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Infectious disease modelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792190/novel-insights-into-neuroinflammation-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-ureaplasma-species-differentially-modulate-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-responses-in-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Christine Silwedel, Christian P Speer, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Mathias Buttmann, Kirsten Glaser
BACKGROUND: Atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3, synonym CXCR7) is increasingly considered relevant in neuroinflammatory conditions, in which its upregulation contributes to compromised endothelial barrier function and may ultimately allow inflammatory brain injury. While an impact of ACKR3 has been recognized in several neurological autoimmune diseases, neuroinflammation may also result from infectious agents, including Ureaplasma species (spp.). Although commonly regarded as commensals of the adult urogenital tract, Ureaplasma spp...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792036/meeting-the-challenge-for-effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-in-regional-rural-and-remote-hospitals-what-can-we-learn-from-the-published-literature
#2
Jaclyn Bishop, David Cm Kong, Thomas R Schulz, Karin A Thursky, Kirsty L Buising
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been recognised as an urgent health priority, both nationally and internationally. Australian hospitals are required to have an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program, yet the necessary resources may not be available in regional, rural or remote hospitals. This review will describe models for AMS programs that have been introduced in regional, rural or remote hospitals internationally and showcase achievements and key considerations that may guide Australian hospitals in establishing or sustaining AMS programs in the regional, rural or remote hospital setting...
May 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790913/impact-of-implementing-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-15-small-hospitals-a-cluster-randomized-intervention
#3
Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Whitney R Buckel, Peter Jones, Xiaoming Sheng, R Scott Evans, John P Burke, Bert K Lopansri, Rajendu Srivastava, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
Background: Studies on the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) in small hospitals are limited. Accreditation organizations now require all hospitals to have ASPs. Methods: The objective of this cluster-randomized intervention was to assess the effectiveness of implementing ASPs in Intermountain Healthcare's 15 small hospitals. Each hospital was randomized to 1 of 3 ASPs of escalating intensity. Program 1 hospitals were provided basic antibiotic stewardship education and tools, access to an infectious disease hotline, and antibiotic utilization data...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789820/structural-mechanisms-of-oligomer-and-amyloid-fibril-formation-by-the-prion-protein
#4
Ishita Sengupta, Jayant B Udgaonkar
Misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein is responsible for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Works from several laboratories on folding of both the WT and multiple pathogenic mutant variants of the prion protein have identified several structurally dissimilar intermediates, which might be potential precursors to misfolding and aggregation. The misfolded aggregates themselves are morphologically distinct, critically dependent on the solution conditions under which they are prepared, but always β-sheet rich...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789805/in-silico-knockout-screening-of-plasmodium-falciparum-reactions-and-prediction-of-novel-essential-reactions-by-analysing-the-metabolic-network
#5
Jelili Oyelade, Itunuoluwa Isewon, Efosa Uwoghiren, Olufemi Aromolaran, Olufunke Oladipupo
Malaria is an infectious disease that affects close to half a million individuals every year and Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of malaria. The treatment of this disease could be done effectively if the essential enzymes of this parasite are specifically targeted. Nevertheless, the development of the parasite in resisting existing drugs now makes discovering new drugs a core responsibility. In this study, a novel computational model that makes the prediction of new and validated antimalarial drug target cheaper, easier, and faster has been developed...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789368/the-case-for-an-expanded-concept-of-trained-immunity
#6
Antonio Cassone
Trained immunity was originally proposed as a program of innate immunity memory by innate immunity cells of hematopoietic origin such as the monocytes/macrophages and the NK cells. Here I discuss some old and new data justifying this program and some specific, still unanswered, questions it raises regarding the model fungus Candida albicans and the chronic, inflammatory vulvovaginal disease it causes. Building upon this well-established program, the recent reports that epithelial cells of mammals can also acquire memory from previous stimulations, and the apparent intrinsic ability of many living cells from bacteria to mammals to learn from experience, I suggest an expansion of the concept of trained immunity to include all cells of different lineages with the potential of memorizing previous microbial encounters...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786769/do-fatal-infectious-diseases-eradicate-host-species
#7
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
In simple SI epidemic and endemic models, three classes of incidence functions are identified for their potential to be associated with host extinction: weakly upper density-dependent incidences are never associated with host extinction. Power incidences that depend on the number of susceptibles and infectives by powers strictly between 0 and 1 are associated with initial-constellation-dependent host extinction for all parameter values. Homogeneous incidences, of which frequency-dependent incidence is a very particular case, and power incidences are associated with global host extinction for certain parameter constellations and with host survival for others...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786132/the-economic-case-for-a-pandemic-fund
#8
Kevin Berry, Toph Allen, Richard D Horan, Jason F Shogren, David Finnoff, Peter Daszak
The rapid urban spread of Ebola virus in West Africa in 2014 and consequent breakdown of control measures led to a significant economic impact as well as the burden on public health and wellbeing. The US government appropriated $5.4 Billion for FY2015 and WHO proposed a $100 Million emergency fund largely to curtail the threat of future outbreaks. Using epidemiological analyses and economic modeling, we propose that the best use of these and similar funds would be to serve as global insurance against the continued threat of emerging infectious diseases...
May 21, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785893/evaluating-vaccination-strategies-to-control-foot-and-mouth-disease-a-country-comparison-study
#9
T G Rawdon, M G Garner, R L Sanson, M A Stevenson, C Cook, C Birch, S E Roche, K A Patyk, K N Forde-Folle, C Dubé, T Smylie, Z D Yu
Vaccination is increasingly being recognised as a potential tool to supplement 'stamping out' for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in non-endemic countries. Infectious disease simulation models provide the opportunity to determine how vaccination might be used in the face of an FMD outbreak. Previously, consistent relative benefits of specific vaccination strategies across different FMD simulation modelling platforms have been demonstrated, using a UK FMD outbreak scenario. We extended this work to assess the relative effectiveness of selected vaccination strategies in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK and Canada...
May 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785520/times-from-infection-to-disease-induced-death-and-their-influence-on-final-population-sizes-after-epidemic-outbreaks
#10
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
For epidemic models, it is shown that fatal infectious diseases cannot drive the host population into extinction if the incidence function is upper density-dependent. This finding holds even if a latency period is included and the time from infection to disease-induced death has an arbitrary length distribution. However, if the incidence function is also lower density-dependent, very infectious diseases can lead to a drastic decline of the host population. Further, the final population size after an epidemic outbreak can possibly be substantially affected by the infection-age distribution of the initial infectives if the life expectations of infected individuals are an unbounded function of infection age (time since infection)...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784843/high-dose-and-delayed-treatment-with-bile-acids-ineffective-in-rml-prion-infected-mice
#11
Grant Norman, Jody Campeau, Valerie L Sim
Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC ) into the infectious form (PrPSc ). There are currently no treatments for prion disease. Bile acids have the ability to protect hepatocytes from apoptosis and are neuroprotective in animal models of other protein folding neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, bile acids are approved for clinical use in patients with cirrhosis, and have recently been shown to be safe and possibly effective in pilot trials of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783254/-legal-bases-of-vaccination-in-ukraine
#12
Olena O Terzi
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Despite the extraordinary progress made in the field of vaccination, a large number of children in the last decade, 24 million children, or nearly 20% of children born every year, do not receive a full plan for vaccination during their first year of life. The aim: The purpose of the article is to analyze the legal framework of vaccination in Ukraine, comparing the approach of the domestic legislator to the vaccination with foreign experience. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Methods of research are selected based on the goal of the study...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781731/neuropsychologists-as-primary-care-providers-of-cognitive-health-a-novel-comprehensive-cognitive-wellness-service-delivery-model
#13
Patricia A Pimental, John B O'Hara, Jessica L Jandak
By virtue of their extensive knowledge base and specialized training in brain-behavior relationships, neuropsychologists are especially poised to execute a unique broad-based approach to overall cognitive wellness and should be viewed as primary care providers of cognitive health. This article will describe a novel comprehensive cognitive wellness service delivery model including cognitive health, anti-aging, lifelong wellness, and longevity-oriented practices. These practice areas include brain-based cognitive wellness, emotional and spiritually centric exploration, and related multimodality health interventions...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781552/topical-rifampin-powder-for-orthopaedic-trauma-part-i-rifampin-powder-reduces-recalcitrant-infection-in-a-delayed-treatment-musculoskeletal-trauma-model
#14
Stefanie M Shiels, David J Tennent, Joseph C Wenke
Open fractures become infected despite meticulous debridement and care. Locally applied antibiotics, commonly embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, deliver high doses of drug directly to the fracture site. Direct application of antibiotic powder, which is being applied prophylactically in spine surgery, is a recent interest in the trauma sector, where bacterial biofilms are more prevalent. Traditional antibiotics, such as vancomycin, are poor performers against bacterial biofilms thus are ineffective in delayed treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781359/rhabdoviruses-as-vaccine-platforms-for-infectious-disease-and-cancer
#15
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780431/mathematical-modelling-of-bacterial-meningitis-transmission-dynamics-with-control-measures
#16
Joshua Kiddy K Asamoah, Farai Nyabadza, Baba Seidu, Mehar Chand, Hemen Dutta
Vaccination and treatment are the most effective ways of controlling the transmission of most infectious diseases. While vaccination helps susceptible individuals to build either a long-term immunity or short-term immunity, treatment reduces the number of disease-induced deaths and the number of infectious individuals in a community/nation. In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model with time-dependent controls has been proposed to describe the dynamics of bacterial meningitis in a population. The model is shown to exhibit a unique globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium ℰ 0 , when the effective reproduction number ℛ VT ≤ 1, and a globally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium ℰ 1 , when ℛ VT > 1; and it exhibits a transcritical bifurcation at ℛ VT = 1...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780031/adolescent-self-consent-for-vaccinations-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#17
Harriet Fisher, Matthew Hickman, John Macleod, Suzanne Audrey
INTRODUCTION: The recent global expansion of routine adolescent vaccination programmes has the potential to protect young people against the acquisition of infectious disease and improve their health. Although in many countries the legal framework supports young people to provide consent for medical interventions if they are considered competent, written parental consent can act as a barrier to uptake as it is frequently a condition of adolescent vaccination programmes. The aim of this systematic review protocol is to document the methods which will be used to identify, appraise and synthesise the available qualitative and quantitative evidence to address: (1) whether implementation of adolescent self-consent procedures can increase vaccination uptake and (2) the barriers and facilitators to implementation of adolescent self-consent procedures...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779674/forecasting-respiratory-infectious-outbreaks-using-ed-based-syndromic-surveillance-for-febrile-ed-visits-in-a-metropolitan-city
#18
Tae Han Kim, Ki Jeong Hong, Sang Do Shin, Gwan Jin Park, Sungwan Kim, Nhayoung Hong
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and detecting sudden outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease is important. Emergency Department (ED)-based syndromic surveillance systems have been introduced for early detection of infectious outbreaks. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a forecasting model of respiratory infectious disease outbreaks based on a nationwide ED syndromic surveillance using daily number of emergency department visits with fever. METHODS: We measured the number of daily ED visits with body temperature ≥ 38...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778193/single-nucleotide-variants-in-innate-immune-genes-associated-with-salmonella-shedding-and-colonization-in-swine-on-commercial-farms
#19
Margaret H Ainslie-Garcia, Abdolvahab Farzan, Mohsen Jafarikia, Brandon N Lillie
Foodborne human salmonellosis is an important food safety concern worldwide. Food-producing animals are one of the major sources of human salmonellosis, and thus control of Salmonella at the farm level could reduce Salmonella spread in the food supply system. Genetic selection of pigs with resistance to Salmonella infection may be one way to control Salmonella on swine farms. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variants in the porcine innate immune system with on-farm Salmonella shedding and Salmonella colonization tested at slaughter...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777425/the-use-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-forensic-medicine-following-incidents-of-sexual-violence-in-hamburg-germany-a-retrospective-study
#20
Julia Ebert, Jan Peter Sperhake, Olaf Degen, Ann Sophie Schröder
In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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