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Mild behavioral impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220627/neuropsychological-functioning-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-insomnia-randomized-to-cbt-i-or-control-group
#1
Erin Cassidy-Eagle, Allison Siebern, Lisa Unti, Jill Glassman, Ruth O'Hara
OBJECTIVES: Improving the sleep of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a first step in discovering whether interventions directed at modifying this risk factor also have the potential to alter the cognitive decline trajectory. METHODS: A six-session, adapted version of a cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) was administered to older adults (N = 28; 14 per group) with MCI across two residential facilities. Participants were randomly assigned to either the sleep intervention or an active control group and completed a neuropsychological battery at three time points (e...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206232/behavioral-testing-of-mice-exposed-to-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields-indicates-mild-memory-impairment
#2
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Matti Viluksela, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Mikael Marttinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Jonne Naarala, Heikki Tanila, Jukka Juutilainen
Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204426/burden-among-family-caregivers-of-dementia-in-the-oldest-old-an-exploratory-study
#3
Khin Khin Win, Mei Sian Chong, Noorhazlina Ali, Mark Chan, Wee Shiong Lim
Background: With >85 years, the fastest growing age segment in developed countries, dementia in the oldest-old is projected to increase exponentially. Being older, caregivers of dementia in oldest-old (CDOO) may experience unique challenges compared with younger-age groups. Thus, we aim to explore demographic characteristics and burden pattern among CDOO. Methods: We studied 458 family caregiver-patient dyads attending an outpatient memory clinic. We classified patients into three age-groups: <75, 75-84, and ≥85 years...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201866/getting-lost-behavior-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cognitive-and-anatomical-model
#4
Chathuri Yatawara, Daryl Renick Lee, Levinia Lim, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
Background: Getting lost behavior (GLB) in the elderly is believed to involve poor top-down modulation of visuospatial processing, by impaired executive functions. However, since healthy elderly and elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a different pattern of cognitive decline, it remains unclear whether this hypothesis can explain GLB in dementia. Objective: We sought to identify whether poor executive functions and working memory modulate the relationship between visuospatial processing and prevalence of GLB in healthy elderly and patients with AD...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196323/local-inhibition-of-perk-enhances-memory-and-reverses-age-related-deterioration-of-cognitive-and-neuronal-properties
#5
Vijendra Sharma, Hadile Ounallah-Saad, Darpan Chakraborty, Mohammad Hleihil, Rapita Sood, Iliana Barrera, Efrat Edry, Sailendrakumar Kolatt Chandran, Shlomo Ben Tabou de Leon, Hanoch Kaphzan, Kobi Rosenblum
Protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is one of four known kinases that respond to cellular stress by deactivating the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) or other signal transduction cascades. Recently, both eIF2α and its kinases were found to play a role in normal and pathological brain function. Here, we show that reduction of either the amount or the activity of PERK, specifically in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in young adult male mice, enhances neuronal excitability and improves cognitive function...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195773/cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorders-implications-for-emotion
#6
REVIEW
Isabela M M Lima, Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Prominent cognitive deficits have been documented in bipolar disorder, and multiple studies suggest that these deficits can be observed among non-affected first-degree relatives of those with bipolar disorder. Although there is variability in the degree of cognitive deficits, these deficits are robustly relevant for functional outcomes. A separate literature documents clear difficulties in emotionality, emotion regulation, and emotion-relevant impulsivity within bipolar disorder, and demonstrates that these emotion-relevant variables are also central to outcome...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188856/stimulus-locked-lateralized-readiness-potential-and-performance-useful-markers-for-differentiating-between-amnestic-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
S Cid-Fernández, M Lindín, F Díaz
BACKGROUND: The findings of previous studies, in which event-related potentials (ERPs) related to stimulus evaluation were measured, do not fully explain the behavioral decline observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; prodromal stage of Alzheimer's Disease). OBJECTIVES: Motor ERPs were evaluated in this study with the aim of discovering complementary explanations and identifying aMCI biomarkers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186278/dependence-levels-as-interim-clinical-milestones-along-the-continuum-of-alzheimer-s-disease-18-month-results-from-the-geras-observational-study
#8
K Kahle-Wrobleski, J S Andrews, M Belger, W Ye, S Gauthier, D M Rentz, D Galasko
BACKGROUND: While functional loss forms part of the current diagnostic criteria used to identify dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, the gradual and progressive nature of the disease makes it difficult to recognize clinically relevant signposts that could be helpful in making treatment and management decisions. Having previously observed a significant relationship between stages of functional dependence (the level of assistance patients require consequent to Alzheimer's disease deficits, derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living Scale) and cognitive severity, we investigated whether measures of functional dependence could be utilized to identify clinical milestones of Alzheimer's disease progression...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184909/gut-permeability-and-glucose-absorption-are-affected-at-early-stages-of-graft-rejection-in-a-small-bowel-transplant-rat-model
#9
Pablo Stringa, David Romanin, Natalia Lausada, Rodrigo Papa Gobbi, Carolina Zanuzzi, Pedro Martín, Juan Cruz Abate, Ana Cabanne, Nathalie Arnal, Leandro Vecchio, Verónica Milesi, Enrique Portiansky, Gabriel Gondolesi, Martin Rumbo
Background: Intestinal transplantation (ITx) faces many challenges due to the complexity of surgery and to the multiple immunological reactions that lead to the necessity of rigorous follow-up for early detection of acute cellular rejection (ACR). Our aim was to determine the kinetics of ACR using an experimental ITx model, with emphasis in the characterization of the process using different approaches, including the use of functional assays of absorptive and barrier function. Methods: ITx in rats conducting serial sampling was performed...
November 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180344/behavioral-interventions-to-prevent-or-delay-dementia-protocol-for-a-randomized-comparative-effectiveness-study
#10
Glenn Smith, Melanie Chandler, Dona Ec Locke, Julie Fields, Vaishali Phatak, Julia Crook, Sherrie Hanna, Angela Lunde, Miranda Morris, Michelle Graff-Radford, Christine A Hughes, Susan Lepore, Andrea Cuc, Maria Caselli, Duane Hurst, Jennifer Wethe, Andrea Francone, Jeanne Eilertsen, Pauline Lucas, Charlene Hoffman Snyder, LeeAnn Kuang, Marigrace Becker, Pamela Dean, Nancy Diehl, Marvin Lofquist, Shirley Vanderhook, Diana Myles, Denise Cochran
BACKGROUND: Currently, people at risk for dementia and their caregivers are confronted with confusing choices about what behavioral interventions are most effective. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine which empirically supported behavioral interventions most impact the outcomes highly valued by patients with mild cognitive impairment and their partners. METHODS: This protocol describes a comparative effectiveness trial targeting 300 participants with mild cognitive impairment and their study partners...
November 27, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179735/ficus-sycomorus-extract-reversed-behavioral-impairment-and-brain-oxidative-stress-induced-by-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-in-rats
#11
Harquin Simplice Harquin Foyet, Serge Tchinda Deffo, Pascaline Koagne Yewo, Iulia Antioch, Stéphane Zingue, Emmanuel Acha Asongalem, Pierre Kamtchouing, Alin Ciobica
BACKGROUND: Stress, regardless of its nature is nowadays recognized as one of the major risk factors for neuropsychiatric diseases, such as mood and anxiety disorders. The brain compared with other organs is more vulnerable to oxidative damage mainly due to its high rate of oxygen consumption, abundant lipid content, and relative insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the identification of neural mechanisms underlying resistance and vulnerability to stress is of crucial importance in understanding the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and in developing new treatments, since the existing ones are for several reasons subject to increasing limitations...
November 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175194/brain-signature-of-mild-stages-of-cognitive-and-behavioral-impairment-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Lucas M T Branco, Thiago J R de Rezende, Caroline de O Roversi, Tamires Zanao, Raphael F Casseb, Brunno M de Campos, Marcondes C França
We aimed to assess the brain signature of cognitive and behavioral impairment in C9orf72-negative non-demented ALS patients. The study included 50 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients (out of 75 initially recruited) and 38 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted and spin-echo diffusion tensor images were acquired in a 3T MRI scanner. The multi atlas-based analysis protocol and the FreeSurfer tool were employed for gray matter assessment, and fiber tractography for white matter evaluation. Cognitively impaired ALS patients (n = 12) had bilateral amygdalae and left thalamic volumetric reduction compared to non-impaired ALS patients...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173738/therapist-reported-features-of-exposure-tasks-that-predict-differential-treatment-outcomes-for-youth-with-anxiety
#13
Tara S Peris, Nicole E Caporino, Sarah O'Rourke, Philip C Kendall, John T Walkup, Anne Marie Albano, R Lindsey Bergman, James T McCracken, Boris Birmaher, Golda S Ginsburg, Dara Sakolsky, John Piacentini, Scott N Compton
OBJECTIVE: Exposure tasks are recognized widely as a key component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child and adolescent anxiety. However, little research has examined specific exposure characteristics that predict outcomes for youth with anxiety and that may guide its application in therapy. METHOD: This study draws on a sample of 279 children and adolescents (48.4% male; 79.6% white) with a principal anxiety disorder who received 14 sessions of CBT, either alone or in combination with medication, through the Child/adolescent Anxiety Multimodal treatment Study (CAMS)...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173217/behavioral-consequences-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-preschoolers
#14
Charlotte Gagner, Catherine Landry-Roy, Annie Bernier, Jocelyn Gravel, Miriam H Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term disability in children and adolescents worldwide. Amongst the wide array of consequences known to occur after pediatric TBI, behavioral impairments are among the most widespread and may particularly affect children who sustain injury early in the course of development. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems 6 months after preschool (i...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#15
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162036/sorafenib-treatment-for-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-with-diffuse-lung-metastases-in-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-case-report
#16
Yousuke Higuchi, Takayuki Motoki, Hisashi Ishida, Kiichiro Kanamitsu, Kana Washio, Takanori Oyama, Takuo Noda, Yasuko Tsurumaru, Ayumi Okada, Hirokazu Tsukahara, Akira Shimada
BACKGROUND: Pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma frequently presents with lymph node involvement and distant metastases. Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, has been used to treat radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy-refractory thyroid carcinoma in adults; however, pediatric experience is limited. Medical procedures and hospitalization for children with autism spectrum disorder may be challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual impairment presented with dyspnea on exertion with thyroid carcinoma and diffuses lung metastases...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160740/effects-of-regular-physical-activity-on-the-cognitive-performance-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review
#17
Natalie Podolski, Klara Brixius, Hans G Predel, Christian Brinkmann
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline has been shown to be associated with long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review analyzes the present literature to ascertain the role of regular physical activity (PA) for the functioning of the diabetic brain. METHODS: PubMed was systematically searched for relevant publications up to July 2017. RESULTS: Four cross-sectional, one longitudinal observational, and nine interventional studies with a total of ∼7000 T2DM subjects are included in this review...
December 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160141/effects-of-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-on-cerebral-vascular-histopathological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-rats
#18
Uylissa A Rodriguez, Yaping Zeng, Donald James Deyo, Margaret O Parsley, Bridget E Hawkins, Donald S Prough, Douglas DeWitt
To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for two hrs post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156360/does-the-15-item-geriatric-depression-scale-function-differently-in-old-people-with-different-levels-of-cognitive-functioning
#19
Francesca Chiesi, Caterina Primi, Martina Pigliautile, Marta Baroni, Sara Ercolani, Lucia Paolacci, Virginia Boccardi, Patrizia Mecocci
BACKGROUND: The 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is widely employed to screen depression among elderly but little is known about the scale functioning in cognitively impaired individuals when compared to normal ones. The aim of the current study is to investigate Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across groups of older people that differ in terms of cognitive functioning applying Item Response Theory (IRT)-based analyses. METHODS: Data from an Italian multi-centric clinical-based study on cognitive impairment and dementia in old people were employed (N = 1903; Age: M = 77...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#20
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
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