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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053590/land-use-regression-modeling-of-outdoor-noise-exposure-in-informal-settlements-in-western-cape-south-africa
#1
Chloé Sieber, Martina S Ragettli, Mark Brink, Olaniyan Toyib, Roslyn Baatjies, Apolline Saucy, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Martin Röösli
In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052387/-climate-change-impacts-on-yield-of-cordyceps-sinensis-and-research-on-yield-prediction-model-of-c-sinensis
#2
Shou-Dong Zhu, Lu-Qi Huang, Lan-Ping Guo, Xing-Tian Ma, Qing-Xiu Hao, Zhi-Yong Le, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Guang Yang, Yan Zhang, Mei-Lan Chen
Cordyceps sinensis is a Chinese unique precious herbal material, its genuine producing areas covering Naqu, Changdu in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Yushu in Qinghai province and other regions. In recent 10 years, C. sinensis resources is decreasing as a result of the blindly and excessively perennial dug. How to rationally protect, develop and utilize of the valuable resources of C. sinensis has been referred to an important field of research on C. sinensis. The ecological environment and climate change trend of Qinghai Tibet plateau happens prior to other regions, which means that the distribution and evolution of C...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047880/fiber-coupled-led-gas-sensor-and-its-application-to-online-monitoring-of-ecoefficient-dielectric-insulation-gases-in-high-voltage-circuit-breakers
#3
Axel Kramer, Daniel Over, Patrick Stoller, Thomas A Paul
Novel dielectric insulation gases used as alternatives to sulfur hexafluoride in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) include several mixtures containing fluorinated organic compounds. We developed a fiber-optic analyzer enabling concentration measurement of fluoroketones used in medium- and high-voltage switchgear applications by ABB, with concurrent compensation of disturbing effects caused by dust and dirt. The sensor enables measurements in GIS and even in operating high-voltage circuit breakers. The online availability of concentration readings of fluoroketones is important for development tests, but can also be applied for monitoring or diagnostics of field installations...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046972/quantitative-assessment-of-urmia-lake-water-using-spaceborne-multisensor-data-and-3d-modeling
#4
Mehrdad Jeihouni, Ara Toomanian, Seyed Kazem Alavipanah, Saeid Hamzeh
Preserving aquatic ecosystems and water resources management is crucial in arid and semi-arid regions for anthropogenic reasons and climate change. In recent decades, the water level of the largest lake in Iran, Urmia Lake, has decreased sharply, which has become a major environmental concern in Iran and the region. The efforts to revive the lake concerns the amount of water required for restoration. This study monitored and assessed Urmia Lake status over a period of 30 years (1984 to 2014) using remotely sensed data...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043763/status-report-geographic-retail-food-environment-measures-for-use-in-public-health
#5
Ahalya Mahendra, Jane Y Polsky, Éric Robitaille, Marc Lefebvre, Tina McBrien, Leia M Minaker
The Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) Core Indicators Work Group standardizes definitions and calculation methods for over 120 public health indicators to enhance accurate and standardized community health status reporting across public health units in Ontario. The Built Environment Subgroup is a multi-disciplinary group made up of planners, researchers, policy analysts, registered dietitians, geographic information systems (GIS) analysts and epidemiologists. The Subgroup selected and operationalized a suite of objective, standardized indicators intended to help public health units and regional health authorities assess their community retail food environments...
October 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040200/geospatial-mapping-can-be-used-to-identify-geographic-areas-and-social-factors-associated-with-intentional-injury-as-targets-for-prevention-efforts-distinct-to-a-given-community
#6
C H Lasecki, F C Mujica, S Stutsman, A Y Williams, L Ding, J D Simmons, S B Brevard
BACKGROUND: Geographic information systems (GIS) have proven effective in studying intentional injury in various communities; however, GIS is not implemented widely for use by level I trauma centers in understanding patient populations. Our study of intentional injury combines the capabilities of GIS with a level I trauma center registry to determine the spatial distribution of victims and correlated socioeconomic factors. METHODS: 1,099 out of 3,109 total incidents of intentional trauma in the trauma registry from 2005-2015 had sufficient street address information to be mapped in GIS...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032476/the-7th-italian-supplement-a-selection-from-the-italian-spine-society-and-scoliosis-study-group-sicv-gis
#7
EDITORIAL
Marco Crostelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031108/accessibility-of-fast-food-outlets-is-associated-with-fast-food-intake-a-study-in-the-capital-region-of-denmark
#8
Kamille Almer Bernsdorf, Cathrine Juel Lau, Anne Helms Andreasen, Ulla Toft, Maja Lykke, Charlotte Glümer
Literature suggests that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast food options may show higher levels of fast food intake. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between GIS-located fast food outlets (FFOs) and self-reported fast food intake among adults (+ 16 years) in the Capital Region of Denmark (N = 48,305). Accessibility of FFOs was measured both as proximity (distance to nearest FFO) and density (number of FFOs within a 1km network buffer around home)...
October 11, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029691/geo-spatial-reporting-for-monitoring-of-household-immunization-coverage-through-mobile-phones-findings-from-a-feasibility-study
#9
A M Kazi, M Ali, Ayub K, H Kalimuddin, K Zubair, A N Kazi, Artani A, S A Ali
BACKGROUND: The addition of Global Positioning System (GPS) to a mobile phone makes it a very powerful tool for surveillance and monitoring coverage of health programs. This technology enables transfer of data directly into computer applications and cross-references to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) maps, which enhances assessment of coverage and trends. OBJECTIVE: Utilization of these systems in low and middle income countries is currently limited, particularly for immunization coverage assessments and polio vaccination campaigns...
November 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029345/evacuating-people-and-their-pets-older-floridians-need-for-and-proximity-to-pet-friendly-shelters
#10
Rachel Douglas, Ayberk Kocatepe, Anne E Barrett, Eren Erman Ozguven, Clayton Gumber
Objectives: Pets influence evacuation decisions, but little is known about pet-friendly emergency shelters' availability or older adults' need for them. Our study addresses this issue, focusing on the most densely populated area of Florida (Miami-Dade)-the state with the oldest population and greatest hurricane susceptibility. Method: We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to identify the shortest paths to pet-friendly shelters, based on distance and congested and uncongested travel times-taking into account the older population's spatial distribution...
October 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029089/geostatistics-and-geographic-information-system-to-analyze-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-diversity-of-anastrepha-species-diptera-tephritidae-the-effect-of-forest-fragments-in-an-urban-area
#11
A G Garcia, M R Araujo, K Uramoto, J M M Walder, R A Zucchi
Fruit flies are among the most damaging insect pests of commercial fruit in Brazil. It is important to understand the landscape elements that may favor these flies. In the present study, spatial data from surveys of species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in an urban area with forest fragments were analyzed, using geostatistics and Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the diversity of insects and evaluate how the forest fragments drive the spatial patterns. The results indicated a high diversity of species associated with large fragments, and a trend toward lower diversity in the more urbanized area, as the fragment sizes decreased...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026794/nitrite-and-nitrate-concentrations-in-the-drinking-groundwater-of-shiraz-city-south-central-iran-by-statistical-models
#12
Ahmad Badee Nezhad, Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh, Mahdi Farzadkia, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Mehrab Sayadi, Amir Hossein Davoudian Talab
BACKGROUND: Nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) contaminations of groundwater are considered as one of the major health challenges in recent decades. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the drinking groundwater of Shiraz, South-central Iran by statistical models. METHODS: From 43 active wells of Shiraz drinking water supplies, 344 samples were collected in the high and low precipitation seasons from 2010 to 2014. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were tested by a DR6000 spectrophotometer, and the results were analyzed by different software, including SPSS ver...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026456/geographic-information-systems-usability-perception-and-preferences-of-public-health-professionals
#13
Awatef A Ben Ramadan, Jeannette Jackson-Thompson, Suzanne A Boren
BACKGROUND: Analyzing and visualizing health-related databases using Geographic Information Systems (GISs) becomes essential in controlling many public health problems. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perception and preferences of public health professionals (PHPs) about the usability of GISs in public health field. METHODS: For this scoping review, the investigators searched Medline Ovid, PubMed, IEEE, Scopus, and GeoBase databases. A total of 105 articles were identified...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020965/epidemiological-link-of-a-major-cholera-outbreak-in-greater-accra-region-of-ghana-2014
#14
Kennedy Ohene-Adjei, Ernest Kenu, Delia Akosua Bandoh, Prince Nii Ossah Addo, Charles Lwanga Noora, Priscillia Nortey, Edwin Andrew Afari
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains an important public health challenge globally. Several pandemics have occurred in different parts of the world and have been epidemiologically linked by different researchers to illustrate how the cases were spread and how they were related to index cases. Even though the risk factors associated with the 2014 cholera outbreak were investigated extensively, the link between index cases and the source of infection was not investigated to help break the transmission process...
October 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020018/probabilistic-numerical-assessment-of-pyroclastic-current-hazard-at-campi-flegrei-and-naples-city-multi-vei-scenarios-as-a-tool-for-full-scale-risk-management
#15
Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo, Danilo M Palladino, Lucia Pappalardo, Sergio Rossano
The Campi Flegrei volcanic field (Italy) poses very high risk to the highly urbanized Neapolitan area. Eruptive history was dominated by explosive activity producing pyroclastic currents (hereon PCs; acronym for Pyroclastic Currents) ranging in scale from localized base surges to regional flows. Here we apply probabilistic numerical simulation approaches to produce PC hazard maps, based on a comprehensive spectrum of flow properties and vent locations. These maps are incorporated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provide all probable Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scenarios from different source vents in the caldera, relevant for risk management planning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018540/efficacy-of-individualised-diets-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Ather Ali, Theresa R Weiss, Douglas McKee, Alisa Scherban, Sumiya Khan, Maxine R Fields, Damian Apollo, Wajahat Z Mehal
BACKGROUND: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are often placed on diets guided by food intolerance assays, although these have not been validated. We assessed the effects of individualised diets in patients with IBS guided by a leucocyte activation test. METHODS: This is a parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial of 58 adults with IBS seen at an academic health centre in Northeast USA. Peripheral venous blood was analysed using a leucocyte activation test; individual foods were reported to produce positive or negative results...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990123/chemical-composition-and-trophic-state-of-shallow-saline-steppe-lakes-in-central-asia-north-kazakhstan
#17
Emil Boros, Laura Jurecska, Enikő Tatár, Lajos Vörös, Marina Kolpakova
The purpose of this study was to identify the prevailing chemical composition and trophic state of the shallow saline steppe lakes of North Kazakhstan along a wide size range (< 1-454 km(2)) and salinity gradient (2-322 g L(-1)) on a large spatial scale (1000 km), taking into account the potential effects of human disturbances. Water depth, Secchi disk transparency, temperature, pH, electric conductivity, major ions, total dissolved solids, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus, and chlorophyll a were measured...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988095/assessing-the-resilience-of-urban-areas-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-application-in-greater-paris
#18
Jean-Marie Cariolet, Morgane Colombert, Marc Vuillet, Youssef Diab
Recent studies report that outdoor air pollution will become the main environmental cause of premature death over the next few decades (OECD, 2012; WHO, 2014; World Bank, 2016). Cities are considered hot spots and urban populations are particularly exposed. There is therefore an urgent need to adapt urban systems and urban design to tackle this issue. While most European cities have introduced measures to reduce emissions, action is still required to reduce concentrations and exposure, and a holistic approach to urban design is badly needed...
October 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#19
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985736/spatial-clustering-of-fatal-and-non-fatal-suicide-in-new-south-wales-australia-implications-for-evidence-based-prevention
#20
Michelle Torok, Paul Konings, Philip J Batterham, Helen Christensen
BACKGROUND: Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources...
October 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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