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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750287/operation-driven-heterogeneity-and-overlooked-feed-associated-populations-in-global-anaerobic-digester-microbiome
#1
Ran Mei, Masaru K Nobu, Takashi Narihiro, Kyohei Kuroda, Julian Muñoz Sierra, Zhuoying Wu, Lin Ye, Patrick K H Lee, Po-Heng Lee, Jules B van Lier, Michael J McInerney, Yoichi Kamagata, Wen-Tso Liu
Anaerobic digester (AD) microbiomes harbor complex, interacting microbial populations to achieve biomass reduction and biogas production, however how they are influenced by operating conditions and feed sludge microorganisms remain unclear. These were addressed by analyzing the microbial communities of 90 full-scale digesters at 51 municipal wastewater treatment plants from five countries. Heterogeneity detected in community structures suggested that no single AD microbiome could be defined. Instead, the AD microbiomes were classified into eight clusters driven by operating conditions (e...
July 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750103/bacterial-diversity-in-buruli-ulcer-skin-lesions-challenges-in-the-clinical-microbiome-analysis-of-a-skin-disease
#2
Chloé Van Leuvenhaege, Koen Vandelannoote, Dissou Affolabi, Françoise Portaels, Ghislain Sopoh, Bouke C de Jong, Miriam Eddyani, Conor J Meehan
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and considered the third most prevalent mycobacterial disease in humans. Secondary bacterial infections in open BU lesions are the main cause of pain, delayed healing and systemic illness, resulting in prolonged hospital stay. Thus, understanding the diversity of bacteria, termed the microbiome, in these open lesions is important for proper treatment. However, adequately studying the human microbiome in a clinical setting can prove difficult when investigating a neglected tropical skin disease due to its rarity and the setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748751/update-on-nitazoxanide-a-multifunctional-chemotherapeutic-agent
#3
Anshul Shakya, Hans Raj Bhat, Surjit Kumar Ghosh
The thiazolide nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum anti-infective drug that adversely affects viability, growth, and proliferation of a range of extracellular and intracellular protozoan, helminths, anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, and viruses. Current review compiled the potential chemotherapeutic efficacy of NTZ against a variety of such disease-causing macro and/or micro-organisms as well as neoplastic cells. The most accepted anti-infective mechanism of NTZ involves impairment of the energy metabolism in anaerobic pathogens by inhibition of the pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR)...
July 27, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748358/extracellular-electron-transfer-in-acetogenic-bacteria-and-its-application-for-conversion-of-carbon-dioxide-into-organic-compounds
#4
REVIEW
Kensuke Igarashi, Souichiro Kato
Acetogenic bacteria (i.e., acetogens) produce acetate from CO2 during anaerobic chemoautotrophic growth. Because acetogens fix CO2 with high energy efficiency, they have been investigated as biocatalysts of CO2 conversion into valuable chemicals. Recent studies revealed that some acetogens are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET), which enables electron exchange between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials. Thus, acetogens are promising candidates as biocatalysts in recently developed bioelectrochemical technologies, including microbial electrosynthesis (MES), in which useful chemicals are biologically produced from CO2 using electricity as the energy source...
July 26, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748290/selection-for-novel-acid-tolerant-desulfovibrio-spp-from-a-closed-transbaikal-mine-site-in-a-temporal-ph-gradient-bioreactor
#5
Dmitry V Antsiferov, Tatiana S Fyodorova, Anastasia A Kovalyova, Anastasia Lukina, Yulia A Frank, Marat R Avakyan, David Banks, Olli H Tuovinen, Olga V Karnachuk
Almost all the known isolates of acidophilic or acid-tolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belong to the spore-forming genus Desulfosporosinus in the Firmicutes. The objective of this study was to isolate acidophilic/acid-tolerant members of the genus Desulfovibrio belonging to deltaproteobacterial SRB. The sample material originated from microbial mat biomass submerged in mine water and was enriched for sulphate reducers by cultivation in anaerobic medium with lactate as an electron donor. A stirred tank bioreactor with the same medium composition was inoculated with the sulphidogenic enrichment...
July 26, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748050/assessment-of-facultative-anaerobes-from-the-root-canals-of-deciduous-molars-an-in-vivo-study
#6
Manisha Chandwani, Shweta Chandak
Background. The current research aimed to assess the prevalence of facultative anaerobes isolated from the root canals of deciduous molars. Methods. The present research enrolled 60 children in the 6‒9-year age group based on clinical and radiographic findings. Under aseptic conditions, access cavities were prepared followed by collection of samples from infected root canals with the help of sterile paper points. The samples thus obtained were subjected for microbial assay. Results. It was found that Enterococcus faecalis was isolated in 30% of cases, Escherichia coli in 28...
2017: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748042/porphyromonas-gingivalis-disturbs-host-commensal-homeostasis-by-changing-complement-function
#7
REVIEW
Ingar Olsen, John D Lambris, George Hajishengallis
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod that has been proposed as an orchestrator of complement-dependent dysbiotic inflammation. This notion was suggested from its capacities to manipulate the complement-Toll-like receptor crosstalk in ways that promote dysbiosis and periodontal disease in animal models. Specifically, while at low colonization levels, P. gingivalis interferes with innate immunity and leads to changes in the counts and composition of the oral commensal microbiota. The resulting dysbiotic microbial community causes disruption of host-microbial homeostasis, leading to inflammatory bone loss...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748041/effect-of-azithromycin-on-a-red-complex-polymicrobial-biofilm
#8
Hwei Sze Ong, Orit Oettinger-Barak, Stuart G Dashper, Ivan B Darby, Kheng H Tan, Eric C Reynolds
Azithromycin has recently gained popularity for the treatment of periodontal disease, despite sparse literature supporting efficiency in treating periodontal bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on biofilms comprised of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in comparison to an amoxicillin and metronidazole combination. P. gingivalis W50, T. denticola ATCC35405, and T. forsythia ATCC43037 grown under anaerobic conditions at 37°C were aliquoted into 96-well flat-bottom plates in different combinations with addition of azithromycin or amoxicillin + metronidazole at various concentrations...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748024/insights-into-cedecea-neteri-strain-m006-through-complete-genome-sequence-a-rare-bacterium-from-aquatic-environment
#9
Kok-Gan Chan, Wen-Si Tan
Cedecea neteri M006 is a rare bacterium typically found as an environmental isolate from the tropical rainforest Sungai Tua waterfall (Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia). It is a Gram-reaction-negative, facultative anaerobic, bacillus. Here, we explore the features of Cedecea neteri M006, together with its genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprised 4,965,436 bp with 4447 protein-coding genes and 103 RNA genes.
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747178/anaerobic-bacteria-growth-in-the-presence-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-selected-ceragenins-delivered-as-magnetic-nanoparticles-cargo
#10
Bonita Durnaś, Ewelina Piktel, Marzena Wątek, Tomasz Wollny, Stanisław Góźdź, Jolanta Smok-Kalwat, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
BACKGROUND: Cationic antibacterial peptides (CAPs) and synthetic molecules mimicking the amphiphilic structure of CAPs, such as ceragenins, are promising compounds for the development of new antimicrobials. RESULTS: We tested the in vitro activity of ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 against several anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium difficile. We compared results to the activity of cathelicidin LL-37, metronidazole and nanosystems developed by attachment of CSA-13 and CSA-131 to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
July 26, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746890/aged-engineered-nanoparticles-effect-on-sludge-anaerobic-digestion-performance-and-associated-microbial-communities
#11
Samuel Eduok, Robert Ferguson, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa, Frédéric Coulon
To investigate the potential effect of aged engineered nanoparticles (a-ENPs) on sludge digestion performance, 150L pilot anaerobic digesters (AD) were fed with a blend of primary and waste activated sludge spiked either with a mixture of silver oxide, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide or a mixture of their equivalent bulk metal salts to achieve a target concentration of 250, 2000, and 2800mgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 1.2 times higher in the spiked digesters and significantly different (p=0...
July 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746792/rate-of-warming-affects-temperature-sensitivity-of-anaerobic-peat-decomposition-and-greenhouse-gas-production
#12
Debjani Sihi, Patrick W Inglett, Stefan Gerber, Kanika Sharma Inglett
Temperature sensitivity of anaerobic carbon mineralization in wetlands remains poorly represented in most climate models and is especially unconstrained for warmer subtropical and tropical systems which account for a large proportion of global methane emissions. Several studies of experimental warming have documented thermal acclimation of soil respiration involving adjustments in microbial physiology or carbon use efficiency (CUE), with an initial decline in CUE with warming followed by a partial recovery in CUE at a later stage...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745470/effects-of-taurine-on-markers-of-muscle-damage-inflammatory-response-and-physical-performance-in-triathletes
#13
Bryan S Martinez Galan, Flavia Giolo de Carvalho, Priscila Carvalho Santos, Ronaldo Bucken Gobbi, Carlos Kalva-Filho, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino Sanchez Silva, Ellen C Freitas
BACKGROUND: The practice of prolonged exercise with high intensity, as seen in triathlon training, can cause physiological imbalances that might result in muscle fatigue, muscle damage and changes in systemic inflammatory response, thus reduce the athletes physical performance, therefore, both adequate total caloric and macronutrient intake also the use of a specific ergogenic aid, as taurine supplementation would be an alternative to prevent inflammation and muscle damage. In order to verify the effects of 8 weeks of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation, markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and aerobic capacity were quantified in triathletes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744832/isolation-and-selection-of-potential-probiotic-bacteria-from-the-pig-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
Luca Lo Verso, Martin Lessard, Guylaine Talbot, Benoit Fernandez, Ismail Fliss
The present study aimed to isolate bacterial strains from the pig gastrointestinal tract that have antagonistic activity against potential pathogens and are able to produce antimicrobial compounds. That ability would be a first requirement for the strains' possible use as probiotics. Samples obtained from pig intestinal mucosa and contents were screened for the presence of antagonistic activity against pathogenic indicator strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria by means of the double-layer technique...
July 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744715/thermal-pretreatment-of-harvest-residues-and-their-use-in-anaerobic-co-digestion-with-dairy-cow-manure
#15
Đurđica Kovačić, Davor Kralik, Daria Jovičić, Slavko Rupčić, Brigita Popović, Marina Tišma
Several batch experiments were conducted on the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cow manure (DCM) with three harvest residues (HR) (soybean straw, sunflower stalks, and corn stover). The influence of thermal pretreatment of HR on biogas production was investigated, where the HR were thermally pretreated at two different temperatures: T = 121 °C and T = 175 °C, during t = 30 and t = 90 min, respectively. All anaerobic co-digestion batch experiments were performed simultaneously under thermophilic regime, at T = 55 °C...
July 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744259/development-of-human-breast-milk-microbiota-associated-mice-as-a-method-to-identify-breast-milk-bacteria-capable-of-colonizing-gut
#16
Xiaoxin Wang, Huifang Lu, Zhou Feng, Jie Cao, Chao Fang, Xianming Xu, Liping Zhao, Jian Shen
Human breast milk is recognized as one of multiple important sources of commensal bacteria for infant gut. Previous studies searched for the bacterial strains shared between breast milk and infant feces by isolating bacteria and performing strain-level bacterial genotyping, but only limited number of milk bacteria were identified to colonize infant gut, including bacteria from Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia/Shigella. Here, to identify the breast milk bacteria capable of colonizing gut without the interference of bacteria of origins other than the milk or the necessity to analyze infant feces, normal chow-fed germ-free mice were orally inoculated with the breast milk collected from a mother 2 days after vaginal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743941/transcriptomes-and-expression-profiling-of-deep-sea-corals-from-the-red-sea-provide-insight-into-the-biology-of-azooxanthellate-corals
#17
Lauren K Yum, Sebastian Baumgarten, Till Röthig, Cornelia Roder, Anna Roik, Craig Michell, Christian R Voolstra
Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743816/penile-anaerobic-dysbiosis-as-a-risk-factor-for-hiv-infection
#18
Cindy M Liu, Jessica L Prodger, Aaron A R Tobian, Alison G Abraham, Godfrey Kigozi, Bruce A Hungate, Maliha Aziz, Fred Nalugoda, Sanjeev Sariya, David Serwadda, Rupert Kaul, Ronald H Gray, Lance B Price
Sexual transmission of HIV requires exposure to the virus and infection of activated mucosal immune cells, specifically CD4(+) T cells or dendritic cells. The foreskin is a major site of viral entry in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Although the probability of acquiring HIV from a sexual encounter is low, the risk varies even after adjusting for known HIV risk factors. The genital microbiome may account for some of the variability in risk by interacting with the host immune system to trigger inflammatory responses that mediate the infection of mucosal immune cells...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743808/metabolic-compensation-of-fitness-costs-is-a-general-outcome-for-antibiotic-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutants-overexpressing-efflux-pumps
#19
Jorge Olivares Pacheco, Carolina Alvarez-Ortega, Manuel Alcalde Rico, José Luis Martínez
It is generally assumed that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is associated with a fitness cost. We have shown that overexpression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump does not decrease the fitness of a resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain compared to its wild-type counterpart. This lack of fitness cost was associated with a metabolic rewiring that includes increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain when cells are growing under fully aerobic conditions. It was not clear whether this metabolic compensation was exclusive to strains overexpressing MexEF-OprN or if it extended to other resistant strains that overexpress similar systems...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743579/seeking-to-enhance-the-bioenergy-of-municipal-sludge-effect-of-alkali-pre-treatment-and-soluble-organic-matter-supplementation
#20
S Zahedi, M Rivero, R Solera, M Perez
The aim of this research is to enhance the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge from Cadiz-San Fernando (Spain) wastewater treatment plant at 20days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Two different strategies were tested to improve the process: co-digestion with the addition of soluble organic matter (1% v/v); and alkali sludge pre-treatment (NaOH) prior to co-digestion with glycerine (1% v/v). Methane production (MP) was substantially enhanced (from 0.36±0.09 L CH4 l/d to 0.85±0.16 L CH4 l/d), as was specific methane production (SMP) (from 0...
July 22, 2017: Waste Management
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