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Lucia Russo, Paola Russo, Constantinos I Siettos
Based on complex network theory, we propose a computational methodology which addresses the spatial distribution of fuel breaks for the inhibition of the spread of wildland fires on heterogeneous landscapes. This is a two-level approach where the dynamics of fire spread are modeled as a random Markov field process on a directed network whose edge weights are determined by a Cellular Automata model that integrates detailed GIS, landscape and meteorological data. Within this framework, the spatial distribution of fuel breaks is reduced to the problem of finding network nodes (small land patches) which favour fire propagation...
2016: PloS One
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Alberto Larocca, Roberto Moro Visconti, Michele Marconi
BACKGROUND: Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. METHODS: GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1) malaria affects the largest number of people; (2) the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact...
October 24, 2016: Malaria Journal
Sushmita Das, Rakesh Mandal, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Neena Verma, Krishna Pandey, Ashok Kumar Ghosh, Sreekant Kesari, Ashish Kumar, Bidyut Purkait, Chandra Sekhar Lal, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jiabo Chen, Fayun Li, Zhiping Fan, Yanjie Wang
Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009-2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May-October, February-April and November-January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tania M Alarcon Falconi, Alexandra V Kulinkina, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Mark R Francis, Deepthi Kattula, Rajiv Sarkar, Honorine Ward, Gagandeep Kang, Vinohar Balraj, Elena N Naumova
Municipal water sources in India have been found to be highly contaminated, with further water quality deterioration occurring during household storage. Quantifying water quality deterioration requires knowledge about the exact source tap and length of water storage at the household, which is not usually known. This study presents a methodology to link source and household stored water, and explores the effects of spatial assumptions on the association between tap-to-household water quality deterioration and enteric infections in two semi-urban slums of Vellore, India...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Maria Valdivia-Garcia, Paul Weir, Zoe Frogbrook, David W Graham, David Werner
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
António Dos Anjos Luis, Pedro Cabral
BACKGROUND: Access to healthcare services has an essential role in promoting health equity and quality of life. Knowing where the places are and how much of the population is covered by the existing healthcare network is important information that can be extracted from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and used in effective healthcare planning. The aim of this study is to measure the geographic accessibility of population to existing Healthcare Centers (HC), and to estimate the number of persons served by the health network of Mozambique...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ulrike Stentzel, Jens Piegsa, Daniel Fredrich, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Neeltje van den Berg
BACKGROUND: The accessibility of medical care facilities in sparsely populated rural regions is relevant especially for elderly people which often represent a large segment of the population in such regions. Elderly people have higher morbidity risks and a higher demand for medical care. Although travelling with private cars is the dominating traffic mode in rural regions, accessibility by public transport is increasingly important especially because of limited mobility of elderly people...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
David Barbic, Brian Klinkenberg, Brian Grunau, Jim Christenson
OBJECTIVE: No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
M S Kabir, M A Salam, D N R Paul, M I Hossain, N M F Rahman, Abdullah Aziz, M A Latif
Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Maria Leonor Galindo-Marquez, Carlos Julian García-Loaiza, Juan Alejandro Sabogal-Roman, Santiago Marin-Loaiza, Andrés F Ayala, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Carlos O Lozada-Riascos, Esteban Parra-Valencia, Jorge H Rojas-Palacios, Eduardo López, Pío López, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVE: Geographical information systems (GIS) use for development of epidemiological maps in tropical diseases is increasingly frequently utilized. Here, we apply this technique to map the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Colombia. METHODS: Surveillance cases data of the ongoing epidemic of ZIKV in Valle del Cauca department and its capital, Cali (2015-2016), were used to estimate cumulated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population) to develop the first maps in the department and it municipalities...
October 14, 2016: Infection
Erin Jo Tiedeken, Alexandre Tahar, Brendan McHugh, Neil J Rowan
Pollution of European receiving waters with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as with 17-beta-estradiol (a natural estrogenic hormone, E2), along with pharmaceutically-active compounds diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug, DCL) and 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (a synthetic estrogenic hormone, EE2)) is a ubiquitous phenomenon. These three CECs were added to the EU watch list of emerging substances to be monitoring in 2013, which was updated in 2015 to comprise 10 substances/groups of substances in the field of water policy...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qiang Zheng, Yanting Liu, Christian Jeanthon, Rui Zhang, Wenxin Lin, Jicheng Yao, Nianzhi Jiao
: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are thought to be important players in oceanic carbon and energy cycling in the euphotic zone of the ocean. The genus Citromicrobium, widely found in oligotrophic oceans, is a member of marine alphaproteobacterial AAPB. Nine Citromicrobium strains isolated from the South China Sea, the Mediterranean Sea or the tropical South Atlantic were found to harbor identical 16S rRNA sequences. The sequencing of their genomes revealed high synteny in major regions...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
George D Bathrellos, Hariklia D Skilodimou, Konstantinos Chousianitis, Ahmed M Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan
Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A Claesson, D Fredman, L Svensson, M Ringh, J Hollenberg, P Nordberg, M Rosenqvist, T Djarv, S Österberg, J Lennartsson, Y Ban
BACKGROUND: The use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) prior to EMS arrival can increase 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) significantly. Drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can fly with high velocity and potentially transport devices such as AEDs to the site of OHCAs. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the feasibility of a drone system in decreasing response time and delivering an AED. METHODS: Data of Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates from historical OHCA in Stockholm County was used in a model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to find suitable placements and visualize response times for the use of an AED equipped drone...
October 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Dong-Mug Kang, Jong-Eun Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Hyun-Hee Lee, Young-Sik Hwang, Young-Ki Kim, Yong-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Because of the long asbestos-related disease latencies (10-50 years), detection, diagnosis, and epidemiologic studies require asbestos exposure history. However, environmental asbestos exposure source (EAES) data are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To survey the available data for past EAES and supplement these data with interviews. METHODS: We constructed an EAES database using a literature review and interviews of experts, former traders, and workers...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Nathan Rabinovitch, Colby D Adams, Matthew Strand, Kirsten Koehler, John Volckens
BACKGROUND: Most particulate matter (PM) and health studies in children with asthma use exposures averaged over the course of a day and do not take into account spatial/temporal variability that presumably occurs as children move from home, into transit and then school microenvironments. The objectives of this work were to identify increases in morning PM exposure occurring within home, transit and school microenvironments and determine their associations with asthma-related inflammation and rescue medication use...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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