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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468581/a-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-model-for-studying-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#1
Paige S Katz, Patricia E Molina
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnoses have increased in frequency during the past decade, becoming a silent epidemic. The pathophysiology of TBI involves pathophysiological processes affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces resulting in temporary impairment of neurological function. Preclinical models have been generated to recapitulate the mechanical, neuroinflammatory, and behavioral outcomes observed in the clinical setting. The lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model is the most extensively used and well-characterized model of nonpenetrating and nonischemic TBI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463181/spared-behavioral-repetition-effects-in-alzheimer-s-disease-linked-to-an-altered-neural-mechanism-at-posterior-cortex
#2
Lucas S Broster, Juan Li, Benjamin Wagner, Charles D Smith, Gregory A Jicha, Frederick A Schmitt, Nancy Munro, Ryan H Haney, Yang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) classically show disproportionate impairment in measures of working memory, but repetition learning effects are relatively preserved. As AD affects brain regions implicated in both working memory and repetition effects, the neural basis of this discrepancy is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the posterior repetition effect could account for this discrepancy due to the milder effects of AD at visual cortex. METHOD: Participants with early AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls performed a working memory task with superimposed repetition effects while electroencephalography was collected to identify possible neural mechanisms of preserved repetition effects...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453493/altered-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-response-in-bdnf-deficient-mice-in-a-model-of-early-postnatal-hypoxia-implications-for-schizophrenia
#3
Juan M Lima-Ojeda, Anne S Mallien, Christiane Brandwein, Undine E Lang, Dimitri Hefter, Dragos Inta
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major proliferative agent in the nervous system. Both BDNF-deficiency and perinatal hypoxia represent genetic/environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. Moreover, a decreased BDNF response to birth hypoxia was associated with the disease. BDNF expression is influenced by neuronal activity and environmental conditions such as hypoxia. Thus, it may partake in neuroprotective and reparative mechanisms in acute or chronic neuronal insults. However, the interaction of hypoxia and BDNF is insufficiently understood and the behavioral outcome unknown...
February 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#4
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448971/special-issue-on-mild-behavioral-impairment-and-non-cognitive-prodromes-to-dementia
#5
Moyra Elizabeth Mortby, Constantine G Lyketsos, Yonas E Geda, Zahinoor Ismail
This Special Issue provides a systematic examination of the neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and non-cognitive prodromes of dementia, with an eye toward validating the construct of mild behavioral impairment (MBI).
February 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448970/dementia-clinical-trial-implications-of-mild-behavioral-impairment
#6
Moyra E Mortby, Sandra E Black, Serge Gauthier, David Miller, Anton Porsteinsson, Eric E Smith, Zahinoor Ismail
The World Alzheimer Report 2016 estimated that 47 million people are living with dementia worldwide (Alzheimer's Disease International, 2016). In the inaugural World Health Organization Ministerial Conference on Global Action against Dementia, six of the top ten research priorities were focused on prevention, identification, and reduction of dementia risk, and on delivery and quality of care for people with dementia and their carers (Shah et al., 2016). While the Lancet Neurology Commission has suggested that even minor advances to delay progression or ameliorate symptoms might have substantial financial and societal benefits (Winblad et al...
February 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448033/environmental-enrichment-decreases-avoidance-responses-in-the-elevated-t-maze-and-delta-fosb-immunoreactivity-in-anxiety-related-brain-regions
#7
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Seur Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445429/classification-of-mri-and-psychological-testing-data-based-on-support-vector-machine
#8
Wenlu Yang, Xinyun Chen, David S Cohen, Eric R Rosin, Arthur W Toga, Paul M Thompson, Xudong Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, and often fatal, brain disease that causes neurodegeneration, resulting in memory loss as well as other cognitive and behavioral problems. Here, we propose a novel multimodal method combining independent components from MRI measures and clinical assessments to distinguish Alzheimer's patients or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from healthy elderly controls. 70 AD subjects (mean age: 77.15 ± 6.2 years), 98 MCI subjects (mean age: 76.91 ± 5.7 years), and 150 HC subjects (mean age: 75...
December 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439333/risk-of-conversion-to-dementia-in-a-mild-behavioral-impairment-group-compared-to-a-psychiatric-group-and-to-a-mild-cognitive-impairment-group
#9
Fernando E Taragano, Ricardo F Allegri, Silvina L Heisecke, María I Martelli, Mónica L Feldman, Viviana Sánchez, Virginia A García, Graciela Tufro, Diego M Castro, Patricio Perez Leguizamón, Verónica Guelar, Eva Ruotolo, Cecilia Zegarra, Carol Dillon
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient available information on behavioral changes in the absence of cognitive impairment as factors increasing the risk of conversion to dementia. OBJECTIVE: To observe and analyze patients with mild behavioral impairment (MBI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and a psychiatry group (PG) to compare the risk of progression to dementia. METHODS: From 677 initially assessed ≥60-year-old patients, a series of 348 patients was studied for a five-year period until censoring or conversion to dementia: 96 with MBI, 87 with MCI, and 165 with general psychiatry disorders, including 4 subgroups: Anxiety, Depression, Psychosis and Others...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438114/validity-and-reliability-of-the-frontotemporal-dementia-rating-scale-ftd-frs-for-the-progression-and-staging-of-dementia-in-brazilian-patients
#10
Thaís B Lima-Silva, Valéria S Bahia, Mário A Cecchini, Luciana Cassimiro, Henrique C Guimarães, Leandro B Gambogi, Paulo Caramelli, Márcio Balthazar, Benito Damasceno, Sônia M D Brucki, Leonardo C de Souza, Ricardo Nitrini, Eneida Mioshi, Mônica S Yassuda
INTRODUCTION: Few studies on instruments for staging frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the factor structure, internal consistency, reliability, and convergent validity of the Brazilian version of the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS). METHODS: A total of 97 individuals aged 40 years and above with >2 years' education took part in the study, 31 patients diagnosed with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), 8 patients with primary progressive aphasia, 28 with Alzheimer disease, 8 with mild cognitive impairment, and a control group of 22 healthy subjects...
February 13, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438112/executive-functioning-and-daily-living-of-individuals-with-chronic-stroke-measurement-and-implications
#11
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Gabi Zeilig, Harold Weingarden, Clara Rozental-Iluz, Debbie Rand
Deficits in executive functioning (EF) are often still present at the chronic stage after stroke, which may negatively impact independent living. The objectives of this study were (a) to characterize the EF and independence in daily living of community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke by using pen-and-paper and performance-based EF assessments, (b) to explore correlations between scores detected by different EF assessments and (c) to assess the correlations between EF and independence in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438037/tau-negative-amnestic-dementia-masquerading-as-alzheimer-disease-dementia
#12
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Mary M Machulda, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Matthew L Senjem, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Melissa E Murray, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenomenon of tau-negative amnestic dementia mimicking Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically and radiologically and to highlight the importance of biomarkers in AD research. METHODS: Eight participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia were evaluated by a behavioral neurologist and had a standardized neuropsychological battery performed. All participants completed structural (MRI) and molecular (amyloid and tau PET) imaging...
February 7, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434036/damaging-de-novo-mutations-diminish-motor-skills-in-children-on-the-autism-spectrum
#13
Andreas Buja, Natalia Volfovsky, Abba M Krieger, Catherine Lord, Alex E Lash, Michael Wigler, Ivan Iossifov
In individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), de novo mutations have previously been shown to be significantly correlated with lower IQ but not with the core characteristics of ASD: deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behavior. We extend these findings by demonstrating in the Simons Simplex Collection that damaging de novo mutations in ASD individuals are also significantly and convincingly correlated with measures of impaired motor skills...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432610/accelerometer-physical-activity-is-associated-with-greater-gray-matter-volumes-in-older-adults-without-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Shannon Halloway, Konstantinos Arfanakis, JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E Schoeny, Susan J Pressler
Objectives: Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable health behavior that can protect against age-related gray matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Current studies of PA and gray matter failed to utilize device measures of PA and do not focus on adults >80 years. Thus, the purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations between accelerometer lifestyle PA and (a) gray matter volumes and (b) cognitive function, controlling for demographics and health status...
February 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428770/pseudoneglect-is-maintained-in-aging-but-not-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-new-insights-from-an-enumeration-task
#15
Brignani Debora, Bagattini Chiara, Mazza Veronica
Neurologically healthy young adults display a behavioral bias, called pseudoneglect, which favors the processing of stimuli appearing in the left visual field. Pseudoneglect arises from the right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention. Previous studies investigating the effects of normal aging on pseudoneglect in line bisection and greyscale tasks have produced divergent results. In addition, scarce systematic investigations of visual biases in dementia have been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the leftward bias appearing during an enumeration task in young adults would be preserved in normal aging and at different stages of severity of Alzheimer's disease...
February 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422002/identification-and-temporal-characterization-of-features-associated-with-the-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Antonio Martinez-Torteya, Hugo Gomez-Rueda, Victor Trevino, Joshua Farber, Jose Tamez-Pena, For The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its earliest stages is important for therapeutic and support planning. Similarly, being able to predict who convert from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD would have clinical implications. OBJECTIVES: This study's goals were to identify features from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database associated with the conversion from MCI to AD, and to characterize the temporal evolution of that conversion...
February 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415629/mild-maternal-hypothyroxinemia-during-pregnancy-induces-persistent-dna-hypermethylation-in-the-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-in-mouse-offspring
#17
Kenichi Kawahori, Koshi Hashimoto, Xunmei Yuan, Kazutaka Tsujimoto, Nozomi Hanzawa, Miho Hamaguchi, Saori Kase, Kyota Fujita, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Hitoshi Okazawa, Yasuyo Nakajima, Nobuyuki Shibusawa, Masanobu Yamada, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental rodents have shown that even a subtle thyroid hormone insufficiency in circulating maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may adversely affect neurodevelopment in offspring, resulting in irreversible cognitive deficits. This may be due to the persistent reduced expression of the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (Bdnf), which plays a crucial role in CNS development...
February 7, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411691/prospective-memory-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-with-or-without-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-preliminary-study
#18
Sonia Marcone, Jean-François Gagnon, Catherine Desjardins, Annie-Claude David, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Sven Joubert, Isabelle Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: The ability to execute delayed intentions, known as prospective memory (PM), is crucial to everyday living. PM failures are reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Parkinson's disease, however, no study to date has investigated PM functioning in individuals at high risk of developing these conditions, precisely those diagnosed with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). We aimed to assess PM in iRBD according to patients' cognitive status and to determine the underlying nature of their difficulties...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409919/sst2-receptor-gene-deletion-exacerbates-chronic-stress-induced-deficits-consequences-for-emotional-and-cognitive-ageing
#19
Thomas Damien Prévôt, Cécile Viollet, Jacques Epelbaum, Gaëlle Dominguez, Daniel Béracochéa, Jean-Louis Guillou
This study investigated whether sst2 gene deletion interacts with age and chronic stress exposure to produce exacerbated emotional and cognitive ageing. Middle-aged (10-12 month) sst2 knockout (sst2KO) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) procedure for 6 weeks or no stress for control groups. This was followed by a battery of tests to assess emotional and cognitive functions and neuroendocrine status (CORT level). A re-evaluation was performed 6 months later (i...
January 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403000/the-selective-reversible-faah-inhibitor-ssr411298-restores-the-development-of-maladaptive-behaviors-to-acute-and-chronic-stress-in-rodents
#20
Guy Griebel, Jeanne Stemmelin, Mati Lopez-Grancha, Valérie Fauchey, Franck Slowinski, Philippe Pichat, Gihad Dargazanli, Ahmed Abouabdellah, Caroline Cohen, Olivier E Bergis
Enhancing endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been considered as a potential strategy for the treatment of stress-related conditions. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) represents the primary degradation enzyme of the eCB anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). This study describes a potent reversible FAAH inhibitor, SSR411298. The drug acts as a selective inhibitor of FAAH, which potently increases hippocampal levels of AEA, OEA and PEA in mice. Despite elevating eCB levels, SSR411298 did not mimic the interoceptive state or produce the behavioral side-effects (memory deficit and motor impairment) evoked by direct-acting cannabinoids...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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