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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088715/micropollutant-induced-tolerance-of-in-situ-periphyton-establishing-causality-in-wastewater-impacted-streams
#1
Ahmed Tlili, Juliane Hollender, Cornelia Kienle, Renata Behra
The overarching aim of this field study was to examine causal links between in-situ exposure to complex mixtures of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants and effects on freshwater microbial communities in the receiving streams. To reach this goal, we assessed the toxicity of serial dilutions of micropollutant mixtures, extracted from deployed passive samplers at the discharge sites of four Swiss wastewater treatment plants, to in situ periphyton from upstream and downstream of the effluents. On the one hand, comparison of the sensitivities of upstream and downstream periphyton to the micropollutant mixtures indicated that algal and bacterial communities composing the periphyton displayed higher tolerance towards these micropollutants downstream than upstream...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088532/comparison-of-an-anaerobic-feed-and-split-anaerobic-aerobic-feed-on-granular-sludge-development-performance-and-ecology
#2
Benjamin J Thwaites, Petra Reeve, Nirmala Dinesh, Michael D Short, Ben van den Akker
The retrofitting of existing wastewater sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to select for rapid-settling aerobic granular sludge (AGS) over floc-based conventional activated sludge (CAS), could be a viable option to decrease reactor cycle time and increase hydraulic capacity. Successful CAS-to-AGS conversion has previously been shown to be highly dependent on having a dedicated anaerobic feed, which presents additional engineering challenges when retrofitting SBRs. In this study we compared the performance of a split anaerobic-aerobic (An-Aer) feed with that of a traditional dedicated anaerobic feed regarding AGS formation and stability, nitrogen removal performance and microbial ecology...
December 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088423/effects-of-rumen-protected-capsicum-oleoresin-on-productivity-and-responses-to-a-glucose-tolerance-test-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
J Oh, M Harper, F Giallongo, D M Bravo, E H Wall, A N Hristov
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg RPC/cow per day...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087535/efficient-low-ph-iron-removal-by-a-microbial-iron-oxide-mound-ecosystem-at-scalp-level-run
#4
Christen L Grettenberger, Alexandra R Pearce, Kyle J Bibby, Daniel S Jones, William D Burgos, Jennifer L Macalady
: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of km of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County PA), first-order iron-oxidation rates are ten times faster than at other coal associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079128/parallel-meta-3-comprehensive-taxonomical-and-functional-analysis-platform-for-efficient-comparison-of-microbial-communities
#5
Gongchao Jing, Zheng Sun, Honglei Wang, Yanhai Gong, Shi Huang, Kang Ning, Jian Xu, Xiaoquan Su
The number of metagenomes is increasing rapidly. However, current methods for metagenomic analysis are limited by their capability for in-depth data mining among a large number of microbiome each of which carries a complex community structure. Moreover, the complexity of configuring and operating computational pipeline also hinders efficient data processing for the end users. In this work we introduce Parallel-META 3, a comprehensive and fully automatic computational toolkit for rapid data mining among metagenomic datasets, with advanced features including 16S rRNA extraction for shotgun sequences, 16S rRNA copy number calibration, 16S rRNA based functional prediction, diversity statistics, bio-marker selection, interaction network construction, vector-graph-based visualization and parallel computing...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078754/evaluating-the-core-microbiota-in-complex-communities-a-systematic-investigation
#6
Carmen Astudillo-Garcia, James J Bell, Nicole S Webster, Bettina Glasl, Jamaluddin Jompa, Jose M Montoya, Michael W Taylor
The study of complex microbial communities poses unique conceptual and analytical challenges, with microbial species potentially numbering in the thousands. With transient or allochthonous microorganisms often adding to this complexity, a 'core' microbiota approach, focusing only on the stable and permanent members of the community, is becoming increasingly popular. Given the various ways of defining a core microbiota, it is prudent to examine whether the definition of the core impacts upon the results obtained...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073604/morphometric-and-genetic-analysis-of-arcella-intermedia-and-arcella-intermedia-laevis-amoebozoa-arcellinida-illuminate-phenotypic-plasticity-in-microbial-eukaryotes
#7
Alfredo L Porfírio-Sousa, Giulia M Ribeiro, Daniel J G Lahr
Testate amoebae are eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by the presence of an external shell (test). The shell morphology is used as a diagnostic character, but discordance between morphological and molecular data has been demonstrated in groups of arcellinids (Amoebozoa), one of the principal groups of testate amoebae. Morphology of the test is supposed to differentiate genera and species and it is applied in ecological, monitoring and paleontological studies. However, if phenotype does not reflect genotype, conclusions in these types of studies become severely impaired...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073551/the-common-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-microcystis-is-prone-to-a-wide-array-of-microbial-antagonists
#8
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Wichelen, Pieter Vanormelingen, Geoffrey A Codd, Wim Vyverman
Many degraded waterbodies around the world are subject to strong proliferations of cyanobacteria - notorious for their toxicity, high biomass build-up and negative impacts on aquatic food webs - the presence of which puts serious limits on the human use of affected water bodies. Cyanobacterial blooms are largely regarded as trophic dead ends since they are a relatively poor food source for zooplankton. As a consequence, their population dynamics are generally attributed to changes in abiotic conditions (bottom-up control)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073253/harnessing-insect-microbe-chemical-communications-to-control-insect-pests-of-agricultural-systems
#9
John J Beck, Rachel L Vannette
Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072420/where-less-may-be-more-how-the-rare-biosphere-pulls-ecosystems-strings
#10
Alexandre Jousset, Christina Bienhold, Antonis Chatzinotas, Laure Gallien, Angélique Gobet, Viola Kurm, Kirsten Küsel, Matthias C Rillig, Damian W Rivett, Joana F Salles, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Noha H Youssef, Xiaowei Zhang, Zhong Wei, W H Gera Hol
Rare species are increasingly recognized as crucial, yet vulnerable components of Earth's ecosystems. This is also true for microbial communities, which are typically composed of a high number of relatively rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that rare species can have an over-proportional role in biogeochemical cycles and may be a hidden driver of microbiome function. In this review, we provide an ecological overview of the rare microbial biosphere, including causes of rarity and the impacts of rare species on ecosystem functioning...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072418/microbial-community-dynamics-in-inferno-crater-lake-a-thermally-fluctuating-geothermal-spring
#11
Laura Ward, Michael W Taylor, Jean F Power, Bradley J Scott, Ian R McDonald, Matthew B Stott
Understanding how microbial communities respond and adjust to ecosystem perturbation is often difficult to interpret due to multiple and often simultaneous variations in observed conditions. In this research, we investigated the microbial community dynamics of Inferno Crater Lake, an acidic geothermal spring in New Zealand with a unique thermal cycle that varies between 30 and 80 °C over a period of 40-60 days. Using a combination of next-generation sequencing, geochemical analysis and quantitative PCR we found that the microbial community composition was predominantly chemolithotrophic and strongly associated with the thermal cycle...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072390/a-molecular-portrait-of-maternal-sepsis-from-byzantine-troy
#12
Alison M Devault, Tatum D Mortimer, Andrew Kitchen, Henrike Kiesewetter, Jacob M Enk, G Brian Golding, John Southon, Melanie Kuch, Ana T Duggan, William Aylward, Shea N Gardner, Jonathan E Allen, Andrew M King, Gerard Wright, Makoto Kuroda, Kengo Kato, Derek Eg Briggs, Gino Fornaciari, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar, Caitlin S Pepperell
Pregnancy complications are poorly represented in the archeological record, despite their importance in contemporary and ancient societies. While excavating a Byzantine cemetery in Troy, we discovered calcified abscesses among a woman's remains. Scanning electron microscopy of the tissue revealed 'ghost cells', resulting from dystrophic calcification, which preserved ancient maternal, fetal and bacterial DNA of a severe infection, likely chorioamnionitis. Gardnerella vaginalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus dominated the abscesses...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071699/rye-polyphenols-and-the-metabolism-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-rats-a-dose-dependent-fatty-fish-like-effect
#13
Fayçal Ounnas, Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, François Laporte, Luca Calani, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070679/diversity-of-microbial-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-cazymes-associated-with-freshwater-and-soil-samples-from-caatinga-biome
#14
Ana Camila Andrade, Adriana Fróes, Fabyano Álvares Cardoso Lopes, Fabiano L Thompson, Ricardo Henrique Krüger, Elizabeth Dinsdale, Thiago Bruce
Semi-arid and arid areas occupy about 33% of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available about microbial diversity in the semi-arid Caatinga, which represents a unique biome that extends to about 11% of the Brazilian territory and is home to extraordinary diversity and high endemism level of species. In this study, we characterized the diversity of microbial genes associated with biomass conversion (carbohydrate-active enzymes, or so-called CAZYmes) in soil and freshwater of the Caatinga...
January 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070331/effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-csl2-on-the-composition-and-functional-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-with-salmonella-gallinarum
#15
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, Dong Soo Yang, Dae-Kyung Kang
BACKGROUND: The chicken gastrointestinal tract contains a diverse microbiota whose composition and structure play important roles in gut functionality. In this study, microbial shifts resulting from feed supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CSL2 were evaluated in broilers challenged and unchallenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. To analyse bacterial community composition and functionality, 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. RESULTS: The Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used to analyse changes in the faecal microbiota over a 24-h period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068760/a-laboratory-scale-microbial-food-chain-to-study-bioaccumulation-biomagnification-and-ecotoxicity-of-cadmium-telluride-quantum-dots
#16
Govind Sharan Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar, Violet Aileen Senapati, Alok Kumar Pandey, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan
The increasing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products warrant a careful evaluation of their trophic transfer and consequent ecological impact. In the present study, a laboratory scale aquatic microbial food chain was established using bacteria (Escherichia coli) as a prey and ciliated protozoan (Paramecium caudatum) as a predator organism to determine the impact of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs). We observed that 29% of bacterivory potential of Paramecium was lost, including a ~12 h of delay in doubling time on exposure to 25 mg/L of CdTe QD (~4 nm) as compared to control...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065819/aquatic-bacterial-diversity-magnitude-dynamics-and-controlling-factors
#17
REVIEW
Sana Shafi, Azra N Kamili, Manzoor A Shah, Javid A Parray, Suhaib A Bandh
The primary aspiration in the microbial observatory is to advance the understanding of freshwater bacterioplankton, whose diversity and population dynamics are currently the least understood off all freshwater planktonic organisms. Through identification and characterization of bacterial populations in a suite of fresh water bodies, we are able to gain significant new insight into the ecological niches of bacteria in diverse freshwater ecosystems. Given the facts that lakes and other inland freshwaters play a more critical role in the global carbon budget and that lakes have been described as early indicators of both regional and global environmental change, the role of microbes in these processes is of renewed interest...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#18
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063202/dna-metabarcoding-reveals-that-200-%C3%AE-m-size-fractionated-filtering-is-unable-to-discriminate-between-planktonic-microbial-and-large-eukaryotes
#19
Lemian Liu, Min Liu, David M Wilkinson, Huihuang Chen, Xiaoqing Yu, Yang Jun
Microeukaryotic plankton (0.2-200 μm) are critical components of aquatic ecosystems and key players in global ecological processes. High-throughput sequencing is currently revolutionizing their study on an unprecedented scale. However, it is currently unclear if we can accurately, effectively, and quantitatively depict the microeukaryotic plankton communities using traditional size-fractionated filtering combined with molecular methods. To address this, we analyzed the eukaryotic plankton communities both with, and without, pre-filtering with a 200 μm pore-size sieve - by using SSU rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing on 16 samples with 3 replicates in each sample from two subtropical reservoirs sampled from January to October in 2013...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062969/distinct-bacterial-communities-across-a-gradient-of-vegetation-from-a-preserved-brazilian-cerrado
#20
Ademir Sergio Ferreira de Araujo, Walderly Melgaço Bezerra, Vilma Maria Dos Santos, Sandra Mara Barbosa Rocha, Nilza da Silva Carvalho, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de Lyra, Marcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo, Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes, Vania Maria Maciel Melo
The Cerrado biome in the Sete Cidades National Park, an Ecological Reserve in Northeastern Brazil, has conserved its native biodiversity and presents a variety of plants found in other savannas in Brazil. Despite this finding the soil microbial diversity and community structure are poorly understood. Therefore, we described soil bacterial diversity and distribution along a savanna vegetation gradient taking into account the prevailing environmental factors. The bacterial composition was retrieved by sequencing a fragment of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
January 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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