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Antimicrobial Activity

Li-Ling Yang, Ming-Yue Zhan, Yu-Li Zhuo, Yue-Min Pan, Yang Xu, Xiu-Hong Zhou, Pei-Jin Yang, Hong-Li Liu, Zi-Hao Liang, Xiao-Dan Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by the stimulated humoral immune system. Most mature AMPs contain less than 50 amino acid residues. Some of them are generated from proproteins upon microbial challenges. Here, we report the antimicrobial activities of a proline-rich proprotein, named SlLebocin1 (SlLeb1), from the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura. SlLebocin1 cDNA contains a 477-bp open reading frame (ORF). It is mainly expressed in hemocytes and the midgut in naïve larvae. The transcript level was significantly induced in hemocytes but repressed in the midgut and fat body by bacterial challenges...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yan Chen, Jude Juventus Aweya, Wanwei Sun, Xiaoyuan Wei, Yi Gong, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified to play key roles in host innate immunity. However, relatively little is known about other types of Toll-like receptors in Scylla paramamosain, although a Toll-like receptor (SpToll1) has recently been cloned. In this study, we cloned and characterized another novel Toll-like receptor 2 (SpToll2) from S. paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of SpToll2 is 3391 bp with a 2646 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 881 amino acids, and predicted to contain six extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sheng-Yi Long, Yan Song, Qing-Jie Zhao, Dan Chen
A chemical investigation on the 80% EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Kopsia fruticosa led to five new indole alkaloids, kopsifolines G-K (1-5), and one known alkaloid, kopsifoline A (6). Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (1 H-1 H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated components were evaluated in vitro for cytotoxic activities against seven tumor cell lines, antimicrobial activities against two Gram-positive bacteria and five Gram-negative bacteria, and antifungal activities against five pathogens...
June 20, 2018: Fitoterapia
Li Lin, Xiu-Bin Liu, Qiao-Yun Zhou, Sha-Sha Liu, Meng-Ting Zuo, Jian-Guo Zeng, Zhao-Ying Liu
RATIONALE: Tetrahydroberberine (THB), tetrahydrocoptisine (THCP) and tetrahydrocolumbamine (THCB) belong to the tetrahydroprotoberberine (THPB) alkaloids. Most of them have been extensively studied because of their pharmacological activities such as anti-hypertension, anti-arrhythmia, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant. However, limited information on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the three alkaloids has been reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of THB, THCP and THCB in rat liver S9 by using a rapid and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (HPLC/QqTOF-MS) method...
June 23, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Pu Wang, Ruiquan Ge, Liming Liu, Xuan Xiao, Ye Li, Yunpeng Cai
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jessica de Almeida Roger, Massimiliano Magro, Silvia Spagnolo, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Davide Baratella, Luca Fasolato, Fabio Vianello
An innovative core-shell nanocarrier, combining the magnetism of surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs, the core) and tannic acid (TA, the shell) was self-assembled by simple incubation in water. Due to the drastic reorganization of SAMN surface, the prepared magnetic nanocarrier (SAMN@TA) resulted as one of the most robust nanomaterial bearing TA to date. Nevertheless, the ferric tannates network, constituting the SAMN@TA shell, and the free tannic acid display comparable chemical behavior. The antimicrobial properties of SAMN@TA were tested on Listeria monocytogenes in comparison with free TA, showing similar bacteriostatic effects at relatively low concentrations...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ju-Hee Chung, Ji-Na Kong, Hyo-Eun Choi, Kwang-Hoon Kong
Sweet-tasting proteins may be useful as low-calorie sugar substitutes in foods, beverages, and medicines. Brazzein is an attractive sweetener because of its high sweetness, sugar-like taste, and good stability at high temperature and wide pH ranges. To investigate the bioactivities of brazzein, the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities were determined in vitro. Brazzein showed no antibacterial and antifungal activities, although it showed approximately 45% or greater similarity to defensin, which has antimicrobial effects, and drosomycin, which is used as an antifungal agent...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yuan Liu, Beth Gordesky-Gold, Michael Leney-Greene, Nathan L Weinbren, Matthew Tudor, Sara Cherry
The emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with neurological complications. Innate immunity is essential for the control of virus infection, but the innate immune mechanisms that impact viral infection of neurons remain poorly defined. Using the genetically tractable Drosophila system, we show that ZIKV infection of the adult fly brain leads to NF-kB-dependent inflammatory signaling, which serves to limit infection. ZIKV-dependent NF-kB activation induces the expression of Drosophila stimulator of interferon genes (dSTING) in the brain...
June 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
M J N Rajaofera, P F Jin, Y M Fan, Q Q Sun, W K Huang, W B Wang, H Y Shen, S Zhang, C H Lin, W B Liu, F C Zheng, W G Miao
The prevalence of pathogen inhibitors bacteria has motivate the study for antimicrobial compounds. Bioactive fungicide have always received considerable attention. A bacterial isolated strain HAB-5 showed antifungal activity against plant fungi. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16SrDNA sequence analysis, the strain was identified to be a Bacillus atrophaeus. This strain possessed a broad spectrum antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi. Extraction of antifungal substance was performed and the crude extract had potent antifungal ability and showed great potential for swelling and inhibiting spore germination...
May 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Olapeju Bolarinwa, Jianfeng Cai
The development of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria resulting from prolonged treatment with conventional antibiotics has necessitated the need for continuous research for better antibiotic strategies. One of these alternatives is evolutionary antimicrobial peptides also known as host-defense peptides (HDPs). HDPs are an integral part of the innate defense system in multicellular eukaryotes. Although HDPs can largely circumvent the persistent problem of antibiotic resistance due to their bacteriolytic membrane mechanism, they have some drawbacks including a low activity profile and protease instability...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Maria Graça Miguel, Custódia Gago, Maria Dulce Antunes, Soraia Lagoas, Maria Leonor Faleiro, Cristina Megías, Isabel Cortés-Giraldo, Javier Vioque, Ana Cristina Figueiredo
Background: Essential oils (EOs) have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity, which may, alone or in combination with other substances, potentially be used for the development of new drugs. However, their chemical variability, depending on the species, varieties, or geographical origin (among other factors) determines different bioactivities that need to be evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant activity of Corymbia citriodora and eight Eucalyptus species EOs was determined using two different methods: the scavenging ability of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+• ) and peroxyl free radicals or oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)...
June 21, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Barbara Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Jerzy Żuchowski, Marzena Więckowska-Szakiel, Aleksandra Budzyńska, Urszula Wójcik, Anna Stochmal
Butanol extracts from leaves, twigs, and fruits of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson (sea buckthorn, SBT) were fractionated into phenolic and nonpolar lipid components, the chemical composition of which was analyzed. Assuming that an effect on natural microbiota and host epithelial cells needs to be assessed, regardless of the purpose of using SBT formulations in vivo, the minimal inhibitory/biocidal/fungicidal concentrations (MICs/MBCs/MFCs) of the fractions and reference phytocompounds were screened, involving 17 species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species...
June 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ilaria Passarini, Sharon Rossiter, John Malkinson, Mire Zloh
Cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties are ubiquitous in nature and have been studied for many years in an attempt to design novel antibiotics. However, very few molecules are used in the clinic so far, sometimes due to their complexity but, mostly, as a consequence of the unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile associated with peptides. The aim of this work is to investigate cationic peptides in order to identify common structural features which could be useful for the design of small peptides or peptido-mimetics with improved drug-like properties and activity against Gram negative bacteria...
June 21, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Valentina Mascaro, Maria Leonetti, Carmelo Giuseppe Angelo Nobile, Pamela Barbadoro, Elisa Ponzio, Claudia Recanatini, Emilia Prospero, Maria Pavia
OBJECTIVE: We measured the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in swine livestock workers, examined LA-MRSA resistance profile and associated carriage with the working activities. METHODS: Information was collected on demographics and occupational history. Swabs were collected and tested for the isolation of S. aureus, examined for antimicrobial susceptibility and all MRSA underwent ST398qPCR assay. RESULTS: LA-MRSA was isolated in 7...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
David Lebeaux, Emmanuelle Bergeron, Jérémy Berthet, Juliette Djadi-Prat, Delphine Mouniée, Patrick Boiron, Olivier Lortholary, Véronica Rodriguez-Nava
OBJECTIVES: Nocardia, a Gram-positive bacterium, is responsible for rare and severe infections. Accurate microbiological data are essential to guide antibiotic treatment. Our primary objective was to describe species identification and results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for Nocardia isolates analysed over a 6-year period. Secondary objectives were to study temporal trends in species distribution and AST results. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed results from Nocardia isolates sent between January 2010 and December 2015 to a French laboratory dedicated to Nocardia (Observatoire Français des Nocardioses)...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Zhenyu Sun, Yuqin Zhang, Hao Yu, Chao Yan, Yongchao Liu, Song Hong, Hengcong Tao, Alex W Robertson, Zhuo Wang, Agílio A H Pádua
Discovering highly efficient, environmentally friendly, and low-cost exfoliating media that can both disperse and protect black phosphorus (BP) remains a challenge. Herein, we demonstrate such a new molecule, N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU), for effective exfoliation and dispersion of two-dimensional BP nanosheets. A very high exfoliation efficiency of up to 16% was achieved in DMPU, significantly surpassing other good solvents. Exfoliated flakes are free from structural disorder or oxidation. Nanosheets retain high stability in DMPU even after addition of 25 vol% of common solvents...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Aranza Jiménez, Pablo García, Sofia de la Puente, Andrés Madrona, María José Camarasa, María-Jesús Pérez-Pérez, José-Carlos Quintela, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Ana San-Félix
Cationic and non-peptide small molecules containing a total of six positive charges arranged on one side and a long aliphatic tail on the other have been synthesized and tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The positive charges have been contributed by two aminophenol residues. These molecules have showed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including multidrug-resistant strains. Our structure⁻activity relationship studies demonstrated the importance of the length and flexibility of the hydrophobic tail for the antimicrobial activity...
June 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shiyin Liu, Fei He, Nuoqiao Lin, Yumei Chen, Zhibin Liang, Lisheng Liao, Mingfa Lv, Yufan Chen, Shaohua Chen, Jianuan Zhou, Lian-Hui Zhang
Sexual mating of compatible sporida is essential for Sporisorium scitamineum to form dikaryotic mycelia and then cause infection on sugarcane. Our previous work identified a Pseudomonas sp. ST4 from a soil sample, which showed a promising biocontrol potential by inhibiting the mating of S. scitamineum sporida and hyphal growth. In this study, we set to isolate the active compounds from Pseudomonas sp. ST4 through solid fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupling with bioassay showed that Pseudomonas sp...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Hend A Elbarbary, Akika Ejima, Kenji Sato
BACKGROUND: The current study was aimed to prepare antimicrobial agents for food preservation from crude cheese whey. Crude cheese whey was digested with porcine pepsin, calf and fungal rennets at various pHs. The digests were assessed for antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. RESULTS: The calf rennet digest at pH 3.0 showed the highest antibacterial activity. Three antibacterial peptides against B. subtilis lactoferrin f(20-30), and ß-lactoglobulin f(14-22) and f(92-103) were identified in the calf rennet digest...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ashkan Afshari, Lyly Nguyen, Steven A Kahn, Amelia C Montgomery, Takashi Shinha, Charles Stratton, Blair Summitt
Mafenide acetate is an effective but costly antimicrobial solution used for burn wounds. The package insert instructs the user to discard unused solution within 48 hours of opening. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of mafenide acetate beyond 48 hours after reconstitution, to possibly reduce cost by eliminating product waste. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were used to seed Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Filter paper disks were then saturated with 5% mafenide acetate at 0, 2, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days after reconstitution...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
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