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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330649/growth-of-leptospirillum-ferriphilum-in-sulfur-medium-in-co-culture-with-acidithiobacillus-caldus
#1
Sarah L Smith, D Barrie Johnson
Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus caldus are both thermotolerant acidophilic bacteria that frequently co-exist in natural and man-made environments, such as biomining sites. Both are aerobic chemolithotrophs; L. ferriphilum is known only to use ferrous iron as electron donor, while A. caldus can use zero-valent and reduced sulfur, and also hydrogen, as electron donors. It has recently been demonstrated that A. caldus reduces ferric iron to ferrous when grown aerobically on sulfur. Experiments were carried out which demonstrated that this allowed L...
January 12, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330534/when-increasing-population-density-can-promote-the-evolution-of-metabolic-cooperation
#2
Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330182/fluorescence-recovery-allows-the-implementation-of-a-fluorescence-reporter-gene-platform-applicable-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-anoxic-environments
#3
Rafael Pinilla, Leise Riber, Søren J Sørensen
The study of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities has been revolutionized by significant advances in cultivation-independent methods based on fluorescence reporter gene technologies. Recently, the combination of these novel approaches with flow cytometry has presented itself as one of the most powerful tools to study the spread of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the environment. However, the use of fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry is limited by environmental constraints that affect the correct maturation of their fluorophores, such as oxygen availability and pH levels...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329935/tick-borne-pathogen-detection-what-s-new
#4
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gilbert Greub
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Traditionally, tick-borne pathogen detection has been carried out using PCR-based methods that rely in known sequences for specific primers design. This approach matches with the view of a 'single-pathogen' epidemiology. Recent results, however, have stressed the importance of coinfections in pathogen ecology and evolution with impact in pathogen transmission and disease severity. New approaches, including high-throughput technologies, were then used to detect multiple pathogens, but they all need a priori information on the pathogens to search...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329457/a-novel-application-of-rnase-h2-dependent-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-and-quantification-of-grosmannia-clavigera-a-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbiont-in-environmental-samples
#5
Chandra H McAllister, Colleen E Fortier, Kate R St Onge, Bianca M Sacchi, Meaghan J Nawrot, Troy Locke, Janice E K Cooke
Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) is an economically and ecologically important pest of pine species in western North America. Mountain pine beetles form complex multipartite relationships with microbial partners, including the ophiostomoid fungi Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Ophiostoma montium (Rumbold) von Arx, Grosmannia aurea (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Leptographium longiclavatum (Lee, Kim, and Breuil) and Leptographium terebrantis (Barras and Perry)...
January 10, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325015/ecological-mechanisms-underlying-soil-bacterial-responses-to-rainfall-along-a-steep-natural-precipitation-gradient
#6
Bonnie Waring, Christine V Hawkes
Changes in the structure and function of soil microbial communities can drive substantial ecosystem feedbacks to altered precipitation. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community responses to environmental change are not well understood. We used an 18-month soil reciprocal transplant experiment along a steep precipitation gradient to quantify how changes in rainfall affected bacterial community structure. We also conducted an enhanced dispersal treatment to ask whether higher immigration rates of taxa from the surrounding environment would accelerate community responses to climate change...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324386/effects-of-two-ecological-earthworm-species-on-atrazine-degradation-performance-and-bacterial-community-structure-in-red-soil
#7
Zhong Lin, Zhen Zhen, Lei Ren, Jiewen Yang, Chunling Luo, Laiyuan Zhong, Hanqiao Hu, Yanqiu Liang, Yongtao Li, Dayi Zhang
Vermicomposting is an effective and environmentally friendly approach for eliminating soil organic contamination. Atrazine is one of the most commonly applied triazinic herbicides and frequently detected in agricultural soils. This study investigated the roles and mechanisms of two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus) in microbial degradation of atrazine. Both earthworms accelerated atrazine degradation performance from 39.0% in sterile soils to 94.9%-95.7%, via neutralizing soil pH, consuming soil humus, altering bacterial community structure, enriching indigenous atrazine degraders and excreting the intestinal atrazine-degrading bacteria...
December 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324293/biofilms-active-substrata-and-me
#8
REVIEW
Bruce E Rittmann
Having worked with biofilms since the 1970s, I know that they are ubiquitous in nature, of great value in water technology, and scientifically fascinating. Biofilms are naturally able to remove BOD, transform N, generate methane, and biodegrade micropollutants. What I also discovered is that biofilms can do a lot more for us in terms of providing environmental services if we give them a bit of help. Here, I explore how we can use active substrata to enable our biofilm partners to provide particularly challenging environmental services...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323168/variations-in-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-along-depth-profiles-of-alaskan-soil-cores
#9
Binu Mani Tripathi, Mincheol Kim, Yongwon Kim, Eunji Byun, Ji-Woong Yang, Jinho Ahn, Yoo Kyung Lee
Understating the microbial communities and ecological processes that influence their structure in permafrost soils is crucial for predicting the consequences of climate change. In this study we investigated the bacterial and archaeal communities along depth profiles of four soil cores collected across Alaska. The bacterial and archaeal diversity (amplicon sequencing) overall decreased along the soil depth but the depth-wise pattern of their abundances (qPCR) varied by sites. The community structure of bacteria and archaea displayed site-specific pattern, with a greater role of soil geochemical characteristics rather than soil depth...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#10
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321640/initial-evenness-determines-diversity-and-cell-density-dynamics-in-synthetic-microbial-ecosystems
#11
Elham Ehsani, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Ruben Props, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Nico Boon
The effect of initial evenness on the temporal trajectory of synthetic communities in comprehensive, low-volume microcosm studies remains unknown. We used flow cytometric fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess the impact of time on community structure in one hundred synthetic ecosystems of fixed richness but varying initial evenness. Both methodologies uncovered a similar reduction in diversity within synthetic communities of medium and high initial evenness classes. However, the results of amplicon sequencing showed that there were no significant differences between and within the communities in all evenness groups at the end of the experiment...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321057/influenza-a-virus-infection-impacts-systemic-microbiota-dynamics-and-causes-quantitative-enteric-dysbiosis
#12
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320767/ecological-approaches-to-dental-caries-prevention-paradigm-shift-or-shibboleth
#13
Nebu Philip, Bharat Suneja, Laurence J Walsh
Contemporary paradigms of dental caries aetiology focus on the ecology of the dental plaque biofilm and how local environmental factors can modulate this to cause disease. The crucial role that a healthy oral microbiome plays in preventing caries and promoting oral health is also being increasingly recognized. Based on these concepts, several ecological preventive approaches have been developed that could potentially broaden the arsenal of currently available caries-preventive measures. Many of these ecological approaches aim for long-term caries control by either disrupting cariogenic virulence factors without affecting bacterial viability, or include measures that can enhance the growth of health-associated, microbially diverse communities in the oral microbiome...
January 11, 2018: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319512/comparison-of-microbial-communities-associated-with-halophyte-salsola-stocksii-and-non-halophyte-triticum-aestivum-using-culture-independent-approaches
#14
Salma Mukhtar, Ayesha Ishaq, Sara Hassan, Samina Mehnaz, Muhammad S Mirza, Kauser A Malik
Halophyte microbiome contributes significantly to plant performance and can provide information regarding complex ecological processes involved in osmoregulation of these plants. The objective of this study is to investigate the microbiomes associated with belowground (rhizosphere), internal (endosphere) and aboveground (phyllosphere) tissues of halophyte (Salsola stocksii) through metagenomics approach. Plant samples were collected from Khewra Salt Mines. The metagenomic DNA from soil, root and shoot samples was isolated with the help of FastDNA spin kit...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318631/early-life-gut-microbiome-and-egg-allergy
#15
Mina Fazlollahi, Yoojin Chun, Alexander Grishin, Robert A Wood, A Wesley Burks, Peter Dawson, Stacie M Jones, Donald Y M Leung, Hugh A Sampson, Scott H Sicherer, Supinda Bunyavanich
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. METHODS: We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317508/spatiotemporally-heterogeneous-population-dynamics-of-gut-bacteria-inferred-from-fecal-time-series-data
#16
Hidetoshi Inamine, Stephen P Ellner, Peter D Newell, Yuan Luo, Nicolas Buchon, Angela E Douglas
A priority in gut microbiome research is to develop methods to investigate ecological processes shaping microbial populations in the host from readily accessible data, such as fecal samples. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can be inferred from the proportion of ingested microorganisms that is egested and their egestion time distribution, by using general mathematical models that link within-host processes to statistics from fecal time series. We apply this framework to Drosophila melanogaster and its gut bacterium Acetobacter tropicalis Specifically, we investigate changes in their interactions following ingestion of a food bolus containing bacteria in a set of treatments varying the following key parameters: the density of exogenous bacteria ingested by the flies (low/high) and the association status of the host (axenic or monoassociated with A...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315530/ecological-drivers-of-soil-microbial-diversity-and-soil-biological-networks-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#17
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Frank Reith, Paul G Dennis, Kelly Hamonts, Jeff R Powell, Andrew Young, Brajesh K Singh, Andrew Bissett
The ecological drivers of soil biodiversity in the Southern Hemisphere remain underexplored. Here, in a continental survey comprising 647 sites, across 58 degrees of latitude between tropical Australia and Antarctica, we evaluated the major ecological patterns in soil biodiversity and relative abundance of ecological clusters within a co-occurrence network of soil bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Six major ecological clusters (modules) of co-occurring soil taxa were identified. These clusters exhibited strong shifts in their relative abundances with increasing distance from the equator...
January 9, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314490/a-mixture-of-lactobacillus-species-isolated-from-traditional-fermented-foods-promote-recovery-from-antibiotic-induced-intestinal-disruption-in-mice
#18
Ying Shi, Xi Zhao, Zhao Jianxin, Zhang Hao, Qixiao Zhai, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
AIMS: This study evaluated the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial ecology, intestinal dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation; and the combined effect of four different Lactobacillus species on recovery of microbiota composition and improvement of gut barrier function in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Administration of the antibiotic ampicillin for 2 weeks decreased microbial community diversity, induced caecum tumefaction and increased gut permeability in mice. Application of a probiotic cocktail of four Lactobacillus species (JUP-Y4) modulated the microbiota community structure and promoted the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314232/the-influence-of-microbial-communities-for-triadimefon-enantiomerization-in-soils-with-different-ph-values
#19
Khaled Mohamed Ahmed Talab, Zhong-Hua Yang, Jian-Hong Li, Yue Zhao, Sara Alrasheed Mohamed Omer, Ya-Bing Xiong
Enantiomers of chiral molecules can undergo interconversion leading to markedly different toxicities, which can introduce significant uncertainty when evaluating biological and environmental fates. However, enantiomerization (the reversible conversion of one enantiomer into the other) related to soil microorganism is rarely understood. For better understanding, S-triadimefon and R-triadimefon enantiopure were incubated in different soils with different pH value. Both high-performance liquid chromatography and high-throughput sequencing technology were used to explore target analytes quantitatively and microbial taxa related to the conversion process...
January 3, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313197/exploiting-rhizosphere-microbial-cooperation-for-developing-sustainable-agriculture-strategies
#20
Yoann Besset-Manzoni, Laura Rieusset, Pierre Joly, Gilles Comte, Claire Prigent-Combaret
The rhizosphere hosts a considerable microbial community. Among that community, bacteria called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth and defense against diseases using diverse distinct plant-beneficial functions. Crop inoculation with PGPR could allow to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agrosystems. However, microbial crop protection and growth stimulation would be more efficient if cooperation between rhizosphere bacterial populations was taken into account when developing biocontrol agents and biostimulants...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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