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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926430/insights-in-waste-management-bioprocesses-using-genomic-tools
#1
H J Purohit, A Kapley, A Khardenavis, A Qureshi, N A Dafale
Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926429/biologically-produced-methane-as-a-renewable-energy-source
#2
D E Holmes, J A Smith
Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924943/gsy-a-novel-glucansucrase-from-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-mediates-the-formation-of-cell-aggregates-in-response-to-oxidative-stress
#3
Minghui Yan, Jin Han, Xiaofen Xu, Lianliang Liu, Caixia Gao, Huajun Zheng, Yunxia Chen, Yimin Tao, Hu Zhou, Yunfei Li, Zhengjun Wu
Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a member of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with wide applications in the food and medical industries. Species in the genus Leuconostoc are catalase-negative and generally regarded as facultative anaerobic or aerotolerant organisms. Despite their extensive use in industry, certain issues concerning the aerobic life of L. mesenteroides, e.g., the mechanism involved in the tolerance to oxygen, remain to be addressed. In this manuscript, a survival strategy employed by L. mesenteroides BD3749 in response to oxidative stress was elucidated...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924829/diverse-specificity-of-cellulosome-attachment-to-the-bacterial-cell-surface
#4
Joana L A Brás, Benedita A Pinheiro, Kate Cameron, Fiona Cuskin, Aldino Viegas, Shabir Najmudin, Pedro Bule, Virginia M R Pires, Maria João Romão, Edward A Bayer, Holly L Spencer, Steven Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Victor D Alves, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes
During the course of evolution, the cellulosome, one of Nature's most intricate multi-enzyme complexes, has been continuously fine-tuned to efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant carbohydrates. To facilitate the uptake of released sugars, anaerobic bacteria use highly ordered protein-protein interactions to recruit these nanomachines to the cell surface. Dockerin modules located within a non-catalytic macromolecular scaffold, whose primary role is to assemble cellulosomal enzymatic subunits, bind cohesin modules of cell envelope proteins, thereby anchoring the cellulosome onto the bacterial cell...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924350/-use-of-intracutaneous-or-subcutaneous-botulinum-toxin-for-postherpetic-neuralgia
#5
L Halb, B J Amann, H Bornemann-Cimenti
BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a toxin of the anaerobic spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum is used as a drug for alleviating muscle spasticity. Other indications include the cosmetic application in facial muscles, hyperhidrosis and neurogenic bladder disorders. It has been approved since 2010 as the first prophylactic treatment for chronic migraine. The analgesic effect of BoNT was observed early on and is currently the subject of intensive research. Painful postherpetic neuralgia is a common complication of an infection with herpes zoster virus...
December 6, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924259/cation-limited-kinetic-model-for-microbial-extracellular-electron-transport-via-an-outer-membrane-cytochrome-c-complex
#6
REVIEW
Akihiro Okamoto, Yoshihide Tokunou, Junki Saito
Outer-membrane c-type cytochrome (OM c-Cyt) complexes in several genera of iron-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter, are capable of transporting electrons from the cell interior to extracellular solids as a terminal step of anaerobic respiration. The kinetics of this electron transport has implications for controlling the rate of microbial electron transport during bioenergy or biochemical production, iron corrosion, and natural mineral cycling. Herein, we review the findings from in-vivo and in-vitro studies examining electron transport kinetics through single OM c-Cyt complexes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924150/increasing-n-butanol-production-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-optimizing-acetyl-coa-synthesis-nadh-levels-and-trans-2-enoyl-coa-reductase-expression
#7
Virginia Schadeweg, Eckhard Boles
BACKGROUND: n-Butanol can serve as an excellent gasoline substitute. Naturally, it is produced by some Clostridia species which, however, exhibit only limited suitability for industrial n-butanol production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would be an ideal host due to its high robustness in fermentation processes. Nevertheless, n-butanol yields and titers obtained so far with genetically engineered yeast strains are only low. RESULTS: In our recent work, we showed that n-butanol production via a clostridial acetoacetyl-CoA-derived pathway in engineered yeast was limited by the availability of coenzyme A (CoA) and cytosolic acetyl-CoA...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924135/on-site-fecal-sludge-treatment-with-the-anaerobic-digestion-pasteurization-latrine
#8
Aaron A Forbis-Stokes, Patrick F O'Meara, Wangare Mugo, Gelas M Simiyu, Marc A Deshusses
The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923678/flavin-nucleotides-act-as-electron-shuttles-mediating-reduction-of-the-2fe-2s-clusters-in-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-protein-mitoneet
#9
Aaron P Landry, Yiming Wang, Zishuo Cheng, Robert B Crochet, Yong-Hwan Lee, Huangen Ding
MitoNEET, a primary target of type II diabetes drug pioglitazone, has an essential role in regulating energy metabolism, iron homeostasis, and production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Structurally, mitoNEET is anchored to the mitochondrial outer membrane via its N-terminal transmembrane α-helix. The C-terminal cytosolic domain of mitoNEET hosts a redox active [2Fe-2S] cluster via three cysteine and one histidine residues. Here we report that the reduced flavin nucleotides can rapidly reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters under anaerobic or aerobic conditions...
December 3, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923546/the-challenges-of-anaerobic-digestion-and-the-role-of-biochar-in-optimizing-anaerobic-digestion
#10
REVIEW
Michael O Fagbohungbe, Ben M J Herbert, Lois Hurst, Cynthia N Ibeto, Hong Li, Shams Q Usmani, Kirk T Semple
Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health...
December 3, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922181/evaluation-of-gas-and-carbon-transport-in-a-methanogenic-bioelectrochemical-system-bes
#11
Christy M Dykstra, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) may be used to upgrade anaerobic digester biogas by directly converting CO2 to CH4 .The objective of this study was to evaluate gas (N2 , CO2 , CH4 , and H2 ) and carbon transport within a methanogenic BES. Four BES configurations were evaluated: abiotic anode with abiotic cathode (AAn-ACa), bioanode with abiotic cathode (BAn-ACa), abiotic anode with biocathode (AAn-BCa), and bioanode with biocathode (BAn-BCa). Transport of N2 , a gas commonly used for flushing anoxic systems, out of the anode headspace ranged from 3...
December 6, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919545/the-effects-of-pre-aeration-and-inoculation-on-solid-state-anaerobic-digestion-of-rice-straw
#12
Ying Zhou, Chao Li, Ivo Achu Nges, Jing Liu
Pre-aeration was investigated for enhancing biodegradation of recalcitrant lignocellulosic structure of rice straw under various low temperatures regimes (25, 35 and 45°C) and aeration durations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8days). It was demonstrated aerated rice straw for 2days at 35°C resulted in highest hydrolytic efficiency and biochemical methane potential (BMP) (355.3±18.7mlCH4/gVS). Furthermore, both methane yields and initiation speeds of the solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) were inversely proportional to substrate-to-inoculum ratios due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and poor mass transfer...
November 29, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919537/acute-toxicity-reduction-and-toxicity-identification-in-pigment-contaminated-wastewater-during-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-a-a-o-treatment-process
#13
Minjie Deng, Ying Zhang, Xie Quan, Chunhong Na, Shuo Chen, Wei Liu, Shuping Han, Shigeki Masunaga
In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918963/isolation-of-a-facultative-anaerobic-exoelectrogenic-strain-lz-1-and-probing-electron-transfer-mechanism-in-situ-by-linking-uv-vis-spectroscopy-and-electrochemistry
#14
Lei Zhou, Dandan Deng, Yichi Zhang, Wen Zhou, Yujing Jiang, Ying Liu
A new facultative anaerobic exoelectrogenic strain LZ-1, belonging to Citrobacter freundii, has been isolated. This strain can produce current densities of 843.9 and 865.6μAcm(-2) using citrate or acetate as carbon source in a three-electrode configuration. The electricity generation performance was also analyzed in a dual-chamber MFC system, reaching a maximum power density of 1233mWm(-2). In addition to acetate and citrate, other carbon sources such as pyruvate, formate, acetate, citrate and fumarate could also be utilized to produce current by strain LZ-1...
November 27, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917947/a-novel-open-type-biosensor-for-the-in-situ-monitoring-of-biochemical-oxygen-demand-in-an-aerobic-environment
#15
Takahiro Yamashita, Natsuki Ookawa, Mitsuyoshi Ishida, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Harumi Sasaki, Yuichi Katayose, Hiroshi Yokoyama
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a widely used index of water-quality assessment. Since bioelectrochemical BOD biosensors require anaerobic conditions for anodic reactions, they are not directly used in aerobic environments such as aeration tanks. Normally, the BOD biosensors are closed-type, where the anode is packed inside a closed chamber to avoid exposure to oxygen. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical open-type biosensor was designed for in-situ monitoring of BOD during intermittent aeration. The open-type anode, without any protection against exposure to oxygen, was directly inserted into an intermittently aerated tank filled with livestock wastewater...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917155/aerobic-lineage-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-protein-rubrerythrin-emerged-in-an-ancient-microaerobic-hyper-thermophilic-environment
#16
Juan P Cardenas, Raquel Quatrini, David S Holmes
Rubrerythrins (RBRs) are non-heme di-iron proteins belonging to the ferritin-like superfamily. They are involved in oxidative stress defense as peroxide scavengers in a wide range of organisms. The vast majority of RBRs, including classical forms of this protein, contain a C-terminal rubredoxin-like domain involved in electron transport that is used during catalysis in anaerobic conditions. Rubredoxin is an ancient and large protein family of short length (<100 residues) that contains a Fe-S center involved in electron transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916806/antifungal-activity-of-oleuropein-against-candida-albicans-the-in-vitro-study
#17
Nataša Zorić, Nevenka Kopjar, Ivan Bobnjarić, Igor Horvat, Siniša Tomić, Ivan Kosalec
In the present study we investigated activity of oleuropein, a complex phenol present in large quantities in olive tree products, against opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Oleuropein was found to have in vitro antifungal activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 mg·mL(-1). Morphological changes in the nuclei after staining with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes revealed that apoptosis was a primary mode of cell death in the analyzed samples treated with subinhibitory concentrations of oleuropein...
November 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916690/acyl-homoserine-lactone-changes-the-abundance-of-proteins-and-the-levels-of-organic-acids-associated-with-stationary-phase-in-salmonella-enteritidis
#18
Felipe Alves de Almeida, Natan de Jesus Pimentel Filho, Lanna Clícia Carrijo, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
Quorum sensing (QS) is cell-cell communication mechanism mediated by signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs) that lead to differential gene expression. Salmonella is unable to synthesize the AI-1 acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), but is able to recognize AHLs produced by other microorganisms through SdiA protein. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of AI-1 on the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids of Salmonella Enteritidis. The presence of N-dodecyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) did not interfere on the growth or the total amount of extracted proteins of Salmonella...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916500/achieving-ethanol-type-fermentation-for-hydrogen-production-in-a-granular-sludge-system-by-aeration
#19
Song Zhang, Min Liu, Ying Chen, Yu-Ting Pan
To investigate the effects of aeration on hydrogen-producing granular system, experiments were performed in two laboratory-scale anaerobic internal circulation hydrogen production (AICHP) reactors. The preliminary experiment of Reactor 1 showed that direct aeration was beneficial to enhancing hydrogen production. After the direct aeration was implied in Reactor 2, hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen content were increased by 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, mixed-acid fermentation was transformed into typical ethanol-type fermentation (ETF)...
November 25, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916494/a-novel-solid-digestate-derived-biochar-cu-np-composite-activating-h2o2-system-for-simultaneous-adsorption-and-degradation-of-tetracycline
#20
Dun Fu, Zheng Chen, Dong Xia, Liang Shen, Yuanpeng Wang, Qingbiao Li
Solid digestate, a by-product of anaerobic digestion systems, has led to a range of environmental issues. In the present study, a novel composite based on a solid digestate-biochar-Cu NP composite was synthesized for tetracycline removal from an aqueous medium. The removal efficiency values for tetracycline (200 mg L(-1)) were 31.5% and 97.8%, respectively, by the biochar-Cu NP composite (0.5 g L(-1)) in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 20 mM) within 6 h of reaction time. The possible degradation pathway of tetracycline was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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