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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527102/studies-of-environmental-risk-factors-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-a-phase-i-clinical-trial-of-l-serine
#1
Walter G Bradley, R X Miller, T D Levine, E W Stommel, P A Cox
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been linked to Guam ALS/PDC and shown to produce neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo (Drosophila, mice, rats, primates). BMAA misincorporation into neuroproteins produces protein misfolding and is inhibited by L-serine. Case-control studies in Northern New England indicate that living near to water-bodies with cyanobacterial blooms increases the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The distribution of addresses of ALS cases in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Florida was compared to that of controls...
May 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526196/use-of-a-numerical-simulation-approach-to-improve-the-estimation-of-air-water-exchange-fluxes-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-a-coastal-zone
#2
I-Chien Lai, Chon-Lin Lee, Fung-Chi Ko, Ju-Chieh Lin, Hu-Ching Huang, Ruei-Feng Shiu
The air-water exchange is important for determining the transport, fate, and chemical loading of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere and in aquatic systems. Investigations of PAH air-water exchange are mostly based on observational data obtained using complicated field sampling processes. This study proposes a new approach to improve the estimation of long-term PAH air-water exchange fluxes by using a multivariate regression model to simulate hourly gaseous PAH concentrations. Model performance analysis and the benefits from this approach indicate its effectiveness at improving the flux estimations and at decreasing the field sampling difficulty...
May 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525937/spatial-variability-of-soil-organic-carbon-in-three-gorges-reservoir-area-china
#3
Mingjun Teng, Lixiong Zeng, Wenfa Xiao, Zhiling Huang, Zhixiang Zhou, Zhaogui Yan, Pengcheng Wang
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component of the global carbon pool. It is a critical indicator of soil quality. We studied SOC content (SOCC) and SOC density (SOCD) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area in China. Soil samples from 306 sites across the study area were assessed for SOCC, SOCD and bulk density. Total SOC stocks in the TGR area were estimated at 5.82×10(-1)Pg. We examined relationships between SOCC and SOCD, and the environmental and land-use/land-cover (LULC) variables. The plow layer (0-0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516144/geospatial-datasets-in-support-of-high-resolution-spatial-assessment-of-population-vulnerability-to-climate-change-in-nepal
#4
Janardan Mainali, Narcisa G Pricope
We present a geographic information system (GIS) dataset with a nominal spatial resolution of one-kilometer composed of grid polygons originally derived and utilized in a high-resolution climate vulnerability model for Nepal. The different data sets described and shared in this article are processed and tailored to the specific objectives of our research paper entitled "High-resolution Spatial Assessment of Population Vulnerability to Climate Change in Nepal" (Mainali and Pricope, In press) [1]. We share these data recognizing that there is a significant gap in regards to data availability, the spatial patterns of different biophysical and socioeconomic variables, and the overall population vulnerability to climatic variability and disasters in Nepal...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513318/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socio-economic-status-in-relation-to-active-commuting-to-school-in-children
#5
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt
BACKGROUND: The role of neighborhood type in active commuting to school (ACS) has not been extensively studied in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between neighborhood built environment (walkability) and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with ACS among children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 310 Spanish children (aged 10-12 years; 51% male) was conducted in 2015. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511348/integrated-flood-hazard-assessment-based-on-spatial-ordered-weighted-averaging-method-considering-spatial-heterogeneity-of-risk-preference
#6
Yangfan Xiao, Shanzhen Yi, Zhongqian Tang
Flood is the most common natural hazard in the world and has caused serious loss of life and property. Assessment of flood prone areas is of great importance for watershed management and reduction of potential loss of life and property. In this study, a framework of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) incorporating geographic information system (GIS), fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and spatial ordered weighted averaging (OWA) method was developed for flood hazard assessment. The factors associated with geographical, hydrological and flood-resistant characteristics of the basin were selected as evaluation criteria...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#7
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504449/a-decade-of-colonization-the-spread-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-in-pennsylvania-and-implications-for-disease-risk
#8
Eric D Taber, Michael L Hutchinson, Erica A H Smithwick, Justine I Blanford
In recent decades, the Asian tiger mosquito expanded its geographic range throughout the northeastern United States, including Pennsylvania. The establishment of Aedes albopictus in novel areas raises significant public health concerns, since this species is a highly competent vector of several arboviruses, including chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue. In this study, we used geographic information systems (GIS) to examine a decade of colonization by Ae. albopictus throughout Pennsylvania between 2001 and 2010...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499231/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-and-some-cancers-of-unknown-etiology-an-ecological-study
#9
Jesus Gonzalez-Rubio, Enrique Arribas, Raquel Ramirez-Vazquez, Alberto Najera
Simultaneously with the increase of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) in recent decades, there has been increasing concern about their potential relation with the etiology of several tumors. At this time, the techniques of spatial data analysis jointly with the study of the personal exposure to these fields offer a new approach to the problem. This paper presents the results of a preliminary epidemiological study, combining Epidemiology, Statistics and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), in which we analyzed the correlation between exposure to RF-EMF in the city of Albacete (166,000 inhabitants, southeast Spain) and the incidence of several cancers with unspecific causes (lymphomas, and brain tumors)...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499221/a-water-quality-management-strategy-for-regionally-protected-water-through-health-risk-assessment-and-spatial-distribution-of-heavy-metal-pollution-in-3-marine-reserves
#10
Yinan Zhang, Chunli Chu, Tong Li, Shengguo Xu, Lei Liu, Meiting Ju
Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494013/modeling-spatial-variation-in-risk-of-presence-and-insecticide-resistance-for-malaria-vectors-in-laos
#11
Marc Souris, Sébastien Marcombe, Julie Laforet, Paul T Brey, Vincent Corbel, Hans J Overgaard
Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492515/remote-sensing-for-crop-water-management-from-et-modelling-to-services-for-the-end-users
#12
REVIEW
Alfonso Calera, Isidro Campos, Anna Osann, Guido D'Urso, Massimo Menenti
The experiences gathered during the past 30 years support the operational use of irrigation scheduling based on frequent multi-spectral image data. Currently, the operational use of dense time series of multispectral imagery at high spatial resolution makes monitoring of crop biophysical parameters feasible, capturing crop water use across the growing season, with suitable temporal and spatial resolutions. These achievements, and the availability of accurate forecasting of meteorological data, allow for precise predictions of crop water requirements with unprecedented spatial resolution...
May 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492342/social-cognitive-behavioural-and-neighbourhood-characteristics-associated-with-sedentary-time-in-men-and-women-living-in-deprived-neighbourhoods
#13
Paul Watts, Mahwish Hayee Shahid, Marcello Bertotti, Patrick Tobi
Multiple individual and neighbourhood characteristics are theorised to influence adult sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine associations between individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics in 40 deprived neighbourhoods in London, UK. A cross-sectional design was utilised with baseline data from the Well London Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial in 40 deprived neighbourhoods in London. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine associations between individual characteristics (measured by household survey), neighbourhood characteristics (neighbourhood audit, GIS and routinely available datasets) and sedentary behaviour (sitting time)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491936/data-on-spatiotemporal-urban-sprawl-of-dire-dawa-city-eastern-ethiopia
#14
Chaltu Taffa, Teferi Mekonen, Messay Mulugeta, Bechaye Tesfaye
The data presented in this paper shows the spatiotemporal expansion of Dire Dawa City (eastern Ethiopia) and the ensuing land use land cover changes in its peri-urban areas between 1985 and 2015. The data were generated from satellite images of Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) and OLI (Operational Land Image) with path/raw value of 166/053 by using Arc GIS 10.1 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS) receiver...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491101/geospatial-assessment-of-cholera-in-a-rapidly-urbanizing-environment
#15
Olajumoke Esther Olanrewaju, Kayode Adewale Adepoju
This study mapped out and investigated the spatial relationship between cholera incidences and environmental risk factors in the study area. The study area was stratified into eight zones. Water samples from each zone were collected and analyzed to determine the colony forming units. GIS layers including housing density, digitized roads, rivers, buildings, and cholera incidence data from hospital archives were also collected and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1. It was observed that there was an association between the ERFs (p < 0...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487212/mapping-the-ecoepidemiology-of-zika-virus-infection-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-pereira-risaralda-colombia-2015-2016-implications-for-public-health-and-travel-medicine
#16
Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Pablo Ruiz, Javier Tabares, Carlos Augusto Ossa, Maria Camila Yepes-Echeverry, Valeria Ramirez-Jaramillo, Maria Leonor Galindo-Marquez, Carlos Julian García-Loaiza, Juan Alejandro Sabogal-Roman, Esteban Parra-Valencia, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Carlos O Lozada-Riascos, Cornelis A de Pijper, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVE: Geographical information systems (GIS) have been demonstrated earlier to be of great use to inform public health action against vector-borne infectious diseases. METHODS: Using surveillance data on the ongoing ZIKV outbreak from Pereira, Colombia (2015-2016), we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps correlating with the ecoepidemiology of the area. RESULTS: Up to October 8, 2016, 439 cases of ZIKV were reported in Pereira (93 cases/100,000 pop...
May 6, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484258/sand-dune-encroachment-and-desertification-processes-of-the-rigboland-sand-sea-central-iran
#17
Hesam Ahmady-Birgani, Kenneth G McQueen, Mazaher Moeinaddini, Hamidreza Naseri
Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481962/the-association-between-urban-tree-cover-and-gun-assault-a-case-control-and-casecrossover-study
#18
Michelle C Kondo, Eugenia C South, Charles C Branas, Therese S Richmond, Douglas J Wiebe
Green space and vegetation may play a protective role for urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted GIS-assisted interviews with 10- to 24-year old males in Philadelphia, PA including 135 patients who had been shot with a firearm and 274 community controls, between 2008-2011. Each subject reported a step-by-step mapped account of where and with whom they travelled over a full day from waking until being assaulted or going to bed...
May 6, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480387/politics-of-biopiracy-an-adventure-into-hoodia-xhoba-patenting-in-southern-africa
#19
Lere Amusan
BACKGROUND: Africa is being described as the wretched of the earth, despite this, the continent is endowed with natural resources, dynamic ecosystem, and different species of plants and animals, and species derivatives. This paper area of departure is to focus on Hoodia, a plant that is being a source of food, medicine and water for the San and Khoe indigenous peoples before the advent of Europeans into southern Africa. South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) dubiously patented Hoodia without observing the basic indices of geographical indications (GIs), indigenous knowledge (IK), novelty, access sharing benefit (ASB), prior informed consent (PIC) and sustainability of ecosystem before the rights was sold to Phytopharm pharmaceutical company...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475472/research-on-the-optimization-of-air-quality-monitoring-station-layout-based-on-spatial-grid-statistical-analysis-method
#20
Tianxin Li, Xingkun Zhou, Harrison Odion Ikhumhen, An Difei
In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012-2014, the monthly mean PM10 concentration in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
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