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Empathy and frontal lobe

Amara Gul, Hira Ahmad
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation focuses brain-behavior relationship which highlights interaction between psychological and neurobiological factors for better patient care. There is a missing link in the literature about socio-cognitive aspects of frontal lobe epilepsy. Our objective was to examine prefrontal cortical functioning (PCF) and empathic abilities in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Further, we analyzed whether any relationship between components of dispositional empathy and PCF exists in patients with FLE...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA)...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Vanessa Pera-Guardiola, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Iolanda Batalla, David Kosson, José M Menchón, Josep Pifarré, Javier Bosque, Narcís Cardoner, Carles Soriano-Mas
Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits...
2016: PloS One
Marie Challita
In this paper, I start by suggesting a new definition of empathy. I go on by answering the question of "Who feels empathy?". I list some examples of people, illustrating how the level of feeling empathy differs from one category of people to another. It's actually almost everybody who feels empathy: the baby, the good Samaritan and the other two priests, the tax evader, the psychopath, the judges, juries, lawyers, the politician, the bully adolescent, the therapist, etc.… Then I explain, "Why empathy is experienced/felt differently?", by drawing on some neuroscience data, and some literature in psychology or philosophy along with some personal suggestions or assumptions...
December 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Ying Hu, Yubao Jiang, Panpan Hu, Huijuan Ma, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy frequently experience cognitive impairments, including impairments in social cognition. However, there is a lack of direct examinations of the affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in such patients. The neural correlates remain to be identified. The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairments in different aspects of social cognition including empathy, emotion recognition, and Theory of Mind (ToM) in patients with epilepsy...
April 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Gianina Toller, Babu Adhimoolam, Katherine P Rankin, Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Martin Kurthen, Hennric Jokeit
Refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent focal epilepsy and is often accompanied by deficits in social cognition including emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy. Consistent with the neuronal networks that are crucial for normal social-cognitive processing, these impairments have been associated with functional changes in fronto-temporal regions. However, although atrophy in unilateral MTLE also affects regions of the temporal and frontal lobes that underlie social cognition, little is known about the structural correlates of social-cognitive deficits in refractory MTLE...
November 2015: Neuropsychologia
Sabrina Realmuto, Leila Zummo, Chiara Cerami, Luigi Agrò, Alessandra Dodich, Nicola Canessa, Andrea Zizzo, Brigida Fierro, Ornella Daniele
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite an extensive literature on cognitive impairments in focal and generalized epilepsy, only a few number of studies specifically explored social cognition disorders in epilepsy syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate social cognition abilities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (21 patients with TLE and 18 patients with IGE) and 21 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited...
June 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Monica Mazza, Daniela Tempesta, Maria Chiara Pino, Anna Nigri, Alessia Catalucci, Veronica Guadagni, Massimo Gallucci, Giuseppe Iaria, Michele Ferrara
The aim of this study is to evaluate the empathic ability and its functional brain correlates in post-traumatic stress disorder subjects (PTSD). Seven PTSD subjects and ten healthy controls, all present in the L'Aquila area during the earthquake of the April 2009, underwent fMRI during which they performed a modified version of the Multifaceted Empathy Test. PTSD patients showed impairments in implicit and explicit emotional empathy, but not in cognitive empathy. Brain responses during cognitive empathy showed an increased activation in patients compared to controls in the right medial frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus...
April 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Paola Sessa, Federica Meconi, Shihui Han
Models on how perceptual and cognitive information on others' mental states are treated by the cognitive architecture are often framed as duplex models considering two independent systems. In the context of the neuroscience of empathy analogous systems have been described. Using event-related potentials (i.e., ERPs) technique, we tested the hypothesis of temporal dissociation of two functional systems. We implemented a design in which perceptual (i.e., painful or neutral facial expressions) and contextual (i...
2014: Scientific Reports
Lindsay D Oliver, Derek G V Mitchell, Isabel Dziobek, Julia MacKinley, Kristy Coleman, Katherine P Rankin, Elizabeth C Finger
OBJECTIVES: Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli...
January 2015: Neuropsychologia
Elisa Di Rosa, Gianni Sorarù, Johann Roland Kleinbub, Vincenzo Calvo, Antonino Vallesi, Giorgia Querin, Sonia Marcato, Irene Grasso, Arianna Palmieri
Recent studies have described brain involvement, mainly at frontal level, in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a rare adult-onset motor neuron disease caused by a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The aim of our research was to investigate the poorly characterized neuropsychological and psychological profile of these patients, on the basis of previous literature. We administered a neuropsychological screening and tests relating to cognitive and affective empathy, attributed to the theory of mind (ToM) framework, to 20 males with SBMA, and to age- and education-matched controls...
February 2015: Journal of Neurology
Brick Johnstone, Dan Cohen, Kirk R Bryant, Bret Glass, Shawn E Christ
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a model that hypothesizes that empathy is associated with decreased right parietal lobe (RPL)-related self-orientation (i.e., increased selflessness), which allows individuals to more easily empathize with others. METHODS: HASH(0x4c222f8) PARTICIPANTS: Thirty one individuals with documented neuroradiological abnormalities due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for clinical evaluations. MEASURES: Cerebral integrity was measured with both functional (i...
May 2015: Neuropsychology
Johannes Rodrigues, Natalie Ulrich, Johannes Hewig
In the dictator game, a proposer can share a certain amount of money between himself or herself and a receiver, who has no opportunity of influencing the offer. Rational choice theory predicts that dictators keep all money for themselves. But people often are offering money to receivers, despite their opportunity to maximize their own profit and therefore showing altruistic behavior. In this study, we investigated the influence of the altruism of the dictator, the anonymity of the decision and the income of the receiver on the offer made by a dictator...
April 2015: Social Neuroscience
Rachael D Rubin, Patrick D Watson, Melissa C Duff, Neal J Cohen
Successful behavior requires actively acquiring and representing information about the environment and people, and manipulating and using those acquired representations flexibly to optimally act in and on the world. The frontal lobes have figured prominently in most accounts of flexible or goal-directed behavior, as evidenced by often-reported behavioral inflexibility in individuals with frontal lobe dysfunction. Here, we propose that the hippocampus also plays a critical role by forming and reconstructing relational memory representations that underlie flexible cognition and social behavior...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chiyoko Kobayashi Frank, Simon Baron-Cohen, Barbara L Ganzel
Increasing research evidence suggests that women are more advanced than men in pragmatic language comprehension and Theory of Mind (ToM), which is a cognitive component of empathy. We measured the hemodynamic responses of men and women while they performed a second-order false-belief (FB) task and a coherent story (CS) task. During the FB condition relative to the baseline (unlinked sentences [US]), we found convergent activity in ToM network regions, such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) bilaterally and precuneus, in both sexes...
January 15, 2015: NeuroImage
Alexander Kurz, Carolin Kurz, Kathryn Ellis, Nicola T Lautenschlager
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the clinical manifestation of progressive nerve cell loss in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. It represents the second most frequent form of early-onset dementia. The two major types of FTD are determined by the localisation of the underlying pathology. The behaviour variant is characterised by disinhibition, socially inappropriate manners, loss of empathy, blunting of affect and hyperorality. Key features of the language variant are either non-fluent effortful speech and grammatical errors or impaired word finding and loss of meaning of words and objects...
October 2014: Maturitas
Yubao Jiang, Ying Hu, Yu Wang, Nong Zhou, Li Zhu, Kai Wang
Patients with epilepsy have deficits in social cognition. In this study, we examined the changes in empathy and eye emotion recognition using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and eye emotion recognition tasks. Forty-two patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and 47 healthy controls were involved. The eye emotion recognition and cognitive empathy abilities of the patients with IGE were impaired, but the affective empathy was intact. The cognitive empathy performance of the patients with IGE was positively correlated with their performance in sadness recognition, MoCA, verbal fluency, and the Stroop test...
August 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jorge Moll, Julie H Weingartner, Patricia Bado, Rodrigo Basilio, João R Sato, Bruno R Melo, Ivanei E Bramati, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Roland Zahn
In Ridley Scott's film "Blade Runner", empathy-detection devices are employed to measure affiliative emotions. Despite recent neurocomputational advances, it is unknown whether brain signatures of affiliative emotions, such as tenderness/affection, can be decoded and voluntarily modulated. Here, we employed multivariate voxel pattern analysis and real-time fMRI to address this question. We found that participants were able to use visual feedback based on decoded fMRI patterns as a neurofeedback signal to increase brain activation characteristic of tenderness/affection relative to pride, an equally complex control emotion...
2014: PloS One
Wanqing Li, Xiaoqin Mai, Chao Liu
The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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