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Viral conjunctivitis

Krithika Bhuvaneshwar, Lei Song, Subha Madhavan, Yuriy Gusev
An estimated 17% of cancers worldwide are associated with infectious causes. The extent and biological significance of viral presence/infection in actual tumor samples is generally unknown but could be measured using human transcriptome (RNA-seq) data from tumor samples. We present an open source bioinformatics pipeline viGEN, which allows for not only the detection and quantification of viral RNA, but also variants in the viral transcripts. The pipeline includes 4 major modules: The first module aligns and filter out human RNA sequences; the second module maps and count (remaining un-aligned) reads against reference genomes of all known and sequenced human viruses; the third module quantifies read counts at the individual viral-gene level thus allowing for downstream differential expression analysis of viral genes between case and controls groups...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Patricia Brasil, Andre Machado Siqueira, Heruza Einsfeld Zogbi, Bianca de Santis Gonçalves, Aline da Silva Santos, Otilia Lupi, Rogerio Valls de Souza, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Clarisse da Silveira Bressan, Mauymi Duarte Wakimoto, Eliane Saraiva de Araújo, Ingrid Cardoso Dos Santos, Ingebourg Georg, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
BackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsHIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical suspected arboviral disease from an ongoing cohort were followed from February through December 2015...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kendra L Bauer, James C Steeil, Elizabeth A Adkins, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan, Kenton L Kerns, Steven J Sarro, Kali A Holder
A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs werepositive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolvedwith supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Marcus Thomas, Russell Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The ability of collections of molecules to spontaneously assemble into large functional complexes is central to all cellular processes. Using the viral capsid as a model system for complicated macro-molecular assembly, we develop methods for probing fine details of the process by learning kinetic rate parameters consistent with experimental measures of assembly. We have previously shown that local rule based stochastic simulation methods in conjunction with bulk indirect experimental data can meaningfully constrain the space of possible assembly trajectories and allow inference of experimentally unobservable features of the real system...
June 8, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Emine Sen, Selda Celik, Merve Inanc, Ufuk Elgin, Beyhan Ozyurt, Pelin Yılmazbas
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical characteristics and seasonal distribution of patients admitted to the ocular emergency department of a tertiary ophthalmology care center. METHODS: The study cohort includes 27,120 patients who were admitted to ocular emergency room between November 2013 and November 2014. The age, sex, reason for admission, diagnosis, and complete ocular examination reports were recorded for each patient. X-ray and ultrasonographic examinations were performed if necessary...
April 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Jennifer S Read, Brenda Torres-Velasquez, Olga Lorenzi, Aidsa Rivera Sanchez, Sanet Torres-Torres, Lillian V Rivera, Sheila M Capre-Franceschi, Carlos Garcia-Gubern, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Gilberto A Santiago, Luisa I Alvarado
Importance: Little information is available regarding Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in children. Objective: To describe patients younger than 18 years who were infected with ZIKV and were enrolled in the Sentinel Enhanced Dengue and Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (SEDSS). Design, Setting, and Participants: Children infected with ZIKV with 7 or fewer days of fever or emancipated minors aged 14 to 17 years with a generalized maculopapular rash, arthritis or arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis were eligible for enrollment on or before December 31, 2016, in Puerto Rico...
May 29, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Mohanraj Manangeeswaran, Jennifer L Kielczewski, H Nida Sen, Biying C Xu, Derek D C Ireland, Ian L McWilliams, Chi-Chao Chan, Rachel R Caspi, Daniela Verthelyi
Zika-infected patients can have eye involvement ranging from mild conjunctivitis to severe chorioretinal lesions, however the possible long-term sequelae of infection and timeline to recovery remain unknown. Here we describe the partial recovery of chorioretinal lesions in an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with bilateral posterior uveitis associated with Zika infection and show that some lesions resolved with focal atrophy evident as pigmentary changes on funduscopy. To better understand the progression of the lesions and correlate the changes in fundus imaging with local viral load, immune responses, and retinal damage, we developed a symptomatic mouse model of ocular Zika virus infection...
May 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Tetyana O Kryuchko, Iryna A Holovanova, Olha Y Tkachenko, Mariya O Melnyk, Kateryna V Pocheniuk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: According to the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI, 2016), allergy is the most common chronic disease in Europe. The aim: The aim of the investigation is to study the spread of risk factors of allergic reactions in children who are 8-9 years old of Poltava region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The investigation included two stages: the 1st contained interviewing; the 2nd one - additional clinical and lab investigation of children, who require the further diagnosis specification...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Fatma Abdallah, Gehad Mohamed, Mohsen Ibrahim, Mokhtar El Tarabily
BACKGROUND: Egypt is one of the largest epidemic areas of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world. Its prevalent genotype is 4 with a majority of subtype 4a. In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved a new direct-acting antiviral drug (sofosbuvir) to treat patients with chronic HCV infection. In Egypt, the patients are already being treated with sofosbuvir in conjunction with ribavirin and pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFNα-2a) for 12 weeks since 2015. The present study was planned to explain the efficacy of this treatment regimen against the HCV genotype 4a in Egyptian patients and its pretreatment predictive factors of virological response...
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Georges Khoury, Talia M Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin, Damian F J Purcell
BACKGROUND: Different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are being evaluated to measure their effects in reactivating HIV replication from latently infected cells. A limited number of studies have demonstrated additive effects of LRAs with the viral protein Tat in initiating transcription, but less is known about how LRAs interact with Tat, particularly through basic residues that may be post-translationally modified to alter the behaviour of Tat for processive transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing...
May 11, 2018: Retrovirology
Torben Knuschke, Olga Rotan, Wibke Bayer, Sebastian Kollenda, Julia Dickow, Kathrin Sutter, Wiebke Hansen, Ulf Dittmer, Karl S Lang, Matthias Epple, Jan Buer, Astrid M Westendorf
T cell dysfunction and immunosuppression are characteristic for chronic viral infections and contribute to viral persistence. Overcoming these burdens is the goal of new therapeutic strategies to cure chronic infectious diseases. We recently described that therapeutic vaccination of chronic retrovirus infected mice with a calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccine carrier, functionalized with CpG and viral peptides is able to efficiently reactivate the CD8+ T cell response and improve the eradication of virus infected cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mini P Singh, Jagat Ram, Archit Kumar, Tripti Rungta, Amit Gupta, Jasmine Khurana, Radha Kanta Ratho
Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a major cause of viral conjunctivitis. The various serotypes implicated in the causation are 3, 4, 8, 19 and 37. The present study aimed to know the circulating types of HAdV causing acute conjunctivitis in North India. A total of 23 conjunctival swabs were collected from patients with clinically suspected acute viral conjunctivitis during 2014-2015. The HAdV was implicated in the etiology in 65.2% of cases. The sequencing of representative samples using hexon gene suggests the presence of serotype 8 and 4...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
C-L Lin, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented. AIMS: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: Recent published studies identified from PubMed were comprehensively reviewed...
July 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Caitlin M A Simopoulos, Elizabeth A Weretilnyk, G Brian Golding
BACKGROUND: In plants, long non-protein coding RNAs are believed to have essential roles in development and stress responses. However, relative to advances on discerning biological roles for long non-protein coding RNAs in animal systems, this RNA class in plants is largely understudied. With comparatively few validated plant long non-coding RNAs, research on this potentially critical class of RNA is hindered by a lack of appropriate prediction tools and databases. Supervised learning models trained on data sets of mostly non-validated, non-coding transcripts have been previously used to identify this enigmatic RNA class with applications largely focused on animal systems...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Samuel W Schaffter, Leopold N Green, Joanna Schneider, Hari K K Subramanian, Rebecca Schulman, Elisa Franco
The use of proteins that bind and catalyze reactions with DNA alongside DNA nanostructures has broadened the functionality of DNA devices. DNA binding proteins have been used to specifically pattern and tune structural properties of DNA nanostructures and polymerases have been employed to directly and indirectly drive structural changes in DNA structures and devices. Despite these advances, undesired and poorly understood interactions between DNA nanostructures and proteins that bind DNA continue to negatively affect the performance and stability of DNA devices used in conjunction with enzymes...
June 1, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Céline Barnadas, Dennis Jelsbak Schmidt, Thea K Fischer, Jannik Fonager
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) can cause respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea and outbreaks have been reported. However, little is known about the disease burden and the molecular epidemiology of HAdV. OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively perform a molecular characterization of HAdV positive samples received at Statens Serum Institut during the period 2011-2016 and to compare this with demographic information, geographic location, sample collection date and type and co-infection with other viral pathogens...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Anne B Chang, John J Oppenheimer, Bruce K Rubin, Miles Weinberger, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis is common in young children, and some children develop chronic cough after their bronchiolitis. We thus undertook systematic reviews based on key questions (KQs) using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) format. The KQs were: Among children with chronic cough (> 4 weeks) after acute viral bronchiolitis, how effective are the following interventions in improving the resolution of cough?: (1) Antibiotics. If so what type and for how long? (2) Asthma medications (inhaled steroids, beta2 agonist, montelukast); and (3) Inhaled osmotic agents like hypertonic saline? METHODS: We used the CHEST expert cough panel's protocol and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and GRADE framework...
April 26, 2018: Chest
Kristen M Feibelman, Benjamin P Fuller, Linfeng Li, Daniel V LaBarbera, Brian J Geiss
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus. Alphaviruses are positive strand RNA viruses that require a 5' cap structure to direct translation of the viral polyprotein and prevent degradation of the viral RNA genome by host cell nucleases. Formation of the 5' RNA cap is orchestrated by the viral protein nsP1, which binds GTP and provides the N-7 methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities that are necessary for cap formation. Viruses with aberrant nsP1 activity are unable to replicate effectively suggesting that nsP1 is a promising target for antiviral drug discovery...
June 2018: Antiviral Research
Anthony DiPiazza, Nathan Laniewski, Anuj Rattan, David J Topham, Jim Miller, Andrea J Sant
Pulmonary CD4 T cells are critical in respiratory virus control, both by delivering direct effector function and through coordinating responses of other immune cells. Recent studies have shown that following influenza infection, virus-specific CD4 T cells are partitioned between pulmonary vasculature and lung tissue. However, very little is known about the peptide specificity or functional differences of CD4 T cells within these two compartments. Using a mouse model of influenza infection in conjunction with intravascular labeling in vivo , the cell surface phenotype, epitope specificity, and functional potential of the endogenous polyclonal CD4 T cell response was examined by tracking nine independent CD4 T cell epitope specificities...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
L E Fodor, A Gézsi, Z Gál, A Nagy, A Kiss, A Bikov, C Szalai
The Tie2 receptor is an important player in angiogenesis. The Tie2 mRNA and protein are abundantly expressed in the lungs and the associated pathway also has an important role in the development and function of the eye. Tie2 is encoded by the TEK gene in humans. Recently, variations in the TEK gene have been found associated with asthma. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether variations in the TEK gene influenced the susceptibility to pediatric asthma and/or associated phenotypes like GINA status, viral- or exercise-induced asthma, allergic asthma, indoor, outdoor, inhalative allergies, IgE and eosonophil levels, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis...
June 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
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