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Viral conjunctivitis

Constantin Brinkmann, Inga Nehlmeier, Kerstin Walendy-Gnirß, Julia Nehls, Mariana González Hernández, Markus Hoffmann, Xiangguo Qiu, Ayato Takada, Michael Schindler, Stefan Pöhlmann
: The glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP), a member of the Filoviridae family, facilitates viral entry into target cells. In addition, EBOV-GP antagonizes the antiviral activity of the host cell protein tetherin, which may otherwise restrict EBOV-release from infected cells. However, it is unclear how EBOV-GP antagonizes tetherin and it is unknown whether the GP of Lloviu virus (LLOV), a filovirus found in dead bats in Northern Spain, also counteracts tetherin. Here, we show that LLOV-GP antagonizes tetherin, indicating that tetherin may not impede LLOV spread in human cells...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Vanesa Calvo-Río, Montserrat Santos-Gómez, Inmaculada Calvo, Ma Isabel González-Fernández, Berta López Montesinos, Marina Mesquida, Alfredo Adán, María Victoria Hernández, Olga Maíz, Antonio Atanes, Beatriz Bravo, Consuelo Modesto, Gisela Díaz-Cordovés, Natalia Palmou-Fontana, Javier Loricera, M C González-Vela, Rosalía Demetrio-Pablo, J L Hernández, Miguel A González-Gay, Ricardo Blanco
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of Tocilizumab (TCZ) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. METHODS: Multicenter study of patients with JIA-associated uveitis refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and anti-TNFα agents. RESULTS: We assessed 25 (21 women) patients (47 affected eyes); mean age 18.5±8.3 years. Uveitis was bilateral in 22. Cystoid macular edema (CME) was present in 9 patients. Ocular sequelae found at TCZ onset included: cataracts (13), glaucoma (7), synechiae (10), band keratopathy (12), maculopathy (9), and amblyopia (5)...
October 1, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Kanchan Vishnoi, Sutapa Mahata, Abhishek Tyagi, Arvind Pandey, Gaurav Verma, Mohit Jadli, Tejveer Singh, Sukh Mahendra Singh, Alok C Bharti
Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brian M Friedrich, David W C Beasley, Jai S Rudra
A crucial issue in vaccine development is to balance safety with immunogenicity. The low immunogenicity of most subunit antigens warrants a search for adjuvants able to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. In recent years, successful applications of nanotechnology and bioengineering in the field of vaccine development have enabled the production of novel adjuvant technologies. In this work, we investigated totally synthetic and supramolecular peptide hydrogels as novel vaccine adjuvants in conjunction with the immunoprotective envelope protein domain III (EIII) of West Nile virus as an immunogen in a mouse model...
September 23, 2016: Vaccine
Chloe B Spertus, Hussni O Mohammed, Eric C Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen-free Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 months prior to the beginning of the randomized, masked, placebo-controlled 30-day trial, latent ocular CHV-1 infection was experimentally induced in each dog by topical ocular inoculation of both eyes with a field strain of CHV-1. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by oral administration of prednisolone for 7 days (starting day 1)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mark G Kortepeter, Elena H Kwon, Angela L Hewlett, Philip W Smith, Theodore J Cieslak
The concept of containment care for patients with highly hazardous infectious diseases originated in conjunction with the development of sophisticated biosafety level 4 laboratories at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in the late 1960s. Over time, the original containment facility served as a model for the development of other facilities in the United States at government and academic centers. The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 brought the issue of containment care into the mainstream and led to the development of such capabilities at strategic points around the country...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
M L Nogueira, C F Estofolete, A C B Terzian, E P B Mascarin do Vale, R C M A da Silva, R F da Silva, H J Ramalho, I M M Fernandes Charpiot, M Abbud-Filho
Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Roberta Lilian Fernandes de Sousa Meneghim, Magda Massae Hata Viveiros, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Silvana Artioli Schellini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the sequelae due to epidemic viral conjunctivitis (VC) for a possible association with inflammatory trachoma in schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed of 2,093 schoolchildren in public schools in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The exams were conducted according to the WHO definitions to detect trachoma. We evaluated the prevalence and the association between inflammatory trachoma and sequelae due to VC. RESULTS: The prevalence of inflammatory trachoma in schoolchildren in Botucatu City was 2...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Taro Takami, Takahiro Yamasaki, Issei Saeki, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Yutaka Suehiro, Isao Sakaida
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world and is associated with a high risk of recurrence. The development of a wide range of new therapies is therefore essential. In this study, from the perspective of supportive therapy for the prevention of HCC recurrence and preservation of liver function in HCC patients, we surveyed a variety of different therapeutic agents. We show that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation and late evening snack with BCAA, strategies that address issues of protein-energy malnutrition, are important for liver cirrhotic patients with HCC...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jonathan J Miner, Abdoulaye Sene, Justin M Richner, Amber M Smith, Andrea Santeford, Norimitsu Ban, James Weger-Lucarelli, Francesca Manzella, Claudia Rückert, Jennifer Govero, Kevin K Noguchi, Gregory D Ebel, Michael S Diamond, Rajendra S Apte
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina...
September 20, 2016: Cell Reports
Arnold Park, Patrick Hong, Sohui T Won, Patricia A Thibault, Frederic Vigant, Kasopefoluwa Y Oguntuyo, Justin D Taft, Benhur Lee
The advent of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN)-mediated gene editing, specifically via CRISPR/Cas9, has spurred intensive efforts to improve the efficiency of both RGEN delivery and targeted mutagenesis. The major viral vectors in use for delivery of Cas9 and its associated guide RNA, lentiviral and adeno-associated viral systems, have the potential for undesired random integration into the host genome. Here, we repurpose Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no viral DNA phase and that replicates solely in the cytoplasm, as a delivery system for efficient Cas9-mediated gene editing...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Octavia Ramayanti, Hedy Juwana, Sandra A M W Verkuijlen, Marlinda Adham, Michiel D Pegtel, Astrid E Greijer, Jaap M Middeldorp
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is 100% associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as oncogenic driver. NPC is often diagnosed late due to initial vague complaints and obscured location. Prior studies suggest that measurement of EBV DNA load and RNA transcripts in nasopharyngeal (NP) brushings is useful for minimally invasive NPC diagnosis. However, whether these EBV markers relate to local virus replication or reflect tumor origin remains to be demonstrated. To resolve this, we analysed EBV-DNA characteristics and quantified latent and lytic viral RNA transcripts in NP brushings and matching frozen NP-biopsy specimens from patients suspected of having NPC...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jayanth Sridhar, Ryan F Isom, Joyce C Schiffman, Luz Ajuria, Laura C Huang, Daniel Gologorsky, James T Banta
OBJECTIVE: To describe utilization trends of an ophthalmology-specific emergency department (ED). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of new patients presenting in the ophthalmology ED for at least a 30-day period in the spring of each year for five consecutive years (2010-14) at a university referral center. A data form, including information about the ED visit and patient demographics, was included in each patient chart. Data were analyzed with Pearson chi-square test and multiple logistic regression...
September 6, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Yusuf Koçluk, Emine Alyamaç Sukgen
PURPOSE: This study aims to report the differences in the findings of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) between premature babies and their families at an outbreak of viral conjunctivitis. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, premature babies (25 patients) who were diagnosed with EKC and the family members (30 patients, mother, father, or grandmother/father) who had EKC after contacting them were monitored closely. Patients were divided into two groups as preterm babies (group 1) and adults (group 2)...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Seth C Inzaule, Pascale Ondoa, Trevor Peter, Peter N Mugyenyi, Wendy S Stevens, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Raph L Hamers
Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load monitoring, feasible and affordable technologies to detect drug-resistant HIV could help maximise the durability and rational use of available drug regimens. Potential low-cost technologies include in-house Sanger and next-generation sequencing in centralised laboratories, and point mutation assays and genotype-free systems that predict response to antiretroviral therapy at point-of-care...
August 25, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Colin J Carlson, Eric R Dougherty, Wayne Getz
The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. Here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset from Zika viral surveillance and serological surveys based in its native range, and construct ecological niche models to test basic hypotheses about its spread and potential establishment...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chaoyang Chen, Haodi Jia, Fei Zhang, Yanli Qin, Li Zong, Quan Yuan, Yongxiang Wang, Ningshao Xia, Jisu Li, Yumei Wen, Shuping Tong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a 3.2-kb circular DNA genome. It employs four promoters in conjunction with a single polyadenylation signal to generate 3.5-, 2.4-, 2.1-, and 0.7-kb co-terminal RNAs. The 3.5-kb RNA is subdivided into the precore RNA for e antigen expression and pregenomic RNA for genome replication. When introduced to a genotype A clone, several core promoter mutations markedly enhanced HBV genome replication but suppressed e antigen expression through up regulation of pregenomic RNA at the expense of precore RNA...
August 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Francesca Elia, Sonia Villani, Federico Ambrogi, Lucia Signorini, Simone Dallari, Sandro Binda, Valeria Primache, Laura Pellegrinelli, Pasquale Ferrante, Serena Delbue
JC virus (JCV) is a widespread member of the Polyomaviridae family. Following primary infection, which occurs asymptomatically during childhood, JCV establishes latency in the host. JCV seroprevalence can reach 80 % in healthy adults, but the age of viral exposure has not been yet characterized. This study was conducted to define JCV seroprevalence in Italian infants and to estimate the date of primary infection. A JCV viral protein 1 (VP1)-GST fusion protein was used in conjunction with a homemade indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to JCV in 981 serum samples collected from 644 Italian infants of different ages (1 day to 3 years old) and in 102 breast milk samples...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Yung-Chang Yen, Pei-Huan Chu, Po-Liang Lu, Yung-Cheng Lin, Yong-Ying Shi, Li-Chiu Chou, Chu-Feng Wang, Yi-Ying Lin, Hui-Ju Su, Chien-Ching Lin, Jing-Yun Zeng, Yu-Chang Tyan, Guan-Ming Ke, Pei-Yu Chu
Recent phylodynamic studies have focused on using tree topology patterns to elucidate interactions among the epidemiological, evolutionary, and demographic characteristics of infectious agents. However, because studies of viral phylodynamics tend to focus on epidemic outbreaks, tree topology signatures of tissue-tropism pathogens might not be clearly identified. Therefore, this study used a novel Bayesian evolutionary approach to analyze the A24 variant of coxsackievirus (CV-A24v), an ocular-tropism agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis...
2016: PloS One
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