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Infectious disease modelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346819/parametric-overdispersed-frailty-models-for-current-status-data
#1
Steven Abrams, Marc Aerts, Geert Molenberghs, Niel Hens
Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346400/t-lymphocyte-homing-an-underappreciated-yet-critical-hurdle-for-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
Robert Sackstein, Tobias Schatton, Steven R Barthel
Advances in cancer immunotherapy have offered new hope for patients with metastatic disease. This unfolding success story has been exemplified by a growing arsenal of novel immunotherapeutics, including blocking antibodies targeting immune checkpoint pathways, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, clinical benefit remains highly variable and patient-specific, in part, because all immunotherapeutic regimens vitally hinge on the capacity of endogenous and/or adoptively transferred T-effector (Teff) cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, to home efficiently into tumor target tissue...
March 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343775/lower-vaccine-uptake-amongst-older-individuals-living-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-social-determinants-of-vaccine-uptake
#3
REVIEW
Anu Jain, A J van Hoek, Delia Boccia, Sara L Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is a key intervention to reduce infectious disease mortality and morbidity amongst older individuals. Identifying social factors for vaccine uptake enables targeted interventions to reduce health inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise and quantify social factors associated with vaccine uptake amongst individuals aged ≥60years from Europe. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase from inception to 24/02/2016...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342787/forecasting-ebola-with-a-regression-transmission-model
#4
Jason Asher
We describe a relatively simple stochastic model of Ebola transmission that was used to produce forecasts with the lowest mean absolute error among Ebola Forecasting Challenge participants. The model enabled prediction of peak incidence, the timing of this peak, and final size of the outbreak. The underlying discrete-time compartmental model used a time-varying reproductive rate modeled as a multiplicative random walk driven by the number of infectious individuals. This structure generalizes traditional Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) disease modeling approaches and allows for the flexible consideration of outbreaks with complex trajectories of disease dynamics...
February 27, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340929/pattern-transition-phenomena-in-spatial-modeling-of-infectious-diseases-comment-on-pattern-transitions-in-spatial-epidemics-mechanisms-and-emergent-properties-by-gui-quan-sun-et-al
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339457/targeted-aav5-smad7-gene-therapy-inhibits-corneal-scarring-in-vivo
#6
Suneel Gupta, Jason T Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A Giuliano, Prashant R Sinha, Nathan P Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R Mohan
Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#7
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335189/synergistic-antibacterial-effects-of-nanoparticles-encapsulated-with-scutellaria-baicalensis-and-pure-chlorhexidine-on-oral-bacterial-biofilms
#8
Ken Cham-Fai Leung, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Xuan Li, Ping Chung Leung, Clara Bik San Lau, Chi-Hin Wong, Ka Yan Pang, Chun Wai Wong, Elaine Wat, Lijian Jin
Scutellariabaicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB) as the marker...
April 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333988/years-of-life-lost-due-to-infectious-diseases-in-poland
#9
Marek Bryla, Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Pawel Bryla, Malgorzata Pikala, Irena Maniecka-Bryla
PURPOSE: An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999-2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. METHODS: The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#10
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333229/escherichia-coli-cattle-and-the-propagation-of-disease
#11
Richard A Stein, David E Katz
Several early models describing host-pathogen interaction have assumed that each individual host has approximately the same likelihood of becoming infected or of infecting others. More recently, a concept that has been increasingly emphasized in many studies is that for many infectious diseases, transmission is not homogeneous but highly skewed at the level of populations. In what became known as the "20/80 rule", about 20% of the hosts in a population were found to contribute to about 80% of the transmission potential...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331850/ifn-%C3%AF-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-staphylococcus-aureus-endometritis-via-inhibiting-the-activation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-mice
#12
Zhenbiao Zhang, Yingfang Guo, Yuzhu Liu, Chengye Li, Mengyao Guo, Ganzhen Deng
The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of IFN-τ on endometritis using a mouse model of S. aureus-induced endometritis and to elucidate the mechanism of action underlying these effects. In the present study, the effect of IFN-τ on S. aureus growth was monitored by turbidimeter at 600 nm. IFN-τ did not affect S. aureus growth. The histopathological changes indicated that IFN-τ had a protective effect on uterus tissues with S. aureus infection. The ELISA and qPCR results showed the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was decreased with IFN-τ treatment...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330886/preclinical-diagnosis-predicting-its-ability-to-improve-control-of-farm-to-farm-foot-and-mouth-disease-transmission-in-cattle
#13
Noel Nelson, David J Paton, Simon Gubbins, Claire Colenutt, Emma Brown, Sophia Hodgson, Jose L Gonzales
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. Current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. Here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. We used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples, were taken daily during the course of infection...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330230/isolation-and-biological-evaluation-of-n-4-aminocyclooctyl-3-5-dinitrobenzamide-a-new-semisynthetic-derivative-from-the-mangrove-associated-actinomycete-pseudonocardia-endophytica-vuk-10
#14
Usha Kiranmayi Mangamuri, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Sudhakar Poda, Bramanandam Manavathi, Bhujangarao Chitturi, Venkateswarlu Yenamandra
The present study was aimed to isolate novel bioactive compounds from actinomycetes species isolated from mangrove habitats. With this connection, Pseudonocardia endophytica (VUK-10) was isolated using dilution plate technique and was examined for its secondary metabolite profiling. After successive purification and spectroscopic characterization viz., FTIR, mass, NMR, DEPT, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY spectroscopy, two compounds were identified including a semi synthetic derivative N-(4-aminocyclooctyl)-3, 5-dinitrobenzamide (1), obtained from the precursor of novel natural product cyclooctane-1,4-diamine (3), along with a known compound 3-((1H-indol-6-yl) methyl) hexahydropyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazine-1, 4-dione (2)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328326/interleukin-12-and-interleukin-23-blockade-in-leukocyte-adhesion-deficiency-type-1
#15
Niki M Moutsopoulos, Christa S Zerbe, Teresa Wild, Nicolas Dutzan, Laurie Brenchley, Giovanni DiPasquale, Gulbu Uzel, Karen C Axelrod, Andrea Lisco, Lucia D Notarangelo, George Hajishengallis, Luigi D Notarangelo, Steven M Holland
A patient with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) had severe periodontitis and an intractable, deep, nonhealing sacral wound. We had previously found a dominant interleukin-23-interleukin-17 signature at inflamed sites in humans with LAD1 and in mouse models of the disorder. Blockade of this pathway in mouse models has resulted in resolution of the immunopathologic condition. We treated our patient with ustekinumab, an antibody that binds the p40 subunit of interleukin-23 and interleukin-12 and thereby blocks the activity of these cytokines, inhibiting interleukin-23-dependent production of interleukin-17...
March 23, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#16
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325766/staphylococcal-%C3%AE-toxin-modulates-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-and-platelet-function-through-sphingomyelinase-and-biofilm-ligase-activities
#17
Alfa Herrera, Katarina Kulhankova, Vijay K Sonkar, Sanjana Dayal, Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Patrick M Schlievert
Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like "vegetations" composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism's ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323675/30-day-readmission-after-pancreatic-resection-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#18
Alexander V Fisher, Sara Fernandes-Taylor, Stephanie A Campbell-Flohr, Sam J Clarkson, Emily R Winslow, Daniel E Abbott, Sharon M Weber
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare common reasons and risk factors for 30-day readmission after pancreatic resection. BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission after pancreatic resection is common and costly. Many studies have evaluated this problem and numerous discrepancies exist regarding the primary reasons and risk factors for readmission. METHODS: Multiple electronic databases were searched from 2002 to 2016, and 15 relevant articles identified...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322935/early-pathogenesis-during-infectious-bursal-disease-in-susceptible-chickens-is-associated-with-changes-in-b-cell-genomic-methylation-and-loss-of-genome-integrity
#19
Nick A Ciccone, Lorraine P Smith, William Mwangi, Amy Boyd, Andrew J Broadbent, Adrian L Smith, Venugopal Nair
We propose a model by which an increase in the genomic modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), contributes to B cell death within the chicken bursa of Fabricus (BF) infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Our findings indicate that, following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF than the more resistant 15l line of birds. Elevated genomic 5hmC levels within the RIR BF are associated with markers of immune responses: infiltrating T cells and increased expression of CD40L, FasL and iNOS...
March 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321153/p-glycoprotein-multidrug-transporter-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-more-questions-than-answers
#20
EDITORIAL
Elke Cario
The gastrointestinal barrier is constantly exposed to numerous environmental substrates that are foreign and potentially harmful. These xenobiotics can cause shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition, affect mucosal immune responses, disturb tissue integrity and impair regeneration. The multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) plays a key role at the front line of host defence by efficiently protecting the gastrointestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation. This Editorial discusses how altered expression and function of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp may contribute to the development and persistence of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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