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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098207/using-13-c-isotopes-to-explore-denitrification-dependent-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-in-a-paddy-peatland
#1
Yao Shi, Zhongqiang Wang, Chunguang He, Xinyu Zhang, Lianxi Sheng, Xiaodong Ren
Peatlands are organic-matter-rich but nitrogen-limited natural systems, the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) status of which are subject to increasing exposure from long-term nitrate (NO3(-)) fertilizer inputs and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposits. To manage and protect these unique environments, an improved understanding of denitrification-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (DAMO) in peatlands is needed. In this study, we used stable isotope measurements and incubation with NO3(-) additions to facilitate an investigation and comparison of the potential DAMO rates in a paddy-peatland that has been influenced by N fertilizer over 40 years and an undisturbed peatland in northeast China...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097956/biohydrogen-production-from-used-diapers-evaluation-of-effect-of-temperature-and-substrate-conditioning
#2
P X Sotelo-Navarro, H M Poggi-Varaldo, S J Turpin-Marion, A Vázquez-Morillas, M Beltrán-Villavicencio, R M Espinosa-Valdemar
This research assessed the viability to use disposable diapers as a substrate for the production of biohydrogen, a valuable clean-energy source. The important content of cellulose of disposable diapers indicates that this waste could be an attractive substrate for biofuel production. Two incubation temperatures (35 °C and 55 °C) and three diaper conditioning methods (whole diapers with faeces, urine, and plastics, WD; diapers without plastic components, with urine and faeces, DWP; diapers with urine but without faeces and plastic, MSD) were tested in batch bioreactors...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097050/microbial-communities-mediating-algal-detritus-turnover-under-anaerobic-conditions
#3
Jessica M Morrison, Chelsea L Murphy, Kristina Baker, Richard M Zamor, Steve J Nikolai, Shawn Wilder, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
BACKGROUND: Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096758/effects-of-acute-ingestion-of-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-p-synephrine-on-resting-energy-expenditure-cognitive-function-and-exercise-performance
#4
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Elfego Galvan, Ryan Dalton, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Peter S Murano, Mike Greenwood, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p-synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and recreationally active male and female participants ingested a flavored maltodextrin placebo (PLA), a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg) with 2 g of maltodextrin and flavoring; or, the PWS with Citrus aurantium (PWS + S) extract standardized for 30% p-synephrine (20 mg)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096757/effects-of-ingesting-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-synephrine-for-8%C3%A2-weeks-on-training-adaptations-in-resistance-trained-males
#5
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Minye Cho, Nick Barringer, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Peter S Murano, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. METHODS: Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096487/a-clostridium-difficile-specific-gel-forming-protein-required-for-optimal-spore-germination
#6
M Lauren Donnelly, William Li, Yong-Qing Li, Lauren Hinkel, Peter Setlow, Aimee Shen
: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095730/anaerobic-biodegradation-of-spiramycin-i-and-characterization-of-its-new-metabolites
#7
Jian Yao, Lei Shao, Daijie Chen, Pengyu Liu, Yubin Zhang
Activated sludge was used to treat the wastewater containing spiramycin I. Three new metabolites were isolated and identified, which produced by oxidation of C6-aldehyde, hydrolysis of C5-mycaminose-mycarose and macrolactone ring-open reaction of spiramycin I in anaerobic digestion. And their antimicrobial activities were inactivated. Our results indicated that anaerobic biodegradation metabolites of spiramycin I could not induce bacterial resistance in environment.
January 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095081/blood-removal-influences-pacing-during-a-4-minute-cycling-time-trial
#8
Nathan G Lawler, Chris R Abbiss, Aaron Raman, Timothy J Fairchild, Garth L Maker, Robert D Trengove, Jeremiah J Peiffer
PURPOSE: To examine the influence of manipulating aerobic contribution following whole blood removal on pacing patterns, performance and energy contribution during self-paced middle distance cycling. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (33 ± 8 y) completed an incremental cycling test followed 20 min later by a 4-min self-paced cycling time trial (4MMP) on six separate occasions over 42 d. The initial two sessions acted as a familiarisation and baseline testing after which 470 mL of blood was removed with the remaining sessions performed 24 h, 7 d, 21 d and 42 d following blood removal...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094842/impact-of-microbial-invasion-of-amniotic-cavity-and-the-type-of-microorganisms-on-short-term-neonatal-outcome-in-women-with-preterm-labor-and-intact-membranes
#9
Teresa Cobo, Irene Vives, Adriano Rodríguez-Trujillo, Clara Murillo, Martina A Ángeles, Jordi Bosch, Andrea Vergara, Eduard Gratacós, Montse Palacio
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to evaluate the impact of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and the type of microorganisms on pregnancy and short-term neonatal outcomes in women with preterm labor (PTL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study including women with PTL from 22.0-36.0 weeks. MIAC was defined based on amniotic fluid aerobic/anaerobic/mycoplasmas cultures and intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) based on amniotic fluid Interleukin-6 levels...
January 17, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094795/impacts-of-chemical-gradients-on-microbial-community-structure
#10
Jianwei Chen, Anna Hanke, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Ines Kattelmann, Ritin Sharma, Emmo Hamann, Theresa Hargesheimer, Beate Kraft, Sabine Lenk, Jeanine S Geelhoed, Robert L Hettich, Marc Strous
Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the 'redox tower'. Here, we investigated whether redox sorting of microbial processes explains microbial community structure at low-oxygen concentrations. We subjected a diverse microbial community sampled from a coastal marine sediment to 100 days of tidal cycling in a laboratory chemostat...
January 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094552/glucose-metabolism-in-cancer-and-ischemia-possible-therapeutic-consequences-of-the-warburg-effect
#11
Spela Salamon, Eva Podbregar, Peter Kubatka, Dietrich Büsselberg, Martin Caprnda, Radka Opatrilova, Vanda Valentova, Mariusz Adamek, Peter Kruzliak, Matej Podbregar
The Warburg effect states that the main source of energy for cancer cells is not aerobic respiration, but glycolysis-even in normoxia. The shift from one to the other is governed by mutually counteracting enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Anaerobic metabolism of cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, local tissue immunosuppression, resistance to hypoxic conditions, and metastatic processes. By switching glucose back to oxidative metabolism, these effects might be reversed...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094526/1h-nmr-based-global-metabolic-studies-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-upon-exposure-of-the-quorum-sensing-inhibitor-resveratrol
#12
Tongtong Chen, Jiyang Sheng, Yonghong Fu, Ming-Hui Li, Jun-Song Wang, Aiqun Jia
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial communication that has been a novel target for drug discovery. Pyocyanin quantification assay confirmed that resveratrol was an effective quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In this study, the global metabolite changes of P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to QSI resveratrol were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A total of 40 metabolites containing amino acids, organic acid, organic amine and energy storage compounds were identified. The changed metabolic profile indicated that resveratrol influenced pathways including oxidative stress, protein synthesis and energy metabolism...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094345/bacterial-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-aquatic-environments-in-china
#13
Lei Yan, Dan Liu, Xin-Hua Wang, Yunkun Wang, Bo Zhang, Mingyu Wang, Hai Xu
Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human's health in the 21(st) century. Understanding and combating this issue requires a full and unbiased assessment of the current status on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and their correlation with each other and bacterial groups. In aquatic environments that are known reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to reach this goal on plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that lead to resistance to quinolones and possibly also to the co-emergence of resistance to β-lactams...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094090/biogas-production-from-co-digestion-of-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-and-fruit-and-vegetable-waste
#14
REVIEW
Suelen Pavi, Luis Eduardo Kramer, Luciana Paulo Gomes, Luis Alcides Schiavo Miranda
The anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate and stability of the process. The batch experiment was conducted in mesophilic conditions (35°C), with four different OFMSW/FVW ratios (VS basis) of 1/0, 1/1, 1/3, and 0/1. The methane yield from the co-digestion was higher than the mono-digestion for OFMSW and FVW. The optimal mixing ratio of OFMSW/FVW was found to be 1/3...
January 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093340/bacteriological-profile-of-ocular-surface-flora-in-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#15
Shao Dan Zhang, Jing Na He, Tong Tong Niu, Chiu Yeung Chan, Chun Yang Ren, Shan Shan Liu, Yang Qu, Kam Lung Chong, Hai Lin Wang, Jun Tao, Chi Pui Pang
PURPOSE: To compare the bacteriological profile of meibomian gland secretion and conjunctival cul-de-sac in subjects with and without meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: This hospital-based study enrolled 201 eyes from 201 MGD patients and 84 eyes from 84 age- and gender-matched controls. Samples from the conjunctivae and meibomian gland secretion were obtained. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. Differences in the culture-positivity and bacterial strains between two groups were compared...
January 13, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092056/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-investigating-the-effects-of-nicotine-gum-on-strength-power-and-anaerobic-performance-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-active-males
#16
Toby Mündel, Marine Machal, Darryl J Cochrane, Matthew J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Nicotine use amongst athletes is high and increasing, especially team sports, yet the limited previous studies investigating the performance consequences of this behaviour have not examined the effects of the principal active ingredient, nicotine, per se. Therefore, we determined whether nicotine gum affected muscular and anaerobic performance. METHODS: Nine active males (24 ± 3 years) completed three trials in a random order in which 20 min prior to testing they chewed 2 mg (NIC-2), 4 mg (NIC-4) nicotine or flavour-matched placebo (PLA) gum...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091994/source-analysis-of-organic-matter-in-swine-wastewater-after-anaerobic-digestion-with-eem-parafac
#17
Zhuo Zeng, Ping Zheng, Aqiang Ding, Meng Zhang, Ghulam Abbas, Wei Li
Swine wastewater is one of the most serious pollution sources, and it has attracted a great public concern in China. Anaerobic digestion technology is extensively used in swine wastewater treatment. However, the anaerobic digestion effluents are difficult to meet the discharge standard. The results from batch experiments showed that plenty of refractory organic matter remained in the effluents after mesophilic anaerobic digestion for 30 days. The effluent total COD (tCOD) and soluble COD (sCOD) were 483 and 324 mg/L, respectively, with the sCOD/tCOD ratio of 0...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090141/do-maximal-aerobic-power-and-blood-lactate-concentration-affect-specific-judo-fitness-test-performance-in-female-judo-athletes
#18
H Garbouj, M A Selmi, R Haj Sassi, M Haj Yahmed, K Chamari, A Chaouachi
The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090140/influence-of-warm-up-duration-and-recovery-interval-prior-to-exercise-on-anaerobic-performance
#19
M Frikha, N Chaâri, N Mezghanni, N Souissi
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of different active warm-up (AWU) durations and the rest interval separating it from exercise on anaerobic performance. Eleven male physical education students (22.6 ± 2.52 years; 179.2 ± 4.3 cm; 82.5 ± 9.7 kg; mean ± SD) participated in a cross-over randomized study, and they all underwent the Wingate test after three AWU durations: 5 min (AWU5), 15 min (AWU15) and 20 min (AWU20), with recovery (WREC) or without a recovery interval (NREC) separating the AWU and anaerobic exercise performance...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089857/na-k-atpase-activity-in-the-anoxic-turtle-trachemys-scripta-brain-at-different-acclimation-temperature
#20
Jonathan A W Stecyk, Anthony P Farrell, Matti Vornanen
Survival of prolonged anoxia requires a balance between cellular ATP demand and anaerobic ATP supply from glycolysis, especially in critical tissues such as the brain. To add insight into the ATP demand of the brain of the anoxia-tolerant red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during prolonged periods of anoxic submergence, we quantified and compared the number of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase units and their molecular activity in brain tissue from turtles acclimated to either 21°C or 5°C and exposed to either normoxia or anoxia (6h 21°C; 14 d at 5°C)...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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