitis, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biofilm formation has been implicated in NTHi colonisation, persistence of infection and recalcitrance towards antimicrobials. There is therefore a pressing need for the development of novel treatment strategies that are effective against NTHi biofilm-associated diseases. SurgihoneyRO is a honey-based product that has been bioengineered to enable the slow release of H 2 O 2 , a reactive oxygen species to which H...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449175/study-of-pandrug-and-heavy-metal-resistance-among-e-coli-from-anthropogenically-influenced-delhi-stretch-of-river-yamuna
#15
Mudsser Azam, Arif Tasleem Jan, Ashutosh Kumar, Kehkashan Siddiqui, Aftab Hossain Mondal, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haq
Escalating burden of antibiotic resistance that has reached new heights present a grave concern to mankind. As the problem is no longer confined to clinics, we hereby report identification of a pandrug resistant Escherichia coli isolate from heavily polluted Delhi stretch of river Yamuna, India. E. coli MRC11 was found sensitive only to tobramycin against 21 antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values >256μg/mL for amoxicillin, carbenicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Addition of certain heavy metals at higher concentrations were ineffective in increasing susceptibility of E...
February 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448823/chemical-constituents-of-genista-numidica-spach-aerial-parts-and-their-antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-antityrosinase-activities
#16
Naima Boutaghane, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Amin Abedini, Anaïs Cafolla, Hanène Djeghim, Sophie C Gangloff, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Zahia Kabouche
A previously undescribed triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-}β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-sophoradiol (1), in addition to twenty-nine known constituents (2-30) were isolated from the aerial parts of Genista numidica Spach. Structures elucidation was performed by comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and HRESIMS. The extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities...
February 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448564/biocompatibility-evaluation-of-feldspathic-porcelain-with-nano-sized-silver-ion-particles
#17
Ji-Hyun Kim, Sang-Won Park, Hyun-Pil Lim, Chan Park, Kwi-Dug Yun
The major failure of dental restorations is caused by dental caries by S. mutans. This study evaluated the effect of nanosized silver ions in feldspathic porcelain on cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity. The control group was feldspathic porcelain (Noritake EX-3, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Japan) that did not contain Ag (silver). The experimental groups were feldspathic porcelain mixed with colloidal solutions of nanosized silver ions in mixtures of 5% 10%, 20%, 30%. Cell activity assays evaluated with osteoblast hFOB 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448222/a-colorimetric-broth-microdilution-method-for-assessment-of-helicobacter-pylori-sensitivity-to-antimicrobial-agents
#18
Petar Knezevic, Verica Aleksic Sabo, Natasa Simin, Marija Lesjak, Neda Mimica-Dukic
Helicobacter pylori is a major infective etiological agent of the upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. The bacterium exhibits resistance to various conventional antibiotics, being usually challenging for eradication. Since there is an urge to consider alternative therapeutic strategies, the aim of the study was to examine selected essential oils of plants belonging to families Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis) and Lamiaceae (Hyssopus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus serpyllum) against H...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447842/neutrophils-drive-type-i-interferon-production-and-autoantibodies-in-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome
#19
K E Cervantes-Luevano, N Caronni, M C Castiello, E Fontana, G Piperno, A Naseem, P Uva, M Bosticardo, G E Marcovecchio, L D Notarangelo, M P Cicalese, A Aiuti, A Villa, F Benvenuti
BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in WASp, a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in hematopoietic cells. A high proportion of patients develop autoimmunity due to a breakdown in T and B cell tolerance. Moreover, excessive production of type-I interferon by plasmacytoid DCs contribute to autoimmune signs, however, the factors that triggers excessive innate activation have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: Neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) emerged as major initiating factors in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447029/nanosilver-and-the-microbiological-activity-of-the-particulate-solids-versus-the-leached-soluble-silver
#20
Merisa B Faiz, Rose Amal, Christopher P Marquis, Elizabeth J Harry, Georgios A Sotiriou, Scott A Rice, Cindy Gunawan
Nanosilver (Ag NPs) is currently one of the most commercialized antimicrobial nanoparticles with as yet, still unresolved cytotoxicity origins. To date, research efforts have mostly described the antimicrobial contribution from the leaching of soluble silver, while the undissolved solid Ag particulates are often considered as being microbiologically inert, serving only as source of the cytotoxic Ag ions. Here, we show the rapid stimulation of lethal cellular oxidative stress in bacteria by the presence of the undissolved Ag particulates...
February 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
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