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Antimicrobial Activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054025/antibacterial-activity-against-cariogenic-bacteria-and-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-potential-of-anacardium-occidentale-l-and-anadenanthera-macrocarpa-benth-brenan-extracts
#1
Josenildo Segundo Chaves de Araújo, Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho, Andressa Brito Lira, Andréia Vieira Pereira, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa de Azevêdo, Edja Maria de Melo de Brito Costa, Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira, Hilzeth Freire Luna Pessoa, Jozinete Vieira Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance, toxic and genotoxic potential of the plants Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Bernam. DESIGN: Using a microdilution technique, the extracts were submitted to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557), Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300) and Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 27609)...
October 14, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053573/preparation-and-characterization-of-ternary-antimicrobial-films-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-allyl-isothiocyanate-polylactic-acid-for-the-enhancement-of-long-term-controlled-release
#2
Jinpeng Wang, Chao Qiu, Ganesan Narsimhan, Zhengyu Jin
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are natural essential oil components that have outstanding antimicrobial activities. However, low water solubility, high volatility, and easy degradation by heat, restricting their application in food packing industry. Development of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/AITC (β-CD/AITC) is a promising solution. Furthermore, the incorporation of β-CD/AITC complex into polylactic acid (PLA) films would be an attractive method to develop food antimicrobial materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enhancement in physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activities, and controlled release of β-CD/AITC from such films...
October 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053421/development-of-a-novel-herbal-formulation-to-inhibit-biofilm-formation-in-toxigenic-vibrio-cholerae
#3
Diana Jose, N Lekshmi, A K Goel, R Ajay Kumar, Sabu Thomas
Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of the waterborne disease cholera, still threatens a large proportion of world's population. The role of biofilm formation in V. cholerae pathogenesis is well established, as it provides the bacterium enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial agents and increased transmission. In the present study, four medicinal plants used in traditional medicines with antidiarrheal properties were evaluated for its antibiofilm activity. Methanol extracts of these plants (Centella asiatica, Elephantopus scaber, Camellia sinensis, and Holarrhena antidysenterica) showed promising antibiofilm activity against V...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053255/fabrication-of-non-toxic-reduced-graphene-oxide-protein-nano-framework-as-sustained-antimicrobial-coating-for-biomedical-application
#4
Priyadarshani Choudhary, Thanusu Parandhaman, Baskaran Ramalingam, Natarajan Duraipandy, Manikantan Syamala Kiran, Sujoy K Das
Bacterial colonization on medical devices is a major concern in the healthcare industry. In the present study we report synthesis of environmental sustainable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at large scale through biosynthetic route and its potential application for antibacterial coating on medical devices. HRTEM image depicts formation of graphene nanosheet, while DLS and ζ potential studies reveal that in aqueous medium the average hydrodynamic size and surface charge of rGO are 4410 ± 116 nm and -25.2 ± 3...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052356/in-vitro-biocompatibility-bioactivity-and-photoluminescence-properties-of-eu-3-sr-2-dual-doped-nano-hydroxyapatite-for-biomedical-applications
#5
Lakshmanaperumal Sundarabharathi, Hemalatha Parangusan, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed, Mahendran Chinnaswamy
In the present investigation, we have successfully synthesized luminescent Eu(3+) -doped and Eu(3+) /Sr(2+) codoped hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles through sol-gel assisted precipitation method with the aim of developing novel biomaterials containing osteoblast mineral (Sr(2+) ) and luminescence activator (Eu(3+) ). The structure, morphology, thermal stability, and luminescence properties of the resultant spherical nanoparticles (50-100 nm diameters) were studied. Moreover, the in-vitro bioactivity of Eu0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052269/control-of-biotin-biosynthesis-in-mycobacteria-by-a-pyruvate-carboxylase-dependent-metabolic-signal
#6
Nathaniel Lazar, Allison Fay, Madhumitha Nandakumar, Kerry E Boyle, Joao Xavier, Kyu Rhee, Michael S Glickman
Biotin is an essential cofactor utilized by all domains of life, but only synthesized by bacteria, fungi and plants, making biotin biosynthesis a target for antimicrobial development. To understand biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we executed a genetic screen in Mycobacterium smegmatis for biotin auxotrophs and identified pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) as required for biotin biosynthesis. The biotin auxotrophy of the pyc::tn strain is due to failure to transcriptionally induce late stage biotin biosynthetic genes in low biotin conditions...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052092/a-72-h-intervention-for-improvement-of-the-rate-of-optimal-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#7
R Murri, F Taccari, T Spanu, T D'Inzeo, I Mastrorosa, F Giovannenze, G Scoppettuolo, G Ventura, C Palazzolo, M Camici, S Lardo, B Fiori, M Sanguinetti, R Cauda, M Fantoni
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are implemented to optimize the use of antibiotics and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many antimicrobial stewardship interventions have demonstrated significant efficacy in reducing unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, the duration of antimicrobial therapy, and mortality. We evaluated the benefits of a combination of rapid diagnostic tests and an active re-evaluation of antibiotic therapy 72 h after the onset of bloodstream infection (BSI). All patients with BSI from November 2015 to November 2016 in a 1100-bed university hospital in Rome, where an Infectious Disease Consultancy Unit (Unità di Consulenza Infettivologica, UDCI) is available, were re-evaluated at the bedside 72 h after starting antimicrobial therapy and compared to two pre-intervention periods: the UDCI was called by the ward physician for patients with BSI and the UDCI was called directly by the microbiologist immediately after a pathogen was isolated from blood cultures...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051847/symbiotic-bacteria-associated-with-puffer-fish-gastrophysus-spadiceus-and-evaluation-of-their-antimicrobial-activities
#8
Yi-Huan Wang, Nimaichand Salam, Qing Liu, Zi-Wen Yang, Li-Xiang Cao, Xiao-Lin Meng, Guo-Xing Nie, Jian-Hua Ju, Wen-Jun Li
The present study reports the diversity of culturable bacteria associated with the puffer fish Gastrophysus spadiceus. During the study, a total of 31 strains affiliated to the genera Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Rahnella, and Psychrobacter were isolated from liver, intestines, and flesh of G. spadiceus. These strains exhibited a diverse range of metabolites as indicated by the HPLC and TLC profiles of the chemical extracts of their fermentation products. Some of these crude extracts showed strong antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial strains...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051652/making-good-use-of-the-byproducts-of-cultivation-green-synthesis-and-antibacterial-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-the-leaf-extract-of-blueberry
#9
Kun Li, Chenyu Ma, Tiancai Jian, Hushan Sun, Lei Wang, Hui Xu, Weihuan Li, Hongyan Su, Xianhao Cheng
In this study, we made an effort to use blueberry leaves extract as a reducing and a capping agent to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The successful formation of AgNPs was confirmed with UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activities against four kinds of multi drug resistant clinical pathogens and aquatic pathogens were investigated. The results showed that as-prepared AgNPs exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051644/chemical-compositions-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-ziziphora-clinopodioides-lam-essential-oils-collected-from-different-parts-of-iran
#10
Yasser Shahbazi
The aims of the present study were to investigate chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oils (ZEOs) collected from four provinces in western Iran (Ilam, Lorestan, Kermanshah and Kurdestan). Carvacrol was the most abundant constituent in the flower, stem and leaf oil samples of Ilam, Lorestan and Kermanshah regions by 73.12-74.29%, 66.47-66.89% and 65.11-65.32%, respectively. The most abundant components in Kurdestan sample were thymol (55.32-55...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051178/tlr4-mediated-inflammation-promotes-kshv-induced-cellular-transformation-and-tumorigenesis-by-activating-the-stat3-pathway
#11
Marion Gruffaz, Karthik Vasan, Brandon Tan, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Shou-Jiang Gao
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved immune sensors mediating antimicrobial and antitumoral responses, but recent evidence implicates them in promoting carcinogenesis in certain cancers. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and is characterized by uncontrolled neoangiogenesis and inflammation. Here we show that TLR4 is upregulated in KSHV-infected spindle tumor cells in human KS lesions. In a model of KSHV-induced cellular transformation, KSHV upregulated expression of TLR4, its adaptor MyD88, and coreceptors CD14 and MD2...
October 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050883/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-potential-of-successive-extracts-of-ulmus-wallichiana-planch
#12
Kundan Singh Bora, Akhilesh Kumar, Gajraj Bisht
BACKGROUND: The plant Ulmus wallichiana Planch. is found in hills of Uttarakhand, India. Bark of U. wallichiana is commonly used as traditional healer for bone fracture of animals as well as human beings and also used as wound healer remedy. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial potential of various extracts of U. wallichiana bark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Soxhlet extraction method was used for preparation of different extracts viz...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050776/blood-antimicrobial-activity-varies-against-different-mycobacterium-spp
#13
Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano, Sara Blanco-Conde, Ramiro López-Medrano, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Manuela Caño-Herrero, Teresa Nebreda-Mayoral
In vitro analysis of mycobacterial pathogenicity or host susceptibility has traditionally relied on the infection of macrophages, the target cell of mycobacteria, despite difficulties reproducing their antimycobacterial activity. We have employed alternative models, namely whole blood and leukocytes in plasma, from QuantiFERON negative individuals, and performed infections with the pathogenic M. tuberculosis, the less pathogenic M. avium, M. kansasii and M. chelonae and the occasionally pathogenic M. gordonae and M...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050757/ionophore-a23187-shows-anti-tuberculosis-activity-and-synergy-with-tebipenem
#14
Wei Huang, Julien Briffotaux, Xinwei Wang, Lili Liu, Pei Hao, Mena Cimino, Maria Virginia Buchieri, Amine Namouchi, Jose-Antonio Ainsa, Brigitte Gicquel
The objective of this study was to find molecules with anti-mycobacterial activity from a natural compounds library, investigate their mechanisms of resistance, and assess their synergy with antibiotics. We screened a library of 2582 natural compounds with Mycobacterium aurum with the aim of identifying molecules with anti-mycobacterial activity. The hits with the lowest MICs in M. aurum were also tested for their antimicrobial activity in other mycobacterial species including M. tuberculosis complex strains...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050607/physical-and-functional-properties-of-pectin-fish-gelatin-films-containing-the-olive-phenols-hydroxytyrosol-and-3-4-dihydroxyphenylglycol
#15
Alejandra Bermúdez-Oria, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Blanca Vioque, Fátima Rubio-Senent, Juan Fernández-Bolaños
This study describes the development of a composite edible film based on pectin and fish skin protein capable of protecting food from microbial attack and oxidative degradation. The film was prepared with glycerol as plasticizer and the antioxidant and antimicrobial phenolic compounds hydroxytyrosol (HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), extracted from olive fruit, as active agents. The influence of the concentration of plasticizer and active HT/DHPG on the mechanical and functional properties of the films was investigated, with values of water vapor permeability (WVP) between 0...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050604/chitosan-as-an-effective-inhibitor-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#16
E M Costa, S Silva, S Vicente, M Veiga, F Tavaria, M M Pintado
Over the last two decades worldwide levels of antibiotic resistance have risen leading to the appearance of multidrug resistant microorganisms. Acinetobacter baumannii is a known skin pathogen which has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks due to its capacity to colonize indwelling medical devices and natural antibiotic resistance. With chitosan being an effective antimicrobial agent against antibiotic resistant microorganisms, the aim of this work was to access its potential as an alternative to traditional antimicrobials in the management of A...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050599/development-of-chitosan-sodium-phytate-nanoparticles-as-a-potent-antibacterial-agent
#17
Jie Yang, Hao Lu, Man Li, Jing Liu, Shuangling Zhang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
Chitosan nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention as a potential carrier for food and pharmaceutical applications. Herein, using natural sodium phytate as a gelation agent, we developed a new type of green and biocompatible chitosan nanoparticles. We discovered that the chitosan-sodium phytate nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activities. The chitosan-sodium phytate nanoparticles prepared from low molecular weight (LMW, 140±7kDa) and medium molecular weight (MMW, 454±21kDa) chitosan were spherical...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050592/eco-friendly-films-prepared-from-plantain-flour-pcl-blends-under-reactive-extrusion-conditions-using-zirconium-octanoate-as-a-catalyst
#18
Tomy J Gutiérrez, Vera A Alvarez
Plantain flour (Musa ssp., group AAB, sub-group clone Harton)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends, containing glycerol as a plasticizer, were prepared by reactive extrusion (REx) in a twin-screw extruder using zirconium octanoate (Zr(Oct)4) as a catalyst, followed by thermo-compression molding for film development. The films were then characterized in terms of their: infrared (FTIR) spectra, water solubility, thermogravimetric (TGA) curves, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms, and X-ray diffraction (XDR) diffractograms, as well as their microstructural, mechanical and antimicrobial properties in order to (1) compare the effects of PCLs with two different molecular weights (Mw) on the characteristics of the plantain flour/PCL blends, and (2) determine whether using Zr(Oct)4 in the production of active composite polymer materials improves their properties...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050580/influence-of-starch-oxidation-on-the-functionality-of-starch-gelatin-based-active-films
#19
Olga Moreno, Julián Cárdenas, Lorena Atarés, Amparo Chiralt
Biodegradable active films were prepared by casting, using corn starch, with differing oxidation degree, bovine gelatin, glycerol, as a plasticizer, and ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) as antimicrobial compound. The films were characterized as to their microstructure, physical properties and water affinity. Starch oxidation with sodium periodate (SP) greatly improved polymer compatibility and crosslinking, especially at 1:1 glucose:SP molar ratio, which promoted the films' strength (40-92%) and barrier capacity (33 and 40% reduction in water vapour and oxygen permeability, respectively in LAE-free films), while Maillard reactions promoted the film browning...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050435/immune-enhancing-activity-of-phosvitin-by-stimulating-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-mediator
#20
J H Lee, S H Moon, H S Kim, E Park, D U Ahn, H D Paik
Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and the extraordinarily high concentration of phosphate groups in its structure provides a strong metal-binding ability. Phosvitin is known to possess various functional activities, including metal-chelating, antioxidant, emulsifying, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. However, little is known about the immune-enhancing activity of phosvitin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune-enhancing activity of phosvitin in murine RAW 264...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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