keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Infectious disease modelling

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-inter-individual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#1
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We use a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly account for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937949/international-vision-care-issues-and-approaches
#2
Rohit C Khanna, Srinivas Marmamula, Gullapalli N Rao
Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Success stories, including control of vitamin A deficiency, onchocerciasis, and trachoma, showed that global partnerships, multisectoral collaboration, public-private partnerships, corporate philanthropy, support from nongovernmental organizations-both local and international-and governments are responsible for the success of these programs...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936471/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-particle-heterogeneity-in-immunodeficient-human-liver-chimeric-fah-mice
#3
Ursula Andreo, Ype P de Jong, Margaret A Scull, Jing W Xiao, Koen Vercauteren, Corrine Quirk, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Sonia Bergaya, Arjun Menon, Edward A Fisher, Charles M Rice
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity of the particles with respect to their buoyant density therefore cannot be determined, pointing to the need for better in vivo model systems...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936226/challenges-in-modeling-complexity-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-a-review-of-dynamics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
REVIEW
Swati DebRoy, Olivia Prosper, Austin Mishoe, Anuj Mubayi
OBJECTIVES: Neglected tropical diseases (NTD), account for a large proportion of the global disease burden, and their control faces several challenges including diminishing human and financial resources for those distressed from such diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-largest parasitic killer (after malaria) and an NTD affects poor populations and causes considerable cost to the affected individuals. Mathematical models can serve as a critical and cost-effective tool for understanding VL dynamics, however, complex array of socio-economic factors affecting its dynamics need to be identified and appropriately incorporated within a dynamical modeling framework...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935938/an-engineered-bispecific-dna-encoded-igg-antibody-protects-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-pneumonia-challenge-model
#5
Ami Patel, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Ashley E Keller, Trevor R F Smith, Daniel H Park, Stephanie Ramos, Katherine Schultheis, Sarah T C Elliott, Janess Mendoza, Kate E Broderick, Megan C Wise, Jian Yan, Jingjing Jiang, Seleeke Flingai, Amir S Khan, Kar Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, Lily I Cheng, Leslie Wachter-Rosati, C Kendall Stover, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
The impact of broad-spectrum antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance and disruption of the beneficial microbiome compels the urgent investigation of bacteria-specific approaches such as antibody-based strategies. Among these, DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs), produced by muscle cells in vivo, potentially allow the prevention or treatment of bacterial infections circumventing some of the hurdles of protein IgG delivery. Here, we optimize DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies consisting of two potent human IgG clones, including a non-natural bispecific IgG1 candidate, targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934453/an-adjuvanted-a-h5n1-subvirion-vaccine-elicits-virus-specific-antibody-response-and-improves-protection-against-lethal-influenza-viral-challenge-in-mouse-model-of-protein-energy-malnutrition
#6
Enitra N Jones, Samuel Amoah, Weiping Cao, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa
Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. Methods: We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#7
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934195/a-scoring-model-for-predicting-prognosis-of-patients-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#8
Bei Jia, Xiaomin Yan, Yuxin Chen, Guiyang Wang, Yong Liu, Biyun Xu, Peixin Song, Yang Li, Yali Xiong, Weihua Wu, Yingying Hao, Juan Xia, Zhaoping Zhang, Rui Huang, Chao Wu
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging epidemic infectious disease caused by the SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) with an estimated high case-fatality rate of 12.7% to 32.6%. Currently, the disease has been reported in mainland China, Japan, Korea, and the United States. At present, there is no specific antiviral therapy for SFTSV infection. Considering the higher mortality rate and rapid clinical progress of SFTS, supporting the appropriate treatment in time to SFTS patients is critical. Therefore, it is very important for clinicians to predict these SFTS cases who are more likely to have a poor prognosis or even more likely to decease...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933682/q-vaxcelerate-a-distributed-development-approach-for-a-new-coxiella-burnetii-vaccine
#9
Patrick M Reeves, Susan Raju Paul, Ann E Sluder, Timothy A Brauns, Mark C Poznansky
Development of vaccines that are both safe and effective remains a costly and time-consuming challenge. To accelerate the pace of development and improve the efficacy and safety of candidate vaccines for both existing and emerging infectious agents, we have employed a distributed development approach. This features the managed integration of individual expert groups having the requisite vaccine platforms, pre-clinical models, assays, skills and knowledge pertinent to a specific pathogen into a single, end-to-end development team capable of producing a new vaccine tailored to that particular agent...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933344/first-outbreak-of-zika-virus-in-the-continental-united-states-a-modelling-analysis
#10
Giovanni Marini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Roberto Rosà, Stefano Merler
Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread throughout Latin and Central America. This emerging infectious disease has been causing considerable public health concern because of severe neurological complications, especially in newborns after congenital infections. In July 2016, the first outbreak in the continental United States was identified in the Wynwood neighbourhood of Miami-Dade County, Florida. In this work, we investigated transmission dynamics using a mathematical model calibrated to observed data on mosquito abundance and symptomatic human infections...
September 14, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932195/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-attenuates-the-apoptosis-of-peripheral-blood-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#11
Jinping Wang, Ping Wang, Shuiqing Gui, Yun Li, Runhua Chen, Renqing Zeng, Peiyan Zhao, Hanwei Wu, Zheyu Huang, Jianlong Wu
Sepsis is generally considered as a severe condition of inflammation that leads to lymphocyte apoptosis and multiple organ dysfunction. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in infectious diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of HSYA on polymicrobial sepsis remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects and the mechanisms of action of HSYA on immunosuppression in a murine model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931860/towards-an-ultra-rapid-smartphone-connected-test-for-infectious-diseases
#12
Valérian Turbé, Eleanor R Gray, Victoria E Lawson, Eleni Nastouli, Jennifer C Brookes, Robin A Weiss, Deenan Pillay, Vincent C Emery, C Theo Verrips, Hiromi Yatsuda, Dale Athey, Rachel A McKendry
The development is reported of an ultra-rapid, point-of-care diagnostic device which harnesses surface acoustic wave (SAW) biochips, to detect HIV in a finger prick of blood within 10 seconds (sample-in-result-out). The disposable quartz biochip, based on microelectronic components found in every consumer smartphone, is extremely fast because no complex labelling, amplification or wash steps are needed. A pocket-sized control box reads out the SAW signal and displays results electronically. High analytical sensitivity and specificity are found with model and real patient blood samples...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#13
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931634/improved-prediction-accuracy-for-disease-risk-mapping-using-gaussian-process-stacked-generalization
#14
Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Seth R Flaxman, Daniel J Weiss, David L Smith, Peter W Gething
Maps of infectious disease-charting spatial variations in the force of infection, degree of endemicity and the burden on human health-provide an essential evidence base to support planning towards global health targets. Contemporary disease mapping efforts have embraced statistical modelling approaches to properly acknowledge uncertainties in both the available measurements and their spatial interpolation. The most common such approach is Gaussian process regression, a mathematical framework composed of two components: a mean function harnessing the predictive power of multiple independent variables, and a covariance function yielding spatio-temporal shrinkage against residual variation from the mean...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931390/who-s-holding-the-baby-a-prospective-diary-study-of-the-contact-patterns-of-mothers-with-an-infant
#15
Patricia Therese Campbell, Jodie McVernon, Niraj Shrestha, Paula M Nathan, Nicholas Geard
BACKGROUND: Models of infectious disease are increasingly utilising empirical contact data to quantify the number of potentially infectious contacts between age groups. While a growing body of data is being collected on contact patterns across many populations, less attention has been paid to the social contacts of young infants. We collected information on the social contacts of primary carers of young infants and investigated their potential for use as a proxy for contacts made by their infant...
September 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931005/correction-dose-response-relationships-for-environmentally-mediated-infectious-disease-transmission-models
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005481.].
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#17
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929911/understanding-the-effects-of-intermittent-shedding-on-the-transmission-of-infectious-diseases-example-of-salmonellosis-in-pigs
#18
Glenn E Lahodny, Raju Gautam, Renata Ivanek
A number of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases are characterized by intermittent infectiousness of infected hosts. However, it is unclear whether intermittent infectiousness must be explicitly accounted for in mathematical models for these diseases or if a simplified modelling approach is acceptable. To address this question we study the transmission of salmonellosis between penned pigs in a grower-finisher facility. The model considers indirect transmission, growth of free-living Salmonella within the environment, and environmental decontamination...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929712/-mortality-excess-analysis-for-year-2015-in-palermo-province-sicily-region-southern-italy
#19
Filippo Pinzone, Rosanna Cusimano, Nicolò Casuccio, Adriana Mancuso, Angela Pitarresi
BACKGROUND: a death number increment compared to the previous years was observed in Italy for the year 2015; its causes are under study. OBJECTIVES: to verify if the mortality occurred in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) for the year 2015 was greater than the one observed in the previous period (years 2009-2014) and to find which death causes it would be attributable to. DESIGN: observed number of deaths in 2015 were compared with expected numbers calculated with the traditional analysis of direct adjusted rates, and with a 90% predictive interval estimated fitting a Generalized Additive Model (GAM), via a quasi-Poisson distribution of the observed deaths in the period 2009-2014; various measures of the environmental temperature were used as regressor...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929347/an-ethical-assessment-model-for-digital-disease-detection-technologies
#20
Kerstin Denecke
Digital epidemiology, also referred to as digital disease detection (DDD), successfully provided methods and strategies for using information technology to support infectious disease monitoring and surveillance or understand attitudes and concerns about infectious diseases. However, Internet-based research and social media usage in epidemiology and healthcare pose new technical, functional and formal challenges. The focus of this paper is on the ethical issues to be considered when integrating digital epidemiology with existing practices...
September 20, 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
keyword
keyword
8708
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"