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Antimicrobial Activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241121/nanotitania-crystals-induced-efficient-photocatalytic-color-degradation-antimicrobial-and-larvicidal-activity
#1
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240697/cymantrenyl-nucleobases-synthesis-anticancer-antitrypanosomal-and-antimicrobial-activity-studies
#2
Artur Jabłoński, Karolina Matczak, Aneta Koceva-Chyła, Kamil Durka, Dietmar Steverding, Katarzyna Jakubiec-Krześniak, Jolanta Solecka, Damian Trzybiński, Krzysztof Woźniak, Vanesa Andreu, Gracia Mendoza, Manuel Arruebo, Krzysztof Kochel, Barbara Krawczyk, Dominik Szczukocki, Konrad Kowalski
The synthesis of four cymantrene-5-fluorouracil derivatives (1-4) and two cymantrene-adenine derivatives (5 and 6) is reported. All of the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods and the crystal structure of two derivatives (1 and 6), together with the previously described cymantrene-adenine compound C was determined by X-ray crystallography. While the compounds 1 and 6 crystallized in the triclinic P-1 space group, compound C crystallized in the monoclinic P2₁/m space group. The newly synthesized compounds 1-6 were tested together with the two previously described cymantrene derivatives B and C for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against seven cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MCF-7/DX, MDA-MB-231, SKOV-3, A549, HepG2m and U-87-MG), five bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive, methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, including clinical isolates of S...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240662/essential-oils-from-neotropical-piper-species-and-their-biological-activities
#3
REVIEW
Joyce Kelly da Silva, Rafaela da Trindade, Nayara Sabrina Alves, Pablo Luís Figueiredo, José Guilherme S Maia, William N Setzer
The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239784/new-perspectives-for-natural-triterpene-glycosides-as-potential-adjuvants
#4
Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois, Hildebert Wagner
BACKGROUND: Triterpene glycosides are a vast group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants including a high number of biologically active compounds. The pharmacological potential is evaluated by using many bioassays particularly in the field of cancerology, immunology, and microbiology. The adjuvant concept is well known for these molecules in vaccines, but there is little preclinical evidence to support this concept in the management of cancer, infections and inflammation...
November 7, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239699/nucleosides-9-design-and-synthesis-of-new-8-nitro-and-8-amino-xanthine-nucleosides-of-expected-biological-activity
#5
Mosselhi A N M Mohamed, Laila M B Abu-Alola, Nada M G Aljaied
The coupling reaction of 1,3-dimethylxanthine (theophylline), 3-benzylxanthine and 3-benzyl-1-methylxanthine with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose afforded the corresponding protected nucleosides, respectively. Nitration of each of the theophylline and 3-benzy-1-methyllxanthine protected nucleosides yielded the corresponding 8-nitronucleosides derivatives, which were reduced to give the corresponding 8-aminonucleoside derivatives. Debenzoylation of protected nucleosides formed by using methanolic sodium methoxide afforded the corresponding free N-nucleosides, respectively...
December 2, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239661/enhancement-of-the-antimycobacterial-activity-of-macrophages-by-ajoene
#6
Ji-Ae Choi, Soo-Na Cho, Yun-Ji Lim, Junghwan Lee, Dam Go, Seon-Hwa Kim, Chang-Hwa Song
Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound, has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. To assess the potential of ajoene for treating tuberculosis (TB), we determined whether it induces the stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which plays an important role in TB. We showed that ajoene stimulation induced the production of ER stress sensor molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Ajoene-induced ROS production was dependent on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Interestingly, the inhibition of JNK activity and suppression of ROS production reduced ajoene-induced CHOP production in macrophages...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238856/anti-endotoxin-mechanism-of-the-kw4-peptide-in-inflammation-in-raw-264-7-cells-induced-by-lta-and-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-1630
#7
Jong-Kook Lee, Yoonkyung Park
Drug-resistant microorganism infections cause serious disease and can lead to mortality and morbidity. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus induces pyrogenic and toxigenic infections, and drug-resistance occurs rapidly. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, can also cause immunodeficiency and immune deficiency syndrome from lipoteichoic acid. However, antimicrobial peptides, such as KW4, have strong antimicrobial activity, low cytotoxicity, and high neutralization activity against endotoxin substances from Gram-negative bacteria...
December 13, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238713/sodium-mercaptoethane-sulfonate-reduces-collagenolytic-degradation-and-synergistically-enhances-antimicrobial-durability-in-an-antibiotic-loaded-biopolymer-film-for-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#8
Joel Rosenblatt, Ruth A Reitzel, George M Viola, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Jesse Selber, Issam Raad
Implant-associated surgical-site infections can have significant clinical consequences. Previously we reported a method for prophylactically disinfecting implant surfaces in surgical pockets, where an antibiotic solution containing minocycline (M) and rifampin (R) was applied as a solid film in a crosslinked biopolymer matrix that partially liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Here we studied the effect of adding sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MeSNA) on durability of prophylaxis in an in vitro model of implant-associated surgical-site infection...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238455/in-vitro-activity-of-recombinant-lysostaphin-in-combination-with-linezolid-vancomycin-and-oxacillin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Nagalakshmi Narasimhaswamy, Indira Bairy, Gautham Shenoy, Laxminarayana Bairy
Background and Objectives: The antimicrobial combination with synergistic mechanism is recommended to provide broad-spectrum coverage, and prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. In the present study, the synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, oxacillin and vancomycin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates was determined. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three MRSA isolates collected from clinical specimens were tested, for in vitro synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, vancomycin and oxacillin, by checkerboard assay...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238281/differential-inhibitory-activities-of-four-plant-essential-oils-on-in-vitro-growth-of-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-fragariae-causing-fusarium-wilt-in-strawberry-plants
#10
Jin Young Park, Su Hyeon Kim, Na Hee Kim, Sang Woo Lee, Yong-Chull Jeun, Jeum Kyu Hong
The objective of this study was to determine inhibitory activities of four volatile plant essential oils (cinnamon oil, fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae causing Fusarium wilt of strawberry plants. Results showed that these essential oils inhibited in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in a dose-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil was found to be most effective one in suppressing conidial germination while fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate inhibition of conidial germination at similar levels...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238165/synthesis-characterization-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-novel-5-benzoyl-n-substituted-amino-and-5-benzoyl-n-sulfonylamino-4-alkylsulfanyl-2-pyridones
#11
Galal Elgemeie, Farag Altalbawy, Mohammed Alfaidi, Rania Azab, Atef Hassan
The present research describes the synthesis of novel 5-benzoyl-N-substituted-amino- and 5-benzoyl-N-sulfonylamino-4-alkylsulfanyl-2-pyridones 5a-c and 6a-c via the reaction of 2-benzoyl-3,3-bis(alkylthio)acrylonitriles 2a-c with N-cyanoacetohydrazide 3 and cyanoaceto-N-phenylsulfonylhydrazide 4, respectively. Also, the reactivity of the compounds 5a-c toward hydrazine hydrate to give product 1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine derivative 7 was studied. In addition, the reactivity of the 2a-c toward 1-cyanoacetyl-4 arylidenesemicarbazides 8a-c afforded 3,5-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-6-carbonitrile derivatives (12-14)a-c, which reacted with hydrazine hydrate to give 3H-pyrazolo[4,3-c][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-6-carbonitrile derivatives 15a-c...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237787/point-counterpoint-piperacillin-tazobactam-should-be-used-to-treat-infections-with-esbl-positive-organisms
#12
Audrey Schuetz, Sergio Reyes Salcedo, Pranita D Tamma
Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs) are among the most controversial classes of antibiotic agents available for the treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL-GNR). Piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) is one of the most frequently utilized antibiotic agents for empiric gram-negative bacterial coverage and remains active against a large proportion of ESBL-GNR. Furthermore, good antimicrobial stewardship practices encourage the use of carbapenem-sparing treatment regimens for infections due to ESBL-GNR...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237777/ccl28-deficient-mice-have-reduced-iga-antibody-secreting-cells-and-an-altered-microbiota-in-the-colon
#13
Kazuhiko Matsuo, Daisuke Nagakubo, Shinya Yamamoto, Akiko Shigeta, Shuta Tomida, Mitsugu Fujita, Takako Hirata, Ikuo Tsunoda, Takashi Nakayama, Osamu Yoshie
CCL28 induces the migration of IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) via CCR10 and also displays a potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. To explore the role of CCL28 in vivo, we generated CCL28-deficient mice. The mice exhibited a significant reduction and abnormal distribution of IgA ASCs in the lamina propria of the colon. The concentrations of total and Ag-specific IgA in the fecal extracts of CCL28-deficient mice were also drastically reduced. The average amount of IgA secreted by a single IgA ASC derived from the colon was also substantially reduced in CCL28-deficient mice...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237649/canadian-physicians-knowledge-and-counseling-practices-related-to-antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-two-cycle-national-survey
#14
Courtney R Smith, Lisa Pogany, Simon Foley, Jun Wu, Karen Timmerman, Margaret Gale-Rowe, Alain Demers
OBJECTIVE: To establish a baseline for physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on the use of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to determine potential changes in these measures after the implementation of a national AMR awareness campaign. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1600 physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on antibiotic use and AMR at baseline and after implementation of the AMR awareness campaign...
December 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237513/features-of-illnesses-caused-by-five-species-of-campylobacter-foodborne-diseases-active-surveillance-network-foodnet-2010-2015
#15
M E Patrick, O L Henao, T Robinson, A L Geissler, A Cronquist, S Hanna, S Hurd, F Medalla, J Pruckler, B E Mahon
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts population-based surveillance for Campylobacter infection. For 2010 through 2015, we compared patients with Campylobacter jejuni with patients with infections caused by other Campylobacter species. Campylobacter coli patients were more often >40 years of age (OR = 1·4), Asian (OR = 2·3), or Black (OR = 1·7), and more likely to live in an urban area (OR = 1·2), report international travel (OR = 1·5), and have infection in autumn or winter (OR = 1·2)...
December 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237374/maze-antitoxin-of-toxin-antitoxin-system-and-fbpa-as-reliable-targets-to-eradication-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#16
Abbas Maleki, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad, Behzad Badakhsh, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is ‎considered as a dangerous pathogen ‎threaten human health. Now a day, the new drug target is focused. Toxin antitoxin (TA) system recently identified as an antimicrobial drug target. Also, in N. meningitidis iron-uptake system could be an interesting target for drug discovery. METHODS: Therefore, in this study fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic ‎acid (PNA)...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237285/inhibition-of-diverse-dsba-enzymes-in-multi-dsba-encoding-pathogens
#17
Makrina Totsika, Dimitrios Vagenas, Jason J Paxman, Geqing Wang, Rabeb Dhouib, Pooja Sharma, Jennifer L Martin, Martin J Scanlon, Begoña Heras
AIMS: DsbA catalyses disulfide bond formation in secreted and outer membrane proteins in bacteria. In pathogens, DsbA is a major facilitator of virulence constituting a target for antivirulence antimicrobial development. However, many pathogens encode multiple and diverse DsbA enzymes for virulence factor folding during infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recently identified inhibitors of <i>Escherichia coli </i>K-12 DsbA can inhibit the diverse DsbA enzymes found in two important human pathogens and attenuate their virulence...
December 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237051/pharmacist-participation-in-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-australian-and-french-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-nationwide-survey
#18
Naomi Weier, Gianpiero Tebano, Nathalie Thilly, Béatrice Demoré, Céline Pulcini, Syed Tabish R Zaidi
Background: Hospital pharmacists are an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes globally. Currently, little is known as to how hospital pharmacists see their role and involvement within the AMS framework. Objectives: To assess the current level of involvement of Australian and French hospital pharmacists in AMS programmes and identify barriers limiting their involvement in AMS. Methods: Hospital pharmacists throughout Australia and France were invited to participate in a nationwide online survey throughout March-May 2016...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236898/in-vitro-analysis-of-a-local-polymeric-device-as-an-alternative-for-systemic-antibiotics-in-dentistry
#19
Talita Girio Carnaval, Flávia Gonçalves, Marcelo Munhóes Romano, Luiz Henrique Catalani, Marcia Alves Pinto Mayer, Victor Elias Arana-Chávez, Alexander Cassandri Nishida, Thais Claudino Lage, Carlos Eduardo Francci, Carlos Alberto Adde
The development of a biodegradable material with antimicrobial properties for local applications is required in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to produce blends of poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) synthetic polymer associated with several antimicrobials, as an alternative in the prevention and treatment of infections, as well as to evaluate its cytotoxicity, release of antimicrobials and inhibit bacteria growth. Blends of PLLA added with 20% Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, Clindamycin or Azithromicyn were used to produce Films (F) or Meshs (M) by casting and electrospinning methods, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236763/identification-of-potential-antimicrobials-against-salmonella-typhimurium-and-listeria-monocytogenes-using-quantitative-structure-activity-relation-modeling
#20
Ethan C Rath, Hunter Gill, Yongsheng Bai
The shelf-life of fresh carcasses and produce depends on the chemical and physical properties of antimicrobials currently used for treatment. For many years the gold standard of these antimicrobials has been Cetylpyridinium Chloride (CPC) a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). CPC is very effective at removing bacterial pathogens from the surface of chicken but has not been approved for other products due to a toxic residue left behind after treatment. Currently there is also a rising trend in QAC resistant bacteria...
2017: PloS One
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