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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625940/prodromal-stage-of-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-how-to-diagnose-in-practice
#1
Frédéric Blanc, Marc Verny
Disease with Lewy bodies or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), particularly at the prodromal stage, is a complex disease to diagnose because of different clinical beginnings and variable paths in terms of clinical expression. Thus DLB can be entcountered in different input modes: mild cognitive impairment, depression, acute behavioral disorders, confusion and delirium, or sleep disorders. In the aim to better diagnose the disease, should be sought obviously to search for the key symptoms: fluctuations, hallucinations, extra-pyramidal syndrome, and REM sleep behavior disorder...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623611/deferiprone-rescues-behavioral-deficits-induced-by-mild-iron-exposure-in-a-mouse-model-of-alpha-synuclein-aggregation
#2
Eleonora Carboni, Lars Tatenhorst, Lars Tönges, Elisabeth Barski, Vivian Dambeck, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, and its causes remain unknown. A major hallmark of the disease is the increasing presence of aggregated alpha-synuclein (aSyn). Furthermore, there is a solid consensus on iron (Fe) accumulation in several regions of PD brains during disease progression. In our study, we focused on the interaction of Fe and aggregating aSyn in vivo in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing human aSyn bearing the A53T mutation (prnp.aSyn.A53T). We utilized a neonatal iron-feeding model to exacerbate the motor phenotype of the transgenic mouse model...
June 16, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623327/exendin-4-attenuates-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-cognitive-impairments-losses-of-synaptophysin-and-in-vitro-tbi-induced-hippocampal-cellular-degeneration
#3
Lital Rachmany, David Tweedie, Vardit Rubovitch, Yazhou Li, Harold W Holloway, Dong Seok Kim, Whitney A Ratliff, Jessica N Saykally, Bruce A Citron, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig, Chaim G Pick
Mild blast traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) induced lasting cognitive impairments in novel object recognition and less severe deficits in Y-maze behaviors. B-TBI significantly reduced the levels of synaptophysin (SYP) protein staining in cortical (CTX) and hippocampal (HIPP) tissues. Treatment with exendin-4 (Ex-4) delivered by subcutaneous micro-osmotic pumps 48 hours prior to or 2 hours immediately after B-TBI prevented the induction of both cognitive deficits and B-TBI induced changes in SYP staining. The effects of a series of biaxial stretch injuries (BSI) on a neuronal derived cell line, HT22 cells, were assessed in an in vitro model of TBI...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#4
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619181/multifactorial-sleep-disturbance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
J Andrew Albers, Pratap Chand, A Michael Anch
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, ranking only behind Alzheimer's disease and affecting 2% of the population over the age of 65. Pathophysiologically, PD is characterized by selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatal dopamine depletion. Patients may also exhibit mild-to-severe degeneration of other central and peripheral nervous tissues. The most dramatic symptoms of the disease are profound dopamine-responsive motor disturbances, including bradykinesia, akinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618018/executive-functions-memory-and-social-cognitive-deficits-and-recovery-in-chronic-alcoholism-a-critical-review-to-inform-future-research
#6
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan
Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision-making, success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617851/severity-classification-of-repeated-isoflurane-anesthesia-in-c57bl-6jrj-mice-assessing-the-degree-of-distress
#7
Katharina Hohlbaum, Bettina Bert, Silke Dietze, Rupert Palme, Heidrun Fink, Christa Thöne-Reineke
According to the EU Directive 2010/63, the severity of a procedure has to be classified as mild, moderate or severe. General anesthesia is thought to be mild, but the Directive does not differentiate between single and repeated anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the impact of repeated administration of isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on the well-being of adult C57BL/6JRj mice, in comparison to single administrations and to untreated animals, when applied six times for 45 min at an interval of 3-4 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616381/anosognosia-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-insight-into-the-neural-mechanism-using-functional-and-molecular-imaging
#8
Patrizia Vannini, Bernard Hanseeuw, Catherine E Munro, Rebecca E Amariglio, Gad A Marshall, Dorene M Rentz, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)) to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611821/patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-show-lower-visual-short-term-memory-performance-in-feature-binding-tasks
#9
Raju P Sapkota, Ian van der Linde, Nirmal Lamichhane, Tirthalal Upadhyaya, Shahina Pardhan
BACKGROUND: Early cognitive changes in people at risk of developing dementia may be detected using behavioral tests that examine the performance of typically affected brain areas, such as the hippocampi. An important cognitive function supported by the hippocampi is memory binding, in which object features are associated to create a unified percept. AIM: To compare visual short-term memory (VSTM) binding performance for object names, locations, and identities between a participant group known to be at higher risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) and healthily aging controls...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611606/long-term-sertraline-intake-reverses-the-behavioral-changes-induced-by-prenatal-stress-in-rats-in-a-sex-dependent-way
#10
Inês Pereira-Figueiredo, Orlando Castellano, Adelaida S Riolobos, Graça Ferreira-Dias, Dolores E López, Consuelo Sancho
Early life stress is a major factor underlying the vulnerability to respond to stressful events later in life. The present study attempted to evaluate the role of prenatal stress affecting the development of stress-related disorders and their reversion by postnatal exposure to Sertraline (SERT), a front-line medication for medication for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. To achieve this, adult male and female prenatally stressed (PS) or unstressed (Controls) offspring rats, following oral chronic treatment with SERT (5 mg/kg/day; from 1 month to 4 months old), or not, were studied prior to and after a traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604171/abnormal-eeg-responses-to-tms-during-the-cortical-silent-period-are-associated-with-hand-function-in-chronic-stroke
#11
Whitney A Gray, Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Abnormal brain excitability influences recovery after stroke at which time a prolonged transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced electromyographic silent period is thought to reflect abnormal inhibitory interneuron excitability. Cortical excitability can be probed directly during the silent period using concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) of TMS-evoked responses. OBJECTIVE: The primary study objectives were to characterize TMS-evoked cortical potentials (TEPs) using EEG and to investigate associations with persistent hand and arm motor dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598846/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-cognitive-impairment-understanding-the-importance-of-co-morbid-symptoms
#12
Moyra E Mortby, Richard Burns, Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Zahinoor Ismail, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in older adults with cognitive impairment, yet little is known about population-based prevalence and clinical implications of co-morbid symptom presentation across the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence of NPS and explore the clinical implications of co-morbid symptom presentation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1,417 older adults (aged 73-79) with dementia (n = 40); with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 133); who are 'cognitively normal, but-at-risk' (CN-AR; n = 397); and who are cognitively normal (n = 847)...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593630/investigating-the-dsm-5-severity-specifiers-based-on-thinness-for-adults-with-anorexia-nervosa
#13
Deborah Lynn Reas, Øyvind Rø
OBJECTIVE: The DSM-5 severity classification scheme for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) is based upon current body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2) ). This study examined the utility of the DSM-5 severity specifiers for adults with AN in relation to core cognitive and behavioral features of eating pathology and associated psychosocial impairment. METHODS: A clinical sample of 146 adult AN patients (140 women, 6 men) were categorized using DSM-5 current BMI severity specifiers and assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA)...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593121/adherence-support-strategies-for-exercise-interventions-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Veronika van der Wardt, Jennie Hancox, Dawid Gondek, Pip Logan, Roshan das Nair, Kristian Pollock, Rowan Harwood
Exercise-based therapy may improve health status for people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia but cannot work without adherence, which has proven difficult. This review aimed to evaluate strategies to support adherence among people with MCI or Dementia and was completed in Nottingham/UK in 2017. A narrative synthesis was used to investigate the effectiveness or usefulness of adherence support strategies. Fifteen adherence support strategies were used including theoretical underpinning (programmes based on behavior change theories), individual tailoring, worksheets and exercise booklets, goal setting, phone calls or reminders, newsletters, support to overcome exercise barriers, information, adaptation periods, individual supervision, support for clinicians, group setting, music, accelerometers/pedometers and emphasis on enjoyable activities...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588479/theta-and-alpha-alterations-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-semantic-go-nogo-tasks
#16
Lydia T Nguyen, Raksha A Mudar, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Julie M Schneider, Mandy J Maguire, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588153/gastric-dilatation-and-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-in-a-child-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#17
Clara Blat, Elisenda Busquets, Teresa Gili, Assumpta Caixàs, Elisabeth Gabau, Raquel Corripio
BACKGROUND Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by initial muscular hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and later an insatiable appetite, hyperphagia and obesity along with mild to moderate intellectual impairment. Affected individuals' food-seeking behavior and suspected delayed gastric emptying can lead to gastric dilatation with subsequent necrosis and perforation. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome at neonatal age due to muscular hypotonia, who started growth hormone therapy at 20 months...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587545/skilled-reach-performance-correlates-with-corpus-callosum-structural-integrity-in-individuals-with-mild-motor-impairment-after-stroke-a-preliminary-investigation
#18
Jill Campbell Stewart, Michael O'Donnell, Kaci Handlery, Carolee J Winstein
BACKGROUND: Recovery of arm function after stroke is often incomplete. An improved understanding of brain structure-motor behavior relationships is needed for the development of novel and targeted rehabilitation interventions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between skilled reach performance and the integrity of two putative white matter motor pathways, corticospinal tract and corpus callosum, after stroke. METHODS: Eleven individuals with chronic stroke (poststroke duration, mean 62...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585931/the-modulation-of-adult-neuroplasticity-is-involved-in-the-mood-improving-actions-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#19
M Morais, P Patrício, A Mateus-Pinheiro, N D Alves, A R Machado-Santos, J S Correia, J Pereira, L Pinto, N Sousa, J M Bessa
Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with an increasing impact in global public health. However, a large proportion of patients treated with currently available antidepressant drugs fail to achieve remission. Recently, antipsychotic drugs have received approval for the treatment of antidepressant-resistant forms of major depression. The modulation of adult neuroplasticity, namely hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal remodeling, has been considered to have a key role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585721/-let-him-speak-a-descriptive-qualitative-study-of-the-roles-and-behaviors-of-family-companions-in-primary-care-visits-among-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment
#20
Judith B Vick, Halima Amjad, Katherine C Smith, Cynthia M Boyd, Laura N Gitlin, David L Roth, Debra L Roter, Jennifer L Wolff
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment poses communication challenges in primary care. Although family "companions" commonly attend primary care visits of older adults with cognitive impairment, little is known about how their involvement affects communication. Therefore, we sought to understand how companion involvement affects the quality of primary care visit communication for older adults with cognitive impairment. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive qualitative study participants were as follows: (1) English-speaking adults age 65 or older with mild, moderate, or severe cognitive impairment; (2) family members or other unpaid companions who accompany older adults to primary care visits; and (3) primary care clinicians...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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