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Infectious disease modelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239442/integral-projection-models-for-host-parasite-systems-with-an-application-to-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#1
Mark Q Wilber, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Hamish I McCallum, Cheryl J Briggs
Host parasite models are typically constructed under either a microparasite or macroparasite paradigm. However, this has long been recognized as a false dichotomy because many infectious disease agents, including most fungal pathogens, have attributes of both microparasites and macroparasites.We illustrate how Integral Projection Models (IPM)s provide a novel, elegant modeling framework to represent both types of pathogens. We build a simple host-parasite IPM that tracks both the number of susceptible and infected hosts and the distribution of parasite burdens in infected hosts...
October 2016: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239379/estrogen-receptor-dependent-regulation-of-dendritic-cell-development-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Cyril Seillet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#3
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). While the mechanisms underlying the causation of PI-IBS remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of IBS. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237237/expanding-veterinary-biosurveillance-in-washington-dc-the-creation-and-utilization-of-an-electronic-based-online-veterinary-surveillance-system
#4
Andrew Hennenfent, Vito DelVento, John Davies-Cole, Fern Johnson-Clarke
OBJECTIVES: To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. METHODS: Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237234/stard-blcm-standards-for-the-reporting-of-diagnostic-accuracy-studies-that-use-bayesian-latent-class-models
#5
Polychronis Kostoulas, Søren S Nielsen, Adam J Branscum, Wesley O Johnson, Nandini Dendukuri, Navneet K Dhand, Nils Toft, Ian A Gardner
The Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement, which was recently updated to the STARD2015 statement, was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of test accuracy studies. Although STARD principles apply broadly, the checklist is limited to studies designed to evaluate the accuracy of tests when the disease status is determined from a perfect reference procedure or an imperfect one with known measures of test accuracy. However, a reference standard does not always exist, especially in the case of infectious diseases with a long latent period...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237226/unraveling-the-contact-patterns-and-network-structure-of-pig-shipments-in-the-united-states-and-its-association-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-outbreaks
#6
Kyuyoung Lee, Dale Polson, Erin Lowe, Rodger Main, Derald Holtkamp, Beatriz Martínez-López
The analysis of the pork value chain is becoming key to understanding the risk of infectious disease dissemination in the swine industry. In this study, we used social network analysis to characterize the swine shipment network structure and properties in a typical multisite swine production system in the US. We also aimed to evaluate the association between network properties and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) transmission between production sites. We analyzed the 109,868 swine shipments transporting over 93 million swine between more than 500 production sites from 2012 to 2014...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#7
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#8
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#9
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225907/characterisation-of-iunh-gene-knockout-strain-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Anne Drumond Villela, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues, Antônio Frederico Michel Pinto, Priscila Lamb Wink, Zilpa Adriana Sánchez-Quitian, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223936/two-pore-channels-catalyzers-of-endolysosomal-transport-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
Two-pore channels (TPCs) have recently emerged as a novel class of non-selective cation channels in the endolysosomal system. There are two members in the human genome, TPC1 and TPC2. Studies with TPC knockout and knockdown models have revealed that these channels participate in the regulation of multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways which when dysregulated can lead to or influence the development of a range of different diseases such as lysosomal storage, metabolic, or infectious diseases. TPCs have been demonstrated to be activated by different endogenous stimuli, PI(3,5)P2 and NAADP, and ATP has been found to block TPC activation via mTOR...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223068/parasite-control-and-skeletal-myositis-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-infected-and-exercised-rats
#12
Rômulo D Novaes, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Arlete R Penitente, Marli C Cupertino, Izabel R S C Maldonado, André Talvani, Antônio J Natali
Non-pharmacological strategies have been rarely described in the treatment of infectious diseases. Although exercise training has been recently incorporated in the clinical management of Chagas disease, the rationale basis that supports this indication is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of an aerobic exercise on the parasitism, inflammation and oxidative tissue damage in a murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced skeletal myositis. Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: trained not infected (TNI) and infected (TI), sedentary not infected (SNI) and infected (SI)...
February 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222841/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-various-age-and-sex-specific-groups-of-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#13
Pramod N Nehete, Bharti P Nehete, Sriram Chitta, Lawrence E Williams, Christian R Abee
Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222802/counts-of-bovine-monocyte-subsets-prior-to-calving-are-predictive-for-postpartum-occurrence-of-mastitis-and-metritis
#14
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Jamal Hussen, Melanie Eger, Ynte Schukken, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14(+)/CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)/CD16(+)) and non-classical monocytes (CD14(-)/CD16(+)) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221900/mental-health-disorders-associated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#15
Declan J Bolton, Lucy J Robertson
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#16
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216442/a-seven-day-course-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-may-be-as-effective-as-a-seven-day-course-of-ciprofloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-pyelonephritis
#17
Miriam T Fox, Michael T Melia, Rebecca G Same, Anna T Conley, Pranita D Tamma
INTRODUCTION: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend either 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Antibiotic courses of 7 days of TMP-SMX versus 7 days of ciprofloxacin for pyelonephritis have not been previously compared. We evaluated the odds of a subsequent, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) for women with E. coli pyelonephritis receiving a 7-day course of TMP-SMX versus a 7-day course of ciprofloxacin...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216237/development-of-an-anti-ferret-cd4-monoclonal-antibody-for-the-characterisation-of-ferret-t-lymphocytes
#18
Daniel S Layton, Xiaowen Xiao, John D Bentley, Louis Lu, Cameron R Stewart, Andrew G D Bean, Timothy E Adams
The ferret is an established animal model for a number of human respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus and more recently, Ebola virus. However, a paucity of immunological reagents has hampered the study of cellular immune responses. Here we describe the development and characterisation of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the ferret CD4 antigen and the characterisation of ferret CD4 T lymphocytes. Recombinant production and purification of the ferret CD4 ectodomain soluble protein allowed hybridoma generation and the generation of a mAb (FeCD4) showing strong binding to ferret CD4 protein and lymphoid cells by flow cytometry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215561/analyzing-structural-changes-in-snomed-ct-s-bacterial-infectious-diseases-using-a-visual-semantic-delta
#19
Christopher Ochs, James T Case, Yehoshua Perl
Thousands of changes are applied to SNOMED CT's concepts during each release cycle. These changes are the result of efforts to improve or expand the coverage of health domains in the terminology. Understanding which concepts changed, how they changed, and the overall impact of a set of changes is important for editors and end users. Each SNOMED CT release comes with delta files, which identify all of the individual additions and removals of concepts and relationships. These files typically contain tens of thousands of individual entries, overwhelming users...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215501/serial-quantiferon-testing-and-tuberculosis-disease-risk-among-young-children-an-observational-cohort-study
#20
Jason R Andrews, Elisa Nemes, Michele Tameris, Bernard S Landry, Hassan Mahomed, J Bruce McClain, Helen A Fletcher, Willem A Hanekom, Robin Wood, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. METHODS: We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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