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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738143/sustained-high-nutrient-supply-as-an-allelopathic-trigger-between-periphytic-biofilm-and-microcystis-aeruginosa
#1
Yonghong Wu, Jun Tang, Junzhuo Liu, Bruce Graham, Philip G Kerr, Hong Chen
Allelopathy among aquatic organisms, especially microorganisms, has received growing attention in recent years for its role in shaping interactions with bloom-forming algae. Many studies have shown that allelopathy occurs and increases under nutrient limiting conditons. However, to date there is no reported direct evidence to indicate allelopathy occurs under the condition of constant high nutrient supply. Here we report the allelopathic action of periphytic biofilm on bloom-forming cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), which was triggered by the stress of high nutrient conditions, and continues while nutrients are sustained at high levels (trophic state index at 159 and 171)...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735425/influence-of-host-plant-on-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-gut-bacterial-community
#2
Cinzia P Strano, Antonino Malacrinò, Orlando Campolo, Vincenzo Palmeri
Microbial communities associated to the gut of insects are attracting an increasing interest, mainly because of their role in influencing several host life-traits. The characterization of the gut microbial community is pivotal for understanding insect ecology and, thus, to develop novel pest management strategies. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pytiocampa (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), is a severe defoliator of pine forests, able to feed on several pine species. In this work, we performed a metabarcoding analysis to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the gut bacterial community of pine processionary larvae associated with three different host pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra subsp...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735315/the-diversity-growth-promoting-abilities-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-bacteria-isolated-from-the-fruiting-body-of-agaricus-bisporus
#3
Quanju Xiang, Lihua Luo, Yuhuan Liang, Qiang Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunfu Gu
Agaricus bisporus plays an important role in ecological processes and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Mushroom growth-promoting bacteria have been isolated from casing soil and compost, but microorganisms in the fruiting body have received only a little attention. To get an overview of phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms in the fruiting body of A. bisporus, as well as to screen antimicrobial and mushroom growth-promoting strains, and eventually intensify mushroom production, we isolated and characterized microorganisms from the fruiting body of A...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734209/new-insight-into-the-environmental-impact-of-two-imidazolium-ionic-liquids-effects-on-seed-germination-and-soil-microbial-activity
#4
J Salgado, J J Parajó, T Teijeira, O Cruz, J Proupín, M Villanueva, J A Rodríguez-Añón, P V Verdes, O Reyes
The next generation of ionic liquids must be synthetized taking into account structures that guarantee the suitable properties for a defined application as well as ecological data. Thus, searching of the right methodologies to know, quickly and efficiently, the ecological effects of these compounds is a preliminary task. The effects of two imidazolium based ionic liquids with different anions, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1Im][BF4], and 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C3C1Im][NTf2], on seedling emergence of six tree species and on the microbial behaviour of two soils were determined in this work...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732554/microbial-ecology-and-process-technology-of-sourdough-fermentation
#5
Luc De Vuyst, Simon Van Kerrebroeck, Frédéric Leroy
From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3)...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732267/understanding-the-holobiont-the-interdependence-of-plants-and-their-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Carmen Sánchez-Cañizares, Beatriz Jorrín, Philip S Poole, Andrzej Tkacz
The holobiont is composed by the plant and its microbiome. In a similar way to ecological systems of higher organisms, the holobiont shows interdependent and complex dynamics [1,2]. While plants originate from seeds, the microbiome has a multitude of sources. The assemblage of these communities depends on the interaction between the emerging seedling and its surrounding environment, with soil being the main source. These microbial communities are controlled by the plant through different strategies, such as the specific profile of root exudates and its immune system...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731846/presence-and-future-of-culturing-bacteria
#7
Jörg Overmann, Birte Abt, Johannes Sikorski
The cultivation of bacteria is highly biased toward a few phylogenetic groups. Many of the currently underexplored bacterial lineages likely have novel biosynthetic pathways and unknown biochemical features. New cultivation concepts have been developed based on an improved understanding of the ecology of previously not-cultured bacteria. Particularly successful were improved media that mimic the natural types and concentrations of substrates and nutrients, high-throughput cultivation techniques, and approaches that exploit biofilm formation and bacterial interactions...
July 21, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731707/dynamic-effects-of-biochar-on-the-bacterial-community-structure-in-soil-contaminated-with-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#8
Yang Song, Yongrong Bian, Fang Wang, Min Xu, Ni Ni, Xinglun Yang, Chenggang Gu, Xin Jiang
The amendment of soil with biochar is an effective soil remediation strategy for organic contaminants. This study investigated the dynamic effects of wheat straw biochar on the bacterial community structure during remediation by high-throughput sequencing. The wheat straw biochar amended into the soil significantly reduced the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biochar amendment helped to maintain the bacterial diversity in the PAH-contaminated soil. The relationship between the immobilization of PAHs and the soil bacterial diversity fit quadratic model...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731477/cohesion-a-method-for-quantifying-the-connectivity-of-microbial-communities
#9
Cristina M Herren, Katherine D McMahon
The ability to predict microbial community dynamics lags behind the quantity of data available in these systems. Most predictive models use only environmental parameters, although a long history of ecological literature suggests that community complexity should also be an informative parameter. Thus, we hypothesize that incorporating information about a community's complexity might improve predictive power in microbial models. Here, we present a new metric, called community 'cohesion,' that quantifies the degree of connectivity of a microbial community...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731210/ecological-guild-and-enzyme-activities-of-rhizosphere-soil-microbial-communities-associated-with-bt-maize-cultivation-under-field-conditions-in-north-west-province-of-south-africa
#10
Deidré A B van Wyk, Rasheed Adeleke, Owen H J Rhode, Carlos C Bezuidenhout, Charlotte Mienie
Insecticidal proteins expressed by genetically modified Bt maize may alter the enzymatic and microbial communities associated with rhizosphere soil. This study investigated the structure and enzymatic activity of rhizosphere soil microbial communities associated with field grown Bt and non-Bt maize. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Bt and non-Bt fields under dryland and irrigated conditions. Samples were subjected to chemical tests, enzyme analyses, and next generation sequencing. Results showed that nitrate and phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher in non-Bt maize dryland soils, while organic carbon was significantly higher in non-Bt maize irrigated field soil...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730722/metagenome-based-surveillance-and-diagnostic-approaches-to-studying-the-microbial-ecology-of-food-production-and-processing-environments
#11
Conor J Doyle, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter
Metagenomic-based analyses have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the microbiology of food production and processing environments. By adopting such approaches it will be possible to more accurately determine sources of microbial contamination, identify critical control points for such contaminants, and select practices that optimise quality and safety. This mini-review will discuss the merits of adopting metagenostic-based approaches, highlight novel insights that they have provided to date and consider how they could be further implemented...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730710/the-molecular-ecology-of-microcystis-sp-blooms-in-the-san-francisco-estuary-delta
#12
Timothy G Otten, Hans W Paerl, Theo W Dreher, Wim J Kimmerer, Alex E Parker
Harmful blooms of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. have become increasingly pervasive in the San Francisco Estuary Delta (USA) since the early 2000's and their rise has coincided with substantial decreases in several important fish species. We sought to investigate direct and indirect effects Microcystis blooms may have on the Delta food web. The Microcystis population was tracked for two years at six sites throughout the Delta using quantitative PCR. High-throughput amplicon sequencing and colony PCR sequencing revealed the presence of 10 different strains of Microcystis, including six different microcystin-producing strains...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730353/an-exploration-into-the-bacterial-community-under-different-pasteurization-conditions-during-substrate-preparation-composting-phase-ii-for-agaricus-bisporus-cultivation
#13
Fabricio Rocha Vieira, John Andrew Pecchia
Substrate preparation (i.e., composting) for Agaricus bisporus cultivation is the most critical point of mushroom production. Among many factors involved in the composting process, the microbial ecology of the system is the underlying drive of composting and can be influenced by composting management techniques. Pasteurization temperature at the beginning of phase II, in theory, may influence the bacterial community and subsequently the "selectivity" and nutrition of the final substrate. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested by simulation in bioreactors under different pasteurization conditions (57 °C/6 h, 60 °C/2 h, and 68 °C/2 h), simulating conditions adopted by many producers...
July 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729861/comparative-omics-and-trait-analyses-of-marine-pseudoalteromonas-phages-advance-the-phage-otu-concept
#14
Melissa B Duhaime, Natalie Solonenko, Simon Roux, Nathan C Verberkmoes, Antje Wichels, Matthew B Sullivan
Viruses influence the ecology and evolutionary trajectory of microbial communities. Yet our understanding of their roles in ecosystems is limited by the paucity of model systems available for hypothesis generation and testing. Further, virology is limited by the lack of a broadly accepted conceptual framework to classify viral diversity into evolutionary and ecologically cohesive units. Here, we introduce genomes, structural proteomes, and quantitative host range data for eight Pseudoalteromonas phages isolated from Helgoland (North Sea, Germany) and use these data to advance a genome-based viral operational taxonomic unit (OTU) definition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729854/microbiome-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-north-pacific-subtropical-gyre
#15
Mary R Gradoville, Byron C Crump, Ricardo M Letelier, Matthew J Church, Angelicque E White
Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729641/the-rhizosphere-microbiome-of-burned-holm-oak-potential-role-of-the-genus-arthrobacter-in-the-recovery-of-burned-soils
#16
Antonio J Fernández-González, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, José F Cobo-Díaz, Pablo J Villadas, Eustoquio Martínez-Molina, Nicolás Toro, Susannah G Tringe, Manuel Fernández-López
After a forest wildfire, the microbial communities have a transient alteration in their composition. The role of the soil microbial community in the recovery of an ecosystem following such an event remains poorly understood. Thus, it is necessary to understand the plant-microbe interactions that occur in burned soils. By high-throughput sequencing, we identified the main bacterial taxa of burnt holm-oak rhizosphere, then we obtained an isolate collection of the most abundant genus and its growth promoting activities were characterised...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728121/effect-of-residual-h2o2-from-advanced-oxidation-processes-on-subsequent-biological-water-treatment-a-laboratory-batch-study
#17
Feifei Wang, Doris van Halem, Gang Liu, Karin Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Jan Peter van der Hoek
H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H2O2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H2O2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%...
July 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725664/morphotypes-and-pigment-profiles-of-halophilic-bacteria-practical-data-useful-for-novelty-taxonomic-categorization-and-for-describing-novel-species-or-new-taxa
#18
Bhagwan N Rekadwad, Chandrahasya N Khobragade
Halophilic bacteria were isolated from oil spill samples collected from West-coast of Goa. Bacteria were isolated from oil studded soil, salt marsh and offshore samples (A, A7, CSM, CB and CM) collected along the West coastline in Goa (India) i.e. Arambol beach, Calanguate beach, Candolim beach and Colva beach on Zobell Marine agar, R2A agar, Mannitol salt agar and Blood agar at temperature 22 to 24 °C. Isolates showed growth in the presence of hydrocarbons (1% phenanthrene and 2% bitumen). Diverse profiles of pigments were observed on different nutrient medium...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#19
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724220/influence-of-temperature-in-pollution-induced-community-tolerance-approaches-used-to-assess-effects-of-copper-on-freshwater-phototrophic-periphyton
#20
Anne Sophie Lambert, Aymeric Dabrin, Arnaud Foulquier, Soizic Morin, Christophe Rosy, Marina Coquery, Stéphane Pesce
By measuring levels of tolerance to toxicants in microbial communities using functional toxicity tests under controlled conditions, pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approaches offer an effect-based tool to assess the ecological risk of chemicals in aquatic systems. However, induced tolerance of exposed microbial communities cannot always be attributed solely to the presence of toxicants as various environmental factors, such as temperature, can also be involved. Several PICT studies have been conducted to assess the effects of copper (Cu) on phototrophic periphyton, but little is known about the influence of temperature on the response of these microbial communities to acute and chronic exposure to Cu...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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