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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#1
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711663/cognitive-workload-across-the-spectrum-of-cognitive-impairments-a-systematic-review-of-physiological-measures
#2
REVIEW
Maud Ranchet, John C Morgan, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Hannes Devos
Our objective was to identify the physiological measures that are sensitive to assessing cognitive workload across the spectrum of cognitive impairments. Three database searches were conducted: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. Studies from the last decade that used physiological measures of cognitive workload in older adults (mean age >65 years-old) were reviewed. The cognitive workload of healthy older individuals was compared with the cognitive workload of younger adults, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD)...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701492/behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-distinct-phenotypes-with-unique-functional-profiles
#3
Claire M O'Connor, Ramon Landin-Romero, Lindy Clemson, Cassandra Kaizik, Naomi Daveson, John R Hodges, Sharpley Hsieh, Olivier Piguet, Eneida Mioshi
OBJECTIVE: To identify distinct behavioral phenotypes of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and to elucidate differences in functional, neuroimaging, and progression to residential care placement. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with bvFTD were included in a cluster analysis applying levels of disinhibition and apathy (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised) to identify phenotypic subgroups. Between-group (Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U) functional differences (Disability Assessment for Dementia) and time to residential care placement (survival analyses) were examined...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695538/fgf9-y162c-mutation-alters-information-processing-and-social-memory-in-mice
#4
Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Oliver Puk, Tobias Stoeger, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Oliver Eickelberg, Wolfgang Hans, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Klopstock, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685977/the-post-therapeutic-effect-of-rapamycin-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injured-rats-ensuing-in-the-upregulation-of-autophagy-and-mitophagy
#5
Changxing Wang, Zhiying Hu, Yang Zou, Mingjun Xiang, Yuting Jiang, Benson O A Botchway, Xue Huo, Xiaoxue Du, Marong Fang
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), common in juveniles, has been reported to be caused by sports-related concussion. Many young children may suffer from post-concussion syndrome. mTBI, in early stages of life, could play a part in neuron apoptosis and degeneration, cognitive and motor coordination impairment, as well as dementia. Our study was aimed at further investigating the post therapeutic efficacy of rapamycin in the recuperation of mTBI whiles at the same time investigating the metamorphosis in both autophagy and mitophagy in mTBI...
July 7, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678552/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-for-treating-dementia-symptoms-a-safety-evaluation
#6
Dana Mohammad, Parco Chan, Janelle Bradley, Krista Lanctôt, Nathan Herrmann
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to rise, while treatment options for cognitive impairment are limited. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) aim to provide symptomatic benefit for cognitive decline, however these drugs are not without adverse events (AEs). The safety profile of each drug must be taken carefully into consideration before being prescribed, as new dosages and formulations have recently been approved. Areas Covered: Donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine are the three AChEIs approved for the treatment of varying stages of AD...
July 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671112/neural-dynamics-of-multiple-object-processing-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-future-early-diagnostic-biomarkers
#7
Chiara Bagattini, Veronica Mazza, Laura Panizza, Clarissa Ferrari, Cristina Bonomini, Debora Brignani
The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and electrophysiological dynamics of multiple object processing (MOP) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to test whether its neural signatures may represent reliable diagnostic biomarkers. Behavioral performance and event-related potentials [N2pc and contralateral delay activity (CDA)] were measured in AD, MCI, and healthy controls during a MOP task, which consisted in enumerating a variable number of targets presented among distractors...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670711/later-school-start-times-for-supporting-the-education-health-and-well-being-of-high-school-students
#8
REVIEW
Robert Marx, Emily E Tanner-Smith, Colleen M Davison, Lee-Anne Ufholz, John Freeman, Ravi Shankar, Lisa Newton, Robert S Brown, Alyssa S Parpia, Ioana Cozma, Shawn Hendrikx
BACKGROUND: A number of school systems worldwide have proposed and implemented later school start times as a means of avoiding the potentially negative impacts that early morning schedules can have on adolescent students. Even mild sleep deprivation has been associated with significant health and educational concerns: increased risk for accidents and injuries, impaired learning, aggression, memory loss, poor self-esteem, and changes in metabolism. Although researchers have begun to explore the effects of delayed school start time, no one has conducted a rigorous review of evidence to determine whether later school start times support adolescent health, education, and well-being...
July 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670272/behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-impact-clinical-competence-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Elodie Bertrand, Eelco van Duinkerken, J Landeira-Fernandez, Marcia C N Dourado, Raquel L Santos, Jerson Laks, Daniel C Mograbi
Decision-making is considered a fundamental aspect of personal autonomy and can be affected in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It has been shown that cognitive deficits in dementia impact negatively on decision-making. Moreover, studies highlighted impaired clinical competence in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this context, the current study explored the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and clinical competence, especially the capacity to consent to treatment, in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665166/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-reduces-spine-density-of-projection-neurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-impairs-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#10
Jing Zhao, Jonathan C Huynh, Michael J Hylin, John OMalley, Alec I Perez, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
Epidemiology studies have found that a comorbidity exists between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stress-related disorders. However, the anatomical and cellular bases for this association is poorly understood. An inability to extinguish the memory of a traumatic event lies at the core of many stress-related disorders. Experimental studies have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the infralimbic (IL) cortex, is required for extinction and for storing the memory of extinction. The output from the central nucleus of amygdala projects to lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus and central grey to regulate heart rate, stress hormone release and freezing behavior, respectively...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659863/neural-plasticity-in-moderate-to-severe-chronic-stroke-following-a-device-assisted-task-specific-arm-hand-intervention
#11
Kevin B Wilkins, Meriel Owen, Carson Ingo, Carolina Carmona, Julius P A Dewald, Jun Yao
Currently, hand rehabilitation following stroke tends to focus on mildly impaired individuals, partially due to the inability for severely impaired subjects to sufficiently use the paretic hand. Device-assisted interventions offer a means to include this more severe population and show promising behavioral results. However, the ability for this population to demonstrate neural plasticity, a crucial factor in functional recovery following effective post-stroke interventions, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate neural changes related to hand function induced by a device-assisted task-specific intervention in individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke (upper extremity Fugl-Meyer < 30)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659005/preinjury-characteristics-of-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-other-injury-an-appropriate-comparison-group
#12
A McKinlay, M Albicini, M Than
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been associated with ongoing problems in children and young people. However, there remains to be considerable debate regarding whether outcomes are a result of brain impairment, or simply reflect preinjury characteristics of the child or family. To reliably assess outcomes, an appropriate control group is required. AIMS: This study aimed to identify the preinjury characteristics of children with mTBI, and to examine whether an "other injury to the head" group is an appropriate comparison to control for preinjury characteristics of children with mTBI...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655152/faulty-adaptation-to-repeated-face-name-associative-pairs-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-is-predictive-of-cognitive-decline
#13
Sarah M Jurick, Gali H Weissberger, Lindsay R Clark, Christina E Wierenga, Yu-Ling Chang, Dawn M Schiehser, S Duke Han, Amy J Jak, Sheena I Dev, Mark W Bondi
Objective: We examined BOLD (Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent) activity reduction upon stimuli repetition of face-name pairs in older adults with amnestic (aMCI) and non-amnestic (naMCI) mild cognitive impairment diagnosed using a comprehensive actuarial method, and relationships between activity reduction and behavioral indices. Method: Twenty-nine cognitively healthy older adults (CHs) and 20 with MCI (n = 12 aMCI; n = 8 naMCI) underwent functional MRI event-related imaging, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and 1-year follow-up exam...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649596/phenoconversion-from-probable-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-to-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-in-a-population-based-sample
#14
Youngsin Jung, Brendon P Boot, Michelle M Mielke, Tanis J Ferman, Yonas E Geda, Eric McDade, Teresa J H Christianson, David S Knopman, Erik K St Louis, Michael H Silber, Ronald C Petersen, Bradley F Boeve
INTRODUCTION: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is strongly associated with synucleinopathies. In 2012, we reported an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Parkinson disease (PD) in cognitively normal Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, aged 70 to 89 years with probable RBD. Here, we examine their progression to dementia and other neurodegenerative phenotypes. METHODS: Fifteen participants with RBD who were diagnosed with either MCI or PD were longitudinally followed, and their subsequent clinical courses were reviewed...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645156/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Natalia Jozwiak, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Véronique Latreille, Michel Panisset, Sylvain Chouinard, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Jean-François Gagnon
Study Objectives: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33 to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment, and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language...
June 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643615/migrant-caregiving-for-family-members-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-ethnographic-study
#16
Eleanor Holroyd, Jed Montayre, Sienna Ramsey, Victoria Egli
BACKGROUND: Migrant families caring for family members with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) face considerable socioeconomic burden and isolation. AIM: To examine the cultural needs, beliefs and health seeking behaviours of migrant Turkish family member caregivers. DESIGN: An ethnographic approach was used employing in depth interviews. METHODS: Turkish caregivers residing in Melbourne, Australia were purposively sampled...
June 23, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639878/exploring-the-phenotype-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-aid-the-prediction-of-those-at-risk-of-transitioning-to-parkinson-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#17
Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Glenda M Halliday, Sharon L Naismith, Simon J G Lewis
To date, only limited research has concurrently investigated the presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other features associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in people presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As a first step towards a longitudinal research project, the present study explored the relationships between MCI, RBD, and depression in 108 older adults who presented with subjective memory complaints but were not known to have a neurodegenerative condition...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625940/prodromal-stage-of-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-how-to-diagnose-in-practice
#18
Frédéric Blanc, Marc Verny
Disease with Lewy bodies or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), particularly at the prodromal stage, is a complex disease to diagnose because of different clinical beginnings and variable paths in terms of clinical expression. Thus DLB can be entcountered in different input modes: mild cognitive impairment, depression, acute behavioral disorders, confusion and delirium, or sleep disorders. In the aim to better diagnose the disease, should be sought obviously to search for the key symptoms: fluctuations, hallucinations, extra-pyramidal syndrome, and REM sleep behavior disorder...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623611/deferiprone-rescues-behavioral-deficits-induced-by-mild-iron-exposure-in-a-mouse-model-of-alpha-synuclein-aggregation
#19
Eleonora Carboni, Lars Tatenhorst, Lars Tönges, Elisabeth Barski, Vivian Dambeck, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, and its causes remain unknown. A major hallmark of the disease is the increasing presence of aggregated alpha-synuclein (aSyn). Furthermore, there is a solid consensus on iron (Fe) accumulation in several regions of PD brains during disease progression. In our study, we focused on the interaction of Fe and aggregating aSyn in vivo in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing human aSyn bearing the A53T mutation (prnp.aSyn.A53T). We utilized a neonatal iron-feeding model to exacerbate the motor phenotype of the transgenic mouse model...
June 16, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623327/exendin-4-attenuates-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-cognitive-impairments-losses-of-synaptophysin-and-in-vitro-tbi-induced-hippocampal-cellular-degeneration
#20
Lital Rachmany, David Tweedie, Vardit Rubovitch, Yazhou Li, Harold W Holloway, Dong Seok Kim, Whitney A Ratliff, Jessica N Saykally, Bruce A Citron, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig, Chaim G Pick
Mild blast traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) induced lasting cognitive impairments in novel object recognition and less severe deficits in Y-maze behaviors. B-TBI significantly reduced the levels of synaptophysin (SYP) protein staining in cortical (CTX) and hippocampal (HIPP) tissues. Treatment with exendin-4 (Ex-4) delivered by subcutaneous micro-osmotic pumps 48 hours prior to or 2 hours immediately after B-TBI prevented the induction of both cognitive deficits and B-TBI induced changes in SYP staining. The effects of a series of biaxial stretch injuries (BSI) on a neuronal derived cell line, HT22 cells, were assessed in an in vitro model of TBI...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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