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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903757/beyond-hand-hygiene-a-qualitative-study-of-the-everyday-work-of-preventing-cross-contamination-on-hospital-wards
#1
Su-Yin Hor, Claire Hooker, Rick Iedema, Mary Wyer, Gwendolyn L Gilbert, Christine Jorm, Matthew Vincent Neil O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections are the most common adverse event for inpatients worldwide. Efforts to prevent microbial cross-contamination currently focus on hand hygiene and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), with variable success. Better understanding is needed of infection prevention and control (IPC) in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We report on an interventionist video-reflexive ethnography study that explored how healthcare workers performed IPC in three wards in two hospitals in New South Wales, Australia: an intensive care unit and two general surgical wards...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888923/determination-of-time-of-death-in-forensic-science-via-a-3-d-whole-body-heat-transfer-model
#2
Catherine Bartgis, Alexander M LeBrun, Ronghui Ma, Liang Zhu
This study is focused on developing a whole body heat transfer model to accurately simulate temperature decay in a body postmortem. The initial steady state temperature field is simulated first and the calculated weighted average body temperature is used to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient at the skin surface, based on thermal equilibrium before death. The transient temperature field postmortem is then simulated using the same boundary condition and the temperature decay curves at several body locations are generated for a time frame of 24h...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884006/current-psychosomatic-practice
#3
Giovanni A Fava, Fiammetta Cosci, Nicoletta Sonino
Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881921/the-occurrence-and-predictive-factors-of-sleep-paralysis-in-university-students
#4
Monika Lišková, Denisa Janečková, Lucie Klůzová Kráčmarová, Karolína Mladá, Jitka Bušková
The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP) in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18), the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS), the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873410/where-do-physicians-start-and-end
#5
Rachel H Ellaway, David Topps, Maureen Topps
Medical education is primarily about training physicians and maintaining their capabilities over time. Given that physicians are the primary focus of the field, there is a need for a clear idea of what physicians are or could be. This paper seeks to explore this issue by posing the simple question: ?Where do physicians start and end?' In doing so, the authors explore a series of different conceptual frames, including those of a physician's physical dimensions, their cellular boundaries, personal intentions and beliefs, professional identity, regulation, entrustability, professional performance, extended cognition, and disability...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870193/reflection-in-home-visiting-the-what-why-and-a-beginning-step-toward-how
#6
Angela M Tomlin, Elesia Hines, Lynne Sturm
The work of home visitors in early childhood fields may include addressing many challenges to achieving curricular outcomes, including issues such as maintaining boundaries and managing one's own reactions to children, parents, and overall family situations. Increasingly, reflective supervision and consultation are recognized as a way for workers in home-visiting early intervention and early care fields to address these personal and professional challenges and build competence (Watson, Gatti, Cox, Harrison, & Hennes, )...
November 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867417/from-asperger-s-autistischen-psychopathen-to-dsm-5-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-beyond-a-subthreshold-autism-spectrum-model
#7
REVIEW
Liliana Dell'Osso, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Camilla Gesi, Ilenia Moroni, Claudia Carmassi, Mario Maj
Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger's Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's Autistische Psychopathie, from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858526/when-bad-things-happen-to-a-protagonist-like-you-the-role-of-self-in-resistance-to-negatively-framed-health-narratives
#8
Hye Kyung Kim, Michael A Shapiro
This study examines when and how shared risk-relevant experience (autobiographic similarity) influences resistance to negatively framed health narratives. We conducted a 2 (narrative perspective: 1st vs. 3rd person) × 2 (processing motive: experiential vs. analytical) randomized experiment with a short narrative depicting the negative effects of an illicitly used study drug. For those autobiographically similar to the study drug user, a 1st-person narration (vs. 3rd-person) produced greater transportation only when participants processed to understand the story (experiential condition), whereas the reverse was found when participants processed for the persuasive message (analytical condition)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856825/community-intellectual-disability-nurses-public-health-roles-in-the-united-kingdom-an-exploratory-documentary-analysis
#9
Kay Mafuba, Bob Gates, Maria Cozens
The aim of this study was to explore how public health policy in the United Kingdom was reflected in community intellectual disability nurses' (CIDNs)' job descriptions and person's specifications. The role of CIDNs has evolved due to policy changes. As these roles evolve, job descriptions and person specifications are important in highlighting employer's expectations staff, priorities, and professional values of their employees. This study involved an exploratory documentary analysis of n = 203 CIDNs' job descriptions and person specifications in the context of role theory...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843614/esmo-gave-me-a-chance-to-help-make-a-difference-a-personal-reflection-on-the-occasion-of-receiving-the-2015-esmo-award
#10
REVIEW
Nathan I Cherny
On the occasion of receiving the ESMO 2015, Prof Nathan Cherny reflects on the potential of the individual clinician to address issues of consequence on a wider scale through the auspices of a professional medical society. He describes his 20 year relationship with ESMO illustrating the potential of harnessing the power of ESMO to influence care, professional behaviours and distributional justice in the provision of care. He urges oncologists to be inspired by the credos that he was nurtured on emphasising professional and personal integrity and the audacity to push boundaries...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810108/public-values-for-integration-in-natural-disaster-management-and-planning-a-case-study-from-victoria-australia
#11
Andrea Rawluk, Rebecca M Ford, Fendi L Neolaka, Kathryn J Williams
Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799537/continental-scale-quantification-of-landscape-values-using-social-media-data
#12
Boris T van Zanten, Derek B Van Berkel, Ross K Meentemeyer, Jordan W Smith, Koen F Tieskens, Peter H Verburg
Individuals, communities, and societies ascribe a diverse array of values to landscapes. These values are shaped by the aesthetic, cultural, and recreational benefits and services provided by those landscapes. However, across the globe, processes such as urbanization, agricultural intensification, and abandonment are threatening landscape integrity, altering the personally meaningful connections people have toward specific places. Existing methods used to study landscape values, such as social surveys, are poorly suited to capture dynamic landscape-scale processes across large geographic extents...
October 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798049/the-big-picture-unfolds-using-photovoice-to-study-user-participation-in-mental-health-services
#13
Jessica Pui-Shan Tang, Samson Tse, Larry Davidson
BACKGROUND: User participation is advocated on the basis that consumers know their own needs better than anyone else. Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers the grass-root population to give voice on concerned issues for eliciting social change. AIM: This study explores the experience and impact of user participation in mental health services (MHS) in Hong Kong through photovoice. It also examines the effects of this method in studying user participation...
December 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793129/a-hybrid-concept-analysis-of-children-of-concern-japanese-healthcare-professionals-views-of-children-at-a-high-risk-of-developmental-disability
#14
Ayako Ide-Okochi, Etsuko Tadaka
BACKGROUND: The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition, DSM-5) redefined the boundaries of autism as a spectrum. It has been reported that the number of schoolchildren with undiagnosed developmental disorders (DDs) has risen in Japan. Such children referred to as kininaru-kodomo (KK, "children of concern") by healthcare professionals fall into a gray area. Therefore, KK are often overlooked at infant medical checkups. This leaves KK without necessary medical care and special needs education...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792242/palestinian-nurses-lived-experiences-working-in-the-occupied-west-bank
#15
A A Taha, C Westlake
BACKGROUND: Since the construction of the separation wall between Israel and the West Bank, Palestinians living in occupied West Bank have endured intense conflict, and severe restrictions on people's movement, trade and healthcare access, all of which resulted in spiralling poverty. These issues have created challenges for nurses that, to date, have not been explored. AIM: To explore the lived experience of Palestinian nurses working in the occupied West Bank. METHODS: Qualitative phenomenological study using interviews with Palestinian nurses working in public hospitals in the West Bank...
October 28, 2016: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787584/dynamic-perception-of-dynamic-affordances-walking-on-a-ship-at-sea
#16
Hannah Walter, Jeffrey B Wagman, Nick Stergiou, Nurtekin Erkmen, Thomas A Stoffregen
Motion of the surface of the sea (waves, and swell) causes oscillatory motion of ships at sea. Generally, ships are longer than they are wide. One consequence of this structural difference is that oscillatory ship motion typically will be greater in roll (i.e., the ship rolling from side to side) than in pitch (i.e., the bow and stern rising and falling). For persons on ships at sea, affordances for walking on the open deck should be differentially influenced by ship motion in roll and pitch. Specifically, the minimum width of a walkable path should be greater when walking along the ship's short, or athwart axis than when walking along its long, or fore-aft axis...
October 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782714/lung-surface-deformation-prediction-from-spirometry-measurement-and-chest-wall-surface-motion
#17
Joubin Nasehi Tehrani, Alistair McEwan, Jing Wang
PURPOSE: The authors have developed and evaluated a method to predict lung surface motion based on spirometry measurements, and chest and abdomen motion at selected locations. METHODS: A patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region was obtained at the end expiratory phase by the threshold-based segmentation method. Lung flow volume changes were recorded with a spirometer for each patient. A total of 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2 × 2 cm matrix points were used to detect chest wall motion over a total area of 32 × 24 cm covering the chest and abdomen surfaces...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782289/unobtrusive-and-continuous-monitoring-of-alcohol-impaired-gait-using-smart-shoes
#18
Eunjeong Park, Sunghoon I Lee, Hyo Suk Nam, Jordan H Garst, Alex Huang, Andrew Campion, Monica Arnell, Nima Ghalehsariand, Sangsoo Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Daniel C Lu, Majid Sarrafzadeh
BACKGROUND: Alcohol ingestion influences sensory-motor function and the overall well-being of individuals. Detecting alcohol-induced impairments in gait in daily life necessitates a continuous and unobtrusive gait monitoring system. OBJECTIVES: This paper introduces the development and use of a non-intrusive monitoring system to detect changes in gait induced by alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The proposed system employed a pair of sensorized smart shoes that are equipped with pressure sensors on the insole...
October 26, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776224/from-face-processing-to-face-recognition-comparing-three-different-processing-levels
#19
G Besson, G Barragan-Jason, S J Thorpe, M Fabre-Thorpe, S Puma, M Ceccaldi, E J Barbeau
Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768994/creating-visual-differences-methamphetamine-users-perceptions-of-anti-meth-campaigns
#20
Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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