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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992540/kids-in-space-measuring-children-s-residential-neighborhoods-and-other-destinations-using-activity-space-gps-and-wearable-camera-data
#1
T Chambers, A L Pearson, I Kawachi, Z Rzotkiewicz, J Stanley, M Smith, M Barr, C Ni Mhurchu, L Signal
INTRODUCTION: Defining the boundary of children's 'neighborhoods' has important implications for understanding the contextual influences on child health. Additionally, insight into activities that occur outside people's neighborhoods may indicate exposures that place-based studies cannot detect. This study aimed to 1) extend current neighborhood research, using data from wearable cameras and GPS devices that were worn over several days in an urban setting; 2) define the boundary of children's neighborhoods by using leisure time activity space data; and 3) determine the destinations visited by children in their leisure time, outside their neighborhoods...
September 28, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986778/students-learning-experiences-from-didactic-teaching-sessions-including-patient-case-examples-as-either-text-or-video-a-qualitative-study
#2
Kamilla Pedersen, Martin Holdgaard Moeller, Charlotte Paltved, Ole Mors, Charlotte Ringsted, Anne Mette Morcke
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' perceptions of psychiatric patients and students' reflections on meeting and communicating with psychiatric patients. METHODS: The authors conducted group interviews with 30 medical students who volunteered to participate in interviews and applied inductive thematic content analysis to the transcribed interviews...
October 6, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983767/psychiatric-management-administration-and-leadership-a-continuum-or-distinct-concepts
#3
REVIEW
Sy Atezaz Saeed, Stuart Silver, Victor J A Buwalda, Eindra Khin Khin, Jorge R Petit, Farooq Mohyuddin, Pamela Weinberg, Joseph P Merlino, Nena Lekwauwa, Saul Levin
To clarify the relationship between the concepts of management, administration, and leadership in psychiatry. The authors provide a review of the conceptual evolution of administrative psychiatry and develop operational definitions of these three domains. Based upon their experiences, they discuss relevant core competencies and personal attributes. The authors found that the terms psychiatric management, psychiatric administration, and psychiatric leadership are often used interchangeably, yet they each have a different and distinct focus...
October 6, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980171/fluctuations-in-episodic-and-chronic-migraine-status-over-the-course-of-1-year-implications-for-diagnosis-treatment-and-clinical-trial-design
#4
Daniel Serrano, Richard B Lipton, Ann I Scher, Michael L Reed, Walter Buzz F Stewart, Aubrey Manack Adams, Dawn C Buse
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the stability of a diagnosis of episodic migraine (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) over time. This study examines natural fluctuations in self-reported headache frequency as well as the stability and variation in migraine type among individuals meeting criteria for EM and CM at baseline. METHODS: The Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes (CaMEO) Study was a longitudinal survey of US adults with EM and CM identified by a web-questionnaire...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975851/state-authenticity-as-fit-to-environment-the-implications-of-social-identity-for-fit-authenticity-and-self-segregation
#5
Toni Schmader, Constantine Sedikides
People seek out situations that "fit," but the concept of fit is not well understood. We introduce State Authenticity as Fit to the Environment (SAFE), a conceptual framework for understanding how social identities motivate the situations that people approach or avoid. Drawing from but expanding the authenticity literature, we first outline three types of person-environment fit: self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. Each type of fit, we argue, facilitates cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and social fluency that promote state authenticity and drive approach or avoidance behaviors...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965705/social-perception-of-others-shapes-one-s-own-multisensory-peripersonal-space
#6
Elisa Pellencin, Maria Paola Paladino, Bruno Herbelin, Andrea Serino
The perception of our self is not restricted to our physical boundaries, but it extends beyond the body to incorporate the space where individual-environment interactions occur, i.e., the peripersonal space (PPS). PPS is generally conceived as a low-level multisensory-motor interface mediating hand-object interactions. Recent studies, however, showed that PPS representation is affected by higher-level cognitive factors. Here we asked whether the multisensory representation of PPS is influenced by high-level mechanisms implied in social interactions, such as the social perception of others...
September 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964164/sensitivity-of-reentrant-driver-localization-to-electrophysiological-parameter-variability-in-image-based-computational-models-of-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-sustained-by-a-fibrotic-substrate
#7
Dongdong Deng, Michael J Murphy, Joe B Hakim, William H Franceschi, Sohail Zahid, Farhad Pashakhanloo, Natalia A Trayanova, Patrick M Boyle
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, causing morbidity and mortality in millions worldwide. The atria of patients with persistent AF (PsAF) are characterized by the presence of extensive and distributed atrial fibrosis, which facilitates the formation of persistent reentrant drivers (RDs, i.e., spiral waves), which promote fibrillatory activity. Targeted catheter ablation of RD-harboring tissues has shown promise as a clinical treatment for PsAF, but the outcomes remain sub-par...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944473/photography-and-social-media-use-in-community-based-participatory-research-with-youth-ethical-considerations
#8
Maryam Kia-Keating, Diana Santacrose, Sabrina Liu
Community-based participatory researchers increasingly incorporate photography and social media into their work. Despite its relative infancy, social media has created a powerful network that allows individuals to convey messages quickly to a widespread audience. In addition to its potential benefits, the use of social media in research also carries risk, given the fast pace of exchanges, sharing of personal images and ideas in high accessibility, low privacy contexts and continually shifting options and upgrades...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936898/co-operation-of-employers-in-the-area-of-personal-monitoring-a-commentary-on-bir-guidance-on-the-uk-regulatory-situation
#9
Andy Rogers
The requirement for organisations to co-operate regarding doses to staff who work across organisational boundaries is well established. However, in the field of personal dosimetry there is little guidance as to how to actually achieve legal compliance. Following improvement action in the UK by the regulator, The Health & Safety Executive, a guidance document was developed by the leading professional bodies in this area. This guidance was also commented on by the HSE Specialist Inspectorate (Radiation) enabling the published guidance to represent a compliant standard...
September 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936897/uk-guidance-on-the-management-of-personal-dosimetry-systems-for-healthcare-staff-working-at-multiple-organisations
#10
Andy Rogers, Claire-Louise Chapple, Maria Murray, David Platton, John Saunderson
There has been concern expressed by the UK regulator, the Health & Safety Executive, regarding the management of occupation dose for healthcare radiation workers who work across multiple organisations. In response to this concern the British Institute of Radiology led a working group of relevant professional bodies to develop guidance in this area. The guidance addresses issues of general system management that would apply to all personal dosimetry systems, regardless of whether or not the workers within that system work across organisational boundaries, along with exploring efficient strategies to comply with legislation where those workers do indeed work across organisational boundaries...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924642/breastfeeding-un-covered-narratives-of-public-breastfeeding-on-romanian-discussion-forums
#11
Diana Tăut
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the construction of breastfeeding in public, as depicted in the stories and the opinions of women participating in discussions on public forums. METHOD: There were 8 discussion forums selected, from which 769 messages were subjected to a narrative analysis further informed by recurrent themes identified in the literature and across messages. The emerging narratives were grouped based on their valence, and three broader categories of themes were formed, highlighting the predominant tone towards breastfeeding in public...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914403/self-transformation-at-the-boundary-of-religious-conversion-and-psychosis
#12
Szabolcs Kéri
The relationship between religious conversion, as a form of spiritual emergency, and psychosis is one of the fundamental issues at the meeting point of theology and clinical psychology. In the present study, we assessed 53 individuals referred to a psychiatry center with the initial diagnosis of a psychotic episode by focusing on the clinical diagnosis (psychosis vs. spiritual emergency), subjective experiences (basic symptoms), and neuropsychological functions. Twenty-nine individuals meet the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, but 24 persons experienced only religious and spiritual problems (religious conversion)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910809/ingeborg-syllm-rapoport-1912-2017-an-exemplary-life-for-children-and-paediatrics
#13
Hannes Sallmon, Roland R Wauer, Charles Christoph Roehr
Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport, the first Chair in neonatology in Europe, passed away on March 23. Her biography illustrates how medical and scientific work has been influenced by social, ideological, and economic frames and boundaries in the 20th century. Regarded as a "Half-Jew" by the Nazi racist laws, she was denied her medical doctorate. She went to the USA, where she trained in paediatrics and met her husband, the biochemist Samuel Mitja Rapoport. During the "McCarthy Era" both were persecuted as communists...
September 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903703/motivated-use-of-numerical-anchors-for-judgments-relevant-to-the-self
#14
Samantha Joel, Stephanie S Spielmann, Geoff MacDonald
The anchoring effect has been replicated so extensively that it is generally thought to be ubiquitous. However, anchoring has primarily been tested in domains in which people are motivated to reach accurate conclusions rather than biased conclusions. Is the anchoring effect robust even when the anchors are threatening? In three studies, participants made a series of probability judgments about their own futures paired with either optimistic anchors (e.g., "Do you think that the chances that your current relationship will last a lifetime are more or less than 95%?"), pessimistic anchors (e...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903696/permeability-of-group-boundaries-development-of-the-concept-and-a-scale
#15
Bibiana M Armenta, Katherine Stroebe, Susanne Scheibe, Nico W Van Yperen, Alwin Stegeman, Tom Postmes
The perceived possibility of movement between groups, referred to as permeability of group boundaries, is considered a key factor in explaining intergroup relations. However, so far, permeability has been conceptualized in different ways and there exists no validated measure. Integrating different conceptualizations, we developed a scale distinguishing membership permeability (e.g., a person changing from one sport team to another) versus status permeability (e.g., a person acquiring a higher social status)...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882118/separating-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-from-the-self-a-qualitative-study-of-family-member-perceptions
#16
Rebecca Pedley, Penny Bee, Katherine Berry, Alison Wearden
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition which can have major effects on the life of both the sufferer and their family members. Previous research has shown that the impact of illness on family members is related to their conceptualisation of the illness. In the present study we used qualitative methods to explore illness perceptions in family members of people with OCD. METHOD: Fourteen family members of people meeting diagnostic criteria for OCD within the previous year took part in a semi-structured interview...
September 7, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867935/the-history-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-as-a-diagnostic-category
#17
Marc-Antoine Crocq
From the 19th century into the 20th century, the terms used to diagnose generalized anxiety included "pantophobia" and "anxiety neurosis." Such terms designated paroxysmal manifestations (panic attacks) as well as interparoxysmal phenomenology (the apprehensive mental state). Also, generalized anxiety was considered one of numerous symptoms of neurasthenia, a vaguely defined illness. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) appeared as a diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864874/close-interpersonal-proximity-modulates-visuomotor-processing-of-object-affordances-in-shared-social-space
#18
Elizabeth J Saccone, Ancret Szpak, Owen Churches, Michael E R Nicholls
Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate...
September 1, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864401/implementing-radiation-dose-volume-liver-response-in-biomechanical-deformable-image-registration
#19
Daniel F Polan, Mary Feng, Theodore S Lawrence, Randall K Ten Haken, Kristy K Brock
PURPOSE: Understanding anatomic and functional changes in the liver resulting from radiation therapy is fundamental to the improvement of normal tissue complication probability models needed to advance personalized medicine. The ability to link pretreatment and posttreatment imaging is often compromised by significant dose-dependent volumetric changes within the liver that are currently not accounted for in deformable image registration (DIR) techniques. This study investigated using delivered dose, in combination with other patient factors, to biomechanically model longitudinal changes in liver anatomy for follow-up care and re-treatment planning...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857600/advances-in-neurocognitive-rehabilitation-research-from-1992-to-2017-the-ascension-of-neural-plasticity
#20
Bruce Crosson, Benjamin M Hampstead, Lisa C Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Keith M McGregor, Joe R Nocera, Simone Roberts, Amy D Rodriguez, Stella M Tran
OBJECTIVE: The last 25 years have seen profound changes in neurocognitive rehabilitation that continue to motivate its evolution. Although the concept of nervous system plasticity was discussed by William James (1890), the foundation for experience-based plasticity had not reached the critical empirical mass to seriously impact rehabilitation research until after 1992. The objective of this review is to describe how the emergence of neural plasticity has changed neurocognitive rehabilitation research...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
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