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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#1
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241136/submillimeter-scale-heterogeneity-of-labile-phosphorus-in-sediments-characterized-by-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-and-spatial-analysis
#2
Yuting Meng, Shiming Ding, Mengdan Gong, Musong Chen, Yan Wang, Xianfang Fan, Lei Shi, Chaosheng Zhang
Sediments have a heterogeneous distribution of labile redox-sensitive elements due to a drastic downward transition from oxic to anoxic condition as a result of organic matter degradation. Characterization of the heterogeneous nature of sediments is vital for understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes. However, there are limited reports on the related specialized methodology. In this study, the monthly distributions of labile phosphorus (P), a redox-sensitive limiting nutrient, were measured in the eutrophic Lake Taihu by Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) on a two-dimensional (2D) submillimeter level...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239566/mapping-displaced-populations-with-reference-to-social-vulnerabilities-for-post-disaster-public-health-management
#3
Junaid Ahmad, Anees Ahmad, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Nafees Ahmad
Millions of people are currently displaced from their homes because of local and international conflicts. In the last two decades, a substantial increase in the number of displaced people has been recorded. We measured the social vulnerabilities of displaced populations using a mathematical approach in combination with application of geographical information systems (GIS) tools and techniques to visualise movement and draw attention to the location of significant concentration of vulnerabilities. A retrospective study approach based on datasets collected from governmental and non-governmental organisations working with refugees and internally displaced persons in Pakistan was used...
November 27, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239563/a-geographical-information-system-for-the-management-of-the-aquaculture-data-in-the-adriatic-sea-the-strengthening-of-centres-for-aquaculture-production-and-safety-surveillance-in-the-adriatic-countries-experience-present-capabilities-tools-and-functions
#4
Susanna Tora, Silvio Sacchini, Eddy Listeš, Tanja Bogdanović, Alessio Di Lorenzo, Muhamed Smajlović, Ahmed Smajlović, Jelena V Filipović, Vildana Tahirović, Danijela Šuković, Bojan Beljkas, Ardian Xinxo, Renis Maçi, Patrizia Colangeli, Federica Di Giacinto, Annamaria Conte
The European Commission (EC) regulation no. 854/2004 requires a systematic monitoring of chemical and microbiological contaminants in live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods for human consumption through surveillance plans to be implemented in all European Union (EU) countries.A consortium of five Adriatic countries was set up in the framework of the Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme (IPA Adriatic CBC) 2007- 2013 with the aim of collecting data and distribute information on harvesting and production in mollusc areas...
November 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239562/balancing-geo-privacy-and-spatial-patterns-in-epidemiological-studies
#5
Chien-Chou Chen, Jen-Hsiang Chuang, Da-Wei Wang, Chien-Min Wang, Bo-Cheng Lin, Ta-Chien Chan
To balance the protection of geo-privacy and the accuracy of spatial patterns, we developed a geo-spatial tool (GeoMasker) intended to mask the residential locations of patients or cases in a geographic information system (GIS). To elucidate the effects of geo-masking parameters, we applied 2010 dengue epidemic data from Taiwan testing the tool's performance in an empirical situation. The similarity of pre- and post-spatial patterns was measured by D statistics under a 95% confidence interval. In the empirical study, different magnitudes of anonymisation (estimated Kanonymity ≥10 and 100) were achieved and different degrees of agreement on the pre- and post-patterns were evaluated...
November 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239552/the-use-of-geographic-information-system-as-a-tool-for-schistosomiasis-surveillance-in-the-province-of-davao-del-norte-the-philippines
#6
Vicente Y Belizario, John Paul Caesar R Delos Trinos, Berne Silawan, Chiqui M De Veyra, Agapito Hornido, Hansel Amoguis, Dominic Basalo, Cherry Dema-Ala, Irenn Mantilla, Rosele Layan
Schistosomiasis (SCH) in The Philippines is caused by Schistosoma japonicum and remains endemic in 28 provinces in 12 regions. Effective SCH control requires describing areas at risk where control efforts may be focused. This study aims at demonstrating the utility of geographical information system (GIS) as a tool for SCH surveillance in the province of Davao del Norte. Qualitative and quantitative data on SCH determinants, obtained from local government offices, partner agencies and institutions, were standardised, formatted and incorporated into a GIS map...
November 6, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236018/urban-stormwater-inundation-simulation-based-on-swmm-and-diffusive-overland-flow-model
#7
Wenjie Chen, Guoru Huang, Han Zhang
With rapid urbanization, inundation-induced property losses have become more and more severe. Urban inundation modeling is an effective way to reduce these losses. This paper introduces a simplified urban stormwater inundation simulation model based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and a geographic information system (GIS)-based diffusive overland-flow model. SWMM is applied for computation of flows in storm sewer systems and flooding flows at junctions, while the GIS-based diffusive overland-flow model simulates surface runoff and inundation...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230647/validating-a-continental-scale-groundwater-diffuse-pollution-model-using-regional-datasets
#8
Issoufou Ouedraogo, Pierre Defourny, Marnik Vanclooster
In this study, we assess the validity of an African-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrates. In a previous study, we identified a statistical continental-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrate. The model was identified using a pan-African meta-analysis of available nitrate groundwater pollution studies. The model was implemented in both Random Forest (RF) and multiple regression formats. For both approaches, we collected as predictors a comprehensive GIS database of 13 spatial attributes, related to land use, soil type, hydrogeology, topography, climatology, region typology, nitrogen fertiliser application rate, and population density...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230356/sdmtoolbox-2-0-the-next-generation-python-based-gis-toolkit-for-landscape-genetic-biogeographic-and-species-distribution-model-analyses
#9
Jason L Brown, Joseph R Bennett, Connor M French
SDMtoolbox 2.0 is a software package for spatial studies of ecology, evolution, and genetics. The release of SDMtoolbox 2.0 allows researchers to use the most current ArcGIS software and MaxEnt software, and reduces the amount of time that would be spent developing common solutions. The central aim of this software is to automate complicated and repetitive spatial analyses in an intuitive graphical user interface. One core tenant facilitates careful parameterization of species distribution models (SDMs) to maximize each model's discriminatory ability and minimize overfitting...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228961/does-the-edge-effect-impact-on-the-measure-of-spatial-accessibility-to-healthcare-providers
#10
Fei Gao, Wahida Kihal, Nolwenn Le Meur, Marc Souris, Séverine Deguen
BACKGROUND: Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222506/an-assessment-of-the-global-impact-of-21st-century-land-use-change-on-soil-erosion
#11
Pasquale Borrelli, David A Robinson, Larissa R Fleischer, Emanuele Lugato, Cristiano Ballabio, Christine Alewell, Katrin Meusburger, Sirio Modugno, Brigitta Schütt, Vito Ferro, Vincenzo Bagarello, Kristof Van Oost, Luca Montanarella, Panos Panagos
Human activity and related land use change are the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion, which has substantial implications for nutrient and carbon cycling, land productivity and in turn, worldwide socio-economic conditions. Here we present an unprecedentedly high resolution (250 × 250 m) global potential soil erosion model, using a combination of remote sensing, GIS modelling and census data. We challenge the previous annual soil erosion reference values as our estimate, of 35.9 Pg yr-1 of soil eroded in 2012, is at least two times lower...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221490/the-first-detected-airline-introductions-of-yellow-fever-mosquitoes-aedes-aegypti-to-europe-at-schiphol-international-airport-the-netherlands
#12
A Ibañez-Justicia, A Gloria-Soria, W den Hartog, M Dik, F Jacobs, A Stroo
BACKGROUND: Air-borne introduction of exotic mosquitoes to Schiphol airport in the Netherlands has been considered plausible based upon findings of mosquitoes in aircraft cabins during 2008, 2010 and 2011. Beginning in 2013, surveillance efforts at Schiphol had focused on promptly detecting accidental introductions at the airport facilities in order to quickly react and avoid temporary proliferation or establishment of mosquito populations, identify the origin of the introductions, and avoid potential transmission of vector-borne diseases...
December 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220777/scenario-modelling-of-land-use-land-cover-changes-in-munessa-shashemene-landscape-of-the-ethiopian-highlands
#13
Mengistie Kindu, Thomas Schneider, Martin Döllerer, Demel Teketay, Thomas Knoke
Models under a set of scenarios are used to simulate and improve our understanding of land use/land cover (LULC) changes, which is central for sustainable management of a given natural resource. In this study, we simulated and examined the possible future LULC patterns and changes in Munessa-Shashemene landscape of the Ethiopian highlands covering four decades (2012-2050) using a spatially explicit GIS-based model. Both primary and secondary sources were utilized to identify relevant explanatory variables (drivers) and LULC datasets for the model...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219097/analysis-of-the-impact-of-healthcare-support-initiatives-for-physically-disabled-people-on-their-access-to-care-in-the-city-of-saint-louis-senegal
#14
Diarra Bousso Senghor, Oumar Diop, Issa Sombié
BACKGROUND: People with disabilities represent approximately 6% of the Senegalese population. They face significant barriers to accessing health care. Although several initiatives have been implemented to improve access to health care for this vulnerable population, few studies have examined the effects of these initiatives. We conducted a mixed methods study in three neighborhoods in Saint-Louis City (Senegal) to assess the impact of health systems and social assistance programs aimed at improving access to health care for people with disabilities...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216469/background-element-content-of-the-lichen-pseudevernia-furfuracea-a-supra-national-state-of-art-implemented-by-novel-field-data-from-italy
#15
Elva Cecconi, Guido Incerti, Fiore Capozzi, Paola Adamo, Roberto Bargagli, Renato Benesperi, Fabio Candotto Carniel, Sergio Enrico Favero-Longo, Simonetta Giordano, Domenico Puntillo, Sonia Ravera, Valeria Spagnuolo, Mauro Tretiach
In biomonitoring, the knowledge of background element content (BEC) values is an essential pre-requisite for the correct assessment of pollution levels. Here, we estimated the BEC values of a highly performing biomonitor, the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, by means of a careful review of literature data, integrated by an extensive field survey. Methodologically homogeneous element content datasets, reflecting different exposure conditions across European and extra-European countries, were compiled and comparatively analysed...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214811/rural-urban-disparities-in-obesity-prevalence-among-working-age-adults-in-the-united-states-exploring-the-mechanisms
#16
Ming Wen, Jessie X Fan, Lori Kowaleski-Jones, Neng Wan
PURPOSE: Higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in rural America have been consistently reported, but sources of these disparities are not well known. This study presented patterns and mechanisms of these disparities among working age Americans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: United States of America. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 302 participants of the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who were 20 to 64 years old, not pregnant, and with a body mass index ranging from 18...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211936/avian-scavenging-of-small-sized-pig-carcasses-in-central-florida-utilizing-gis-to-analyze-site-variables-affecting-skeletal-dispersal
#17
John J Schultz, Alexander T Mitchell
Scavengers can significantly alter a forensic scene and consume, modify, disarticulate, and disperse bodies on the ground surface. The research purpose was to examine vulture scavenging in central Florida, USA. Four small-sized pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were left on the ground surface of two microenvironments (shaded and open) at a secure site with game cameras. Dispersal data were mapped and analyzed using geographical information systems spatial analysis digital mapping tools. The primary avian scavengers recorded included black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), as well as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211859/transformation-asymmetry-and-the-evolution-of-the-bacterial-accessory-genome
#18
Katinka J Apagyi, Christophe Fraser, Nicholas J Croucher
Bacterial transformation can insert or delete genomic islands (GIs), depending on the donor and recipient genotypes, if an homologous recombination spans the GI's integration site and includes sufficiently long flanking homologous arms. Combining mathematical models of recombination with experiments using pneumococci found GI insertion rates declined geometrically with the GI's size. The decrease in acquisition frequency with length (1.08x10-3 bp-1) was higher than a previous estimate of the analogous rate at which core genome recombinations terminated...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190859/-work-accidents-associated-with-the-discouragement-of-serums-physicians-to-work-in-the-primary-care-services-of-lima-peru
#19
Christian R Mejia, Mario J Gutiérrez-González, Brian M Romero, Danai Valladares-Garrido, Edgardo Linares-Reyes, Rgp Red Gis Perú
BACKGROUND: Employee retention is an important issue, because professionals are required in primary care services (PCS). The objective was to determine whether accidents were associated with the discouragement of physicians to work in PCS in Lima, Peru. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data from a database generated from a survey of physicians who performed his Rural and Urban Health Care Service (Servicio Rural y Urbano-Marginal en Salud: SERUMS)...
November 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186922/an-overview-of-gis-based-modeling-and-assessment-of-mining-induced-hazards-soil-water-and-forest
#20
REVIEW
Jangwon Suh, Sung-Min Kim, Huiuk Yi, Yosoon Choi
In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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