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Antimicrobial Activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323883/ubiquitously-expressed-human-beta-defensin-1-hbd1-forms-bacteria-entrapping-nets-in-a-redox-dependent-mode-of-action
#1
Judith Raschig, Daniela Mailänder-Sanchez, Anne Berscheid, Jürgen Berger, Adam A Strömstedt, Lioba F Courth, Nisar P Malek, Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Jan Wehkamp
Ever since the discovery of endogenous host defense antimicrobial peptides it has been discussed how these evolutionary conserved molecules avoid to induce resistance and to remain effective. An Human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is an ubiquitously expressed endogenous antimicrobial peptide that exhibits qualitatively distinct activities between its oxidized and reduced forms. Here, we explore these antimicrobial mechanisms. Surprisingly, using electron microscopy we detected a so far unknown net-like structure surrounding bacteria, which were treated with the reduced but not the oxidized form of hBD1...
March 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319867/phototherapeutic-spectrum-expansion-through-synergistic-effect-of-mesoporous-silica-trio-nanohybrids-against-antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-bacterium
#2
Yaswanth Kuthati, Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Prabhakar Busa, Shi-Xiang Lin, Jin-Pei Deng, Chung-Yuan Mou, Chia-Hung Lee
The extensive impact of antibiotic resistance has led to the exploration of new anti-bacterial modalities. We designed copper impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cu-MSN) with immobilizing silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to apply photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. SNPs were decorated over the Cu-MSN surfaces by coordination of silver ions on diamine-functionalized Cu-MSN and further reduced to silver nanoparticles with formalin. We demonstrate that silver is capable of sensitizing the gram-negative bacteria E...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319176/insight-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-temporin-sha-a-new-broad-spectrum-antiparasitic-and-antibacterial-agent
#3
Zahid Raja, Sonia André, Feten Abbassi, Vincent Humblot, Olivier Lequin, Tahar Bouceba, Isabelle Correia, Sandra Casale, Thierry Foulon, Denis Sereno, Bruno Oury, Ali Ladram
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drugs to kill resistant pathogens. In contrast to bacteria, protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, were little studied. Therefore, the antiparasitic mechanism of AMPs is still unclear. In this study, we sought to get further insight into this mechanism by focusing our attention on temporin-SHa (SHa), a small broad-spectrum AMP previously shown to be active against Leishmania infantum. To improve activity, we designed analogs of SHa and compared the antibacterial and antiparasitic mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318172/-accidental-injection-of-sodium-hypochlorite-in-inferior-alveolar-nerve-block-anesthesia
#4
Li Hongyan, Xu Jian, Zhang Baorong, Jia Yue, Liu Minhua, Luo Yilang, Zhao Jing
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been widely used in clinical practice as one of the most efficient root canal irrigants. Its properties include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and ability to dissolve necrotic tissues. However, when used improperly, NaClO can cause a series of adverse reactions, such as mucosal inflammation, irritation, or injury. This paper presents a case of accidental injection of NaClO in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia.
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317803/an-unusual-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-in-a-mycobacterium-cosmeticum-strain-isolated-from-the-chesapeake-bay
#5
Vajini Atukorale, Nicholas Boire, Kim Dionne, Stefan Riedel, Nicole Parrish
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium cosmeticum, first described in 2004, was recovered from a patient undergoing a cosmetic procedure. Subsequently, this species was associated with an outbreak in a nail salon. In all cases, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Recently, however, we recovered a strain of M. cosmeticum from the Chesapeake Bay, resistant to 11 of 14 antimicrobials. The objective of this work was to present our findings on the resistance and susceptibility of this isolate to various antibiotics...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317760/antibacterial-activity-of-phenyllactic-acid-against-listeria-monocytogenes-and-escherichia-coli-by-dual-mechanisms
#6
Yawei Ning, Aihong Yan, Kun Yang, Zhixin Wang, Xingfeng Li, Yingmin Jia
Phenyllactic acid (PLA), a phenolic acid phytochemical, is considered to be a promising candidate for use as a chemical preservative due to its broad antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial target of PLA has rarely been reported, thus investigations were performed to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of PLA against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Flow cytometry analysis stained with propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated that PLA could damage the membrane integrity of L. monocytogenes, while it could not disrupt that of E...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317754/first-report-on-isolation-of-2-3-4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone-from-palmyra-palm-borassus-flabellifer-linn-syrup-its-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties
#7
M V Reshma, Jubi Jacob, V L Syamnath, V P Habeeba, B S Dileep Kumar, Ravi S Lankalapalli
The first report on isolation and characterization of 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone (1), nicotinamide (2), and uracil (3) from palmyra palm syrup is described. Total phenolic content (TPC) and Total flavonoid content (TFC) of palm syrup were 244.70±5.77(mggallic acid/kg of syrup) and 658.45±27.86(mg quercetin/kg of syrup), respectively. Compound 1 exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 20.02±0.14μM which was better than ascorbic acid (IC50=22.59±0.30μM). Compound 1 also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus simulans...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317565/periodontal-microbiology
#8
REVIEW
John D Harvey
This article provides a review of current information about periodontal bacteria, their activities within dental plaque biofilm, their interactions with the host immune system, and the infections with which they are associated. Periodontal disease, plaque formation, and the host immune response are also discussed, as are antimicrobial measures used to control the bacteria and the disease.
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317483/a-critical-review-of-bioactive-food-components-and-of-their-functional-mechanisms-biological-effects-and-health-outcomes
#9
Rosa Pérez-Gregorio, Jesús Simal-Gándara
BACKGROUND: Eating behaviours are closely related to some medical conditions potentially leading to death such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Healthy eating practices, maintaining a normal weight, and regular physical activity could prevent up to 80% of coronary heart disease, 90% of type-2 diabetes and one-third of all cancers[1]. METHOD: Over the last two decades, the food industry has invested much effort in research and development of healthier, more nutritious foods...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317266/insect-immunity-varies-idiosyncratically-during-overwintering
#10
Laura V Ferguson, Brent J Sinclair
Overwintering insects face multiple stressors, including pathogen and parasite pressures that shift with seasons. However, we know little of how the insect immune system fluctuates with season, particularly in the overwintering period. To understand how immune activity changes across autumn, winter, and spring, we tracked immune activity of three temperate insects that overwinter as larvae: a weevil (Curculio sp., Coleoptera), gallfly (Eurosta solidaginis, Diptera), and larvae of the lepidopteran Pyrrharctia isabella...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317028/mycobacterial-caseinolytic-protease-gene-regulator-clgr-is-a-substrate-of-caseinolytic-protease
#11
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Thomas Dick
The mycobacterial caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 is a degradative protease that recently gained interest as a genetically and pharmacologically validated drug target for tuberculosis. The first whole-cell active ClpP1P2 inhibitor, the human proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, is currently undergoing lead optimization to introduce selectivity for the bacterial target. How inhibition of ClpP1P2 translates into whole-cell antimicrobial activity is little understood. Previous work has shown that the caseinolytic protease gene regulator ClgR is an activator of the clpP1P2 genes and also suggested that this transcription factor may be a substrate of the protease...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317023/reduction-of-thrombosis-and-bacterial-infection-via-controlled-nitric-oxide-no-release-from-s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine-snap-impregnated-carbosil-intravascular-catheters
#12
Yaqi Wo, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Jianfeng Wu, Zi Li, Terry C Major, Azmath Mohammed, Xianglong Wang, Alessandro Colletta, Joseph L Bull, Adam J Matzger, Chuanwu Xi, Robert H Bartlett, Mark E Meyerhoff
Nitric oxide (NO) has many important physiological functions, including its ability to inhibit platelet activation and serve as potent antimicrobial agent. The multiple roles of NO in vivo have led to great interest in the development of biomaterials that can deliver NO for specific biomedical applications. Herein, we report a simple solvent impregnation technique to incorporate a nontoxic NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), into a more biocompatible biomedical grade polymer, CarboSil 20 80A. The resulting polymer-crystal composite material yields a very stable, long-term NO release biomaterial...
March 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316375/torilin-inhibits-inflammation-by-limiting-tak1-mediated-map-kinase-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#13
Mehari Endale, Tae-Hwan Kim, Yi-Seong Kwak, Na-Mi Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Bong-Sik Yun, Man-Hee Rhee
Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin's effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316009/safety-assessment-of-commensal-enterococci-from-dogs
#14
Ivana Kubašová, Viola Strompfová, Andrea Lauková
Enterococci form a complex, diverse, and very important group of bacteria from the technological and food safety aspect, or from the health-improving aspect as probiotics. Generally, enterococci are considered to be of low pathogenic potential, which is associated mostly with clinical strains. In these strains, production of virulence factors as well as resistance to many antimicrobial drugs could complicate treatment of nosocomial infections. Because there is a lack of information on incidence of these attributes in animal commensal enterococci, we screened 160 strains originating from feces of clinically healthy dogs in Eastern Slovakia (n = 105)...
March 18, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315730/synthesis-antimicrobial-activity-and-toxicity-to-nematodes-of-cyclam-derivatives
#15
Luis G Alves, Pedro F Pinheiro, Joana R Feliciano, Diana P Dâmaso, Jorge H Leitão, Ana M Martins
The antimicrobial activity and toxicity to nematodes of the cyclam salt [H2{H2((4-CF)3PhCH2)2Cyclam}](CH3COO)2.(CH3COOH)2 was evaluated. Estimated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 9, 261 and 15 µg/mL were obtained for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. For selected Candida spp., the estimated MICs obtained ranged from 32 µg/mL to 63 µg/mL. Bactericidal activity was demonstrated but the compound was not reliably fungicidal. Concentrations of the cyclam salt up to 32 µg/mL did not significantly affect survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; however, concentrations equal or above this value significantly affected nematode survival in a dose-dependent manner...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315724/molecular-detection-of-six-virulence-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-detected-in-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#16
Ali Badamchi, Hossein Masoumi, Shima Javadinia, Ramin Asgarian, Azardokht Tabatabaee
Although a vast majority of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by E. coli, epidemiological reports have indicated an increasing rate of such infections caused by some other opportunistic organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenesis mechanisms of P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect some virulence factor genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates detected in patients with UTI, in children hospital of Tehran, Tehran, Iran...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315482/modes-of-antibacterial-action-of-curcumin-under-dark-and-light-conditions-a-toxicoproteomics-approach
#17
Ilya Shlar, Samir Droby, Victor Rodov
Curcumin is a potent natural food-grade antimicrobial compound. Exposure to light further enhances its antimicrobial capacity. Proteomic methods were used in this study for investigating the mechanistic aspects of the antibacterial curcumin effects in the dark and upon illumination. Escherichia coli cells exposed to water-dispersible curcumin-methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex under dark and light conditions were compared with the non-treated cells kept under the same illumination regimes. Curcumin treatment in the dark evoked adaptive responses aimed at mitigation of oxidative stress, DNA protection, proteostasis, modulation of redox state via changing NADH level, and gasotransmitter (H2S and NH3) biosynthesis...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314993/comparative-analysis-of-internalisation-haemolytic-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-effect-of-membrane-active-cationic-peptides-aspects-of-experimental-setup
#18
Kata Horváti, Bernadett Bacsa, Tamás Mlinkó, Nóra Szabó, Ferenc Hudecz, Ferenc Zsila, Szilvia Bősze
Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314181/photocatalytic-degradation-effect-of-malachite-green-and-catalytic-hydrogenation-by-uv-illuminated-ceo2-cdo-multilayered-nanoplatelet-arrays-investigation-of-antifungal-and-antimicrobial-activities
#19
C Maria Magdalane, K Kaviyarasu, J Judith Vijaya, C Jayakumar, M Maaza, B Jeyaraj
CeO2/CdO multi-layered nanoplatelet arrays have been synthesized by sol-gel method at two different temperatures using Citrus limonum fruit extract and the effect of particle size on the photocatalytic performance is studied. The particle size and phases was analysed by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) which brought out the formation of cubic phase in the synthesized samples. Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the surface morphology and made up of cumulative form of platelet shaped arrays with an average size of 10nm...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314049/biological-evaluation-of-3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol-an-extrolite-produced-by-aspergillus-nidulans-strain-kzr-132
#20
C Ganesh Kumar, Poornima Mongolla, Sujitha Pombala, Shiva Bandi, K Suresh Babu, Kallaganti Venkata Siva Ramakrishna
AIMS: The aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132 and its biological evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bioactive extolite was purified from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132, and its chemical structure was elucidated as 3-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol (3-HBA) based on (1) H and (13) C NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of 3-HBA was established against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and different Candida strains...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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