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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431177/altered-functional-connectivity-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#1
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Sanghun Lee, Jung-Hoon Kim, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ick Byun, Min Hee Jeong, Kwang Su Cha, Jeong Woo Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered as a prodromal stage of synucleinopathy. Although loss of functional connectivity is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, network characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) in iRBD are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated resting-state EEG functional connectivity to identify the brain network changes in patients with iRBD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 16 control subjects...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#2
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421533/changes-in-the-prefrontal-glutamatergic-and-parvalbumin-systems-of-mice-exposed-to-unpredictable-chronic-stress
#3
Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is highly sensitive to the effects of stress, a known risk factor of mood disorders including anxiety and depression. Abnormalities in PFC functioning have been well described in humans displaying stress-induced depressive symptoms, and hypoactivity of the PFC is now recognized to be a key feature of the depressed brain. However, little is known about the causes and mechanisms leading to this altered prefrontal functional activity in the context of stress-related mood disorders. We previously showed that unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) in mice increases prefrontal expression of parvalbumin (PV), an activity-dependent calcium-binding albumin protein expressed in a specific subtype of GABAergic neurons, highlighting a potential mechanism through which chronic stress leads to hypofunction of the PFC...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416030/prevalence-neurobiology-and-treatments-for-apathy-in-prodromal-dementia
#4
Chelsea Sherman, Celina S Liu, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Apathy, characterized by diminished motivation, is a highly prevalent neuropsychiatric symptom in dementia. However, there is a substantial knowledge gap with regard to prevalence rates, neurobiological underpinnings, and effective treatments for apathy in pre-dementia states, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild behavioral impairment (MBI). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases to identify available research on apathy in prodromal dementia...
April 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415673/camp-pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-hippocampus-mediates-cyclooxygenase-2-induced-learning-memory-deficits-of-rats-subjected-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#5
Ying Luo, Shengnan Kuang, Huan Li, Dongzhi Ran, Junqing Yang
To investigate the mechanism of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in learning and memory impairments in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), meloxicam was used intragastrically to inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase 2. Moreover, cyclooxygenase 2 over-expressing or RNA interfere lentivirus was injected intraventricularly to increase or decrease the enzyme's expression, respectively. The body weights and sucrose consumption were used to analyze depressive behaviors, while the Morris water maze and step-down-type passive avoidance tests were carried out to evaluate the learning-memory functions...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415589/gabaergic-neurons-in-nucleus-accumbens-are-correlated-to-resilience-and-vulnerability-to-chronic-stress-for-major-depression
#6
Zhaoming Zhu, Guangyan Wang, Ke Ma, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depression, persistent low mood, is one of common psychiatric diseases. Chronic stressful life is believed to be a major risk factor that leads to dysfunctions of the limbic system. However, a large number of the individuals with experiencing chronic stress do not suffer from major depression, called as resilience. Endogenous mechanisms underlying neuronal invulnerability to chronic stress versus major depression are largely unknown. As GABAergic neurons are vulnerable to chronic stress and their impairments is associated with major depression, we have examined whether the invulnerability of GABAergic neurons in the limbic system is involved in resilience...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413999/improving-sensitivity-to-detect-mild-cognitive-impairment-cognitive-load-dual-task-gait-speed-assessment
#7
Rebecca K MacAulay, Mark T Wagner, Dana Szeles, Nicholas J Milano
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413709/awareness-apathy-and-depression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Jean-Pierre Jacus
INTRODUCTION: Results from studies on awareness disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are controversial because the methodologies, the "objects" of awareness, and the patients' pathologic stage all vary. Our study aimed to compare scores and correlates of awareness according to the stage of the disease and the assessment method. METHODS: We compared 20 mild AD patients to 20 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, using the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS; patient vs...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412305/memantine-improves-outcomes-after-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Zhengrong Mei, Jianhua Qiu, Sasha Alcon, Jumana Hashim, Alexander Rotenberg, Yan Sun, William P Meehan, Rebekah Mannix
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI; e.g., sports concussions) is common and results in significant cognitive impairment. Targeted therapies for rmTBI are lacking, though evidence from other injury models indicates that targeting N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR)-mediated glutamatergic toxicity might mitigate rmTBI-induced neurologic deficits. However, there is a paucity of preclinical or clinical data regarding NMDAR antagonist efficacy in the rmTBI setting. To test whether NMDAR antagonist therapy improves outcomes after rmTBI, mice were subjected to rmTBI injury (4 injuries in 4 days) and randomized to treatment with the NMDA antagonist memantine or with vehicle...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406663/neuropsychological-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Simona Pappacena, Raffaella Alaia, Daniele Spitaleri, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand and interpret another person's beliefs, intentions (cognitive ToM) and emotions (affective ToM). OBJECTIVE: To explore affective and cognitive ToM and their neuropsychological correlates in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty MS patients and 40 matched control individuals underwent tasks assessing cognitive (the ToM Pictures Sequencing Task and the Advanced Test of ToM) and affective ToM (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Emotion Attribution Task), in both verbal and nonverbal modality, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and questionnaires for behavioral disorders...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402042/mm1-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-1-month-total-disease-duration-and-early-pathologic-indicators
#11
Yasushi Iwasaki, Hiroko Kato, Tetsuo Ando, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida
A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) obtained on MRI showed extensive hyperintense regions in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Myoclonus was recognized, and the patient died 1 month after the onset; his condition did not reach the akinetic mutism state. The brain weighed 1300 g and showed no apparent atrophy. Extensive spongiform changes were observed in the cerebral neocortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex, but gliosis was mild or absent...
April 12, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401768/primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-presenting-with-severe-predominant-cognitive-impairment-and-psychiatric-symptoms-a-challenging-case
#12
Alberto Andrea Zambon, Giordano Cecchetti, Francesca Caso, Roberto Santangelo, Cristina Baldoli, Maria Grazia Natali Sora, Giancarlo Comi, Giuseppe Magnani, Vittorio Martinelli
Severe cognitive dysfunction is a frequent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), normally associated with later stages of the disease in adult population. Nevertheless, progressive cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances might rarely be the presenting and predominant symptom. In order to better characterize this peculiar phenotype of MS, we report on the case of a 38-year-old man who referred to our hospital with the suspect of hereditary leukodystrophy after 5 years of behavioral and mood abnormalities, global cognitive dysfunction, clumsiness, and very mild pyramidal and cerebellar signs...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396938/pravastatin-improves-postprandial-endothelial-dysfunction-and-hemorheological-deterioration-in-patients-with-effort-angina-pectoris
#13
Tomio Umemoto, Takanori Yasu, Kenshiro Arao, Nahoko Ikeda, Yasuto Horie, Hiroyuki Sugimura, Masanobu Kawakami, Hideo Fujita, Shin-Ichi Momomura
Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia may promote endothelial and hemorheological dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of pravastatin on endothelial function and hemorheology in patients with stable angina pectoris (AP) before and after eating a test meal. We recruited 26 patients with stable AP who had impaired glucose tolerance and mild dyslipidemia and six healthy men as controls to assess endothelial function and hemorheological behavior. In each group, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) during post-ischemic reactive hyperemia and obtained blood samples before and 2 h after the test meal...
April 10, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394038/hydrogen-sulfide-attenuates-homocysteine-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-neurochemical-alterations-by-improving-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-levels
#14
Mohit Kumar, Manish Modi, Rajat Sandhir
Hyperomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been suggested to be an endogenous modulator of neuronal functions. However, the effect and mechanisms involved in beneficial effect of H2 S has not been investigated in homocysteine (Hcy)-induced cognitive deficits. This study has been designed to evaluate the effect of exogenous H2 S on behavioral deficits and neurochemical alterations in HHcy animals. Hcy levels were significantly elevated in plasma, cortex, and hippocampus of Hcy administered animals...
April 10, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391289/sleep-to-lower-elevated-blood-pressure-a-randomized-controlled-trial-slept
#15
Emer R McGrath, Colin A Espie, Alice Power, Andrew W Murphy, John Newell, Caroline Kelly, Niamh Duffy, Patricia Gunning, Irene Gibson, Sophie Bostock, Martin J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Impaired sleep quality is common and associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), thought to be mediated through adverse effects on established vascular risk factors, particularly hypertension. We determined if a web-delivered sleep intervention (sleep-hygiene education, stimulus control, and cognitive behavioral therapy) reduces blood pressure compared to vascular risk factor education (standard care) alone. METHODS: Phase II randomized, blinded, controlled trial of 134 participants without CVD with mild sleep impairment and blood pressure 130-160/<110 mm Hg...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390879/peripheral-nerve-injury-impairs-the-ability-to-maintain-behavioural-flexibility-following-acute-stress-in-the-rat
#16
David Mor, Michael D Kendig, James W M Kang, Gizem Gemikonakli, Paul J Austin, Eszter Kalman, Laura H Corbit
Chronic neuropathic pain often leads to impaired cognition and reduced behavioural flexibility. This study used a rat model to investigate if a peripheral nerve injury, with or without an additional acute psychological stress, alters behavioural flexibility and goal directed behavior as measured by sensitivity to devaluation. Neuropathic pain was induced by a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. CCI, sham-injury and naïve rats were trained to press two levers for two rewards. In outcome devaluation tests, one of the rewards was devalued by pre-feeding it to satiety, immediately prior to an extinction test measuring responding on the two levers...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381654/disorder-of-executive-function-of-the-brain-after-head-injury-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-neuroimaging-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-implementation-of-administrative-support-in-japan
#17
Jun Shinoda, Yoshitaka Asano
The diagnotic criteria for disorder of the executive function of the brain (DEFB) as a syndrome of sequela were administratively established (ad-DEFB) in Japan in 2006 to support disabled patients whose impairment, limited to cognition (memory, attention, execution, and behavior), emerges after organic brain injuries regardless of physical deficits. However, some patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been excluded from receiving medico-social services. In particular, this tendency is more prominent in patients with mild TBI because no lesions are apparent on conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase...
April 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381488/increased-neuromuscular-consistency-in-gait-and-balance-after-partnered-dance-based-rehabilitation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Jessica L Allen, J Lucas McKay, Andrew Sawers, Madeleine Eve Hackney, Lena H Ting
Here we examined changes in muscle coordination associated with improved motor performance after partnered, dance-based rehabilitation in individuals with mild-moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Using motor module (a.k.a muscle synergy) analysis we identified changes in the modular control of overground walking and standing reactive balance that accompanied clinically meaningful improvements on behavioral measures of balance, gait, and disease symptoms after three-weeks of daily Adapted Tango classes...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380075/repeated-brief-isoflurane-anesthesia-during-early-postnatal-development-produces-negligible-changes-on-adult-behavior-in-male-mice
#19
Marko Rosenholm, Emmi Paro, Hanna Antila, Vootele Võikar, Tomi Rantamäki
Brain development is a complex process regulated by genetic programs and activity-dependent neuronal connectivity. Anesthetics profoundly alter neuronal excitability, and anesthesia during early brain development has been consistently associated with neuroapoptosis, altered synaptogenesis, and persistent behavioral abnormalities in experimental animals. However, the depth, and even more the duration and developmental time point(s) of exposure to anesthesia determine the neuropathological and long-term behavioral consequences of anesthetics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379504/low-risk-of-producing-an-opioid-use-disorder-in-primary-care-by-prescribing-opioids-to-prescreened-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#20
Martin D Cheatle, Rollin M Gallagher, Charles P O'Brien
Objective. : To examine the risk of developing aberrant behaviors that might lead to a substance use disorder (addiction) when prescribing opioids for the relief of chronic noncancer pain in primary care settings. Design. : Longitudinal, prospective, descriptive design with repeated measures. Setting. : Private community-based internal medicine and family medicine clinics. Subjects. : Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain...
March 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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