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Viral conjunctivitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442622/chitosan-stabilized-gold-folate-poly-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoplexes-facilitate-efficient-gene-delivery-in-hepatic-and-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Jude Akinyelu, Moganavelli Singh
The biodegradable polymer, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) is a popular polymer of choice in many nanotherapeutic studies. Herein, we report on the synthesis and evaluation of four chitosan stabilized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with and without coating with gold, and the targeting ligand, folic acid, as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors. The poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were synthesized via nanoprecipitation/solvent evaporation method in conjunction with the surface functionalizing folic acid and chitosan...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#2
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429449/investigation-of-function-and-regulation-of-the-yb-1-cellular-factor-in-hiv-replication
#3
Yu-Mi Jung, Kyung-Lee Yu, Seong-Hyun Park, Seong-Deok Lee, Min-Jeong Kim, Ji-Chang You
Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a member of the cold-shock domain (CSD) protein superfamily. It participates in a wide variety of cellular events, including transcription, RNA splicing, translation, DNA repair, drug resistance, and stress responses. We investigated putative functions of YB-1 in HIV-1 replication. Functional studies using overexpression or knockdown of YB-1 in conjunction with transfection of proviral DNA showed that YB-1 enhances virus production. We found YB-1 regulates HIV-1 production by stimulating viral transcription using HIV-1 LTR sequence U3RU5 with Luciferase assay...
February 12, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427230/comparison-of-self-report-to-biomarkers-of-recent-hiv-infection-findings-from-the-start-trial
#4
Katherine E Schlusser, Shweta Sharma, Pola de la Torre, Giuseppe Tambussi, Rika Draenert, Angie N Pinto, Julia A Metcalf, Danielle German, James D Neaton, Oliver Laeyendecker
Identifying individuals with recent HIV infection is critical to research related to viral reservoirs, outbreak investigations and intervention applications. A multi-assay algorithm (MAA) for recency of infection was used in conjunction with self-reported date of infection and documented date of diagnosis to estimate the number of participants recently infected in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial. We tested samples for three groups of participants from START using a MAA: (1) 167 individuals who reported being infected ≤ 6 months before randomization; (2) 771 individuals who did not know their date of infection but were diagnosed within 6 months before randomization; and (3) as controls for the MAA, 199 individuals diagnosed with HIV ≥ 2 years before randomization...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371435/vagus-nerve-stimulation-enhances-stable-plasticity-and-generalization-of-stroke-recovery
#5
Eric C Meyers, Bleyda R Solorzano, Justin James, Patrick D Ganzer, Elaine S Lai, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard, Seth A Hays
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic impairment of the arm and hand is a common consequence of stroke. Animal and human studies indicate that brief bursts of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in conjunction with rehabilitative training improve recovery of motor function after stroke. In this study, we tested whether VNS could promote generalization, long-lasting recovery, and structural plasticity in motor networks. METHODS: Rats were trained on a fully automated, quantitative task that measures forelimb supination...
January 25, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345007/aetiology-of-neonatal-conjunctivitis-evaluated-in-a-population-based-setting
#6
Minna Honkila, Marjo Renko, Irma Ikäheimo, Tytti Pokka, Matti Uhari, Terhi Tapiainen
AIM: Our aim was to study prospectively the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in a population-based setting. METHODS: Altogether 173 neonates with clinical conjunctivitis aged on average 20 (SD 10) days were recruited from child welfare clinics in Oulu, Finland, in 2010-2015. Conjunctival specimens were collected from 167 neonates for multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect 16 respiratory viruses, from 163 for polymerase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and from 160 for bacterial culture studies...
January 18, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343567/parainfluenza-virus-infection-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-dna-damaging-agents-implications-for-oncolytic-virus-therapy
#7
Candace R Fox, Griffith D Parks
We have previously shown that the Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) mutant P/V-CPI- is restricted for spread in normal cells but not in cancer cells in vitro and is effective at reducing tumor burden in mouse model systems. Here we show that P/V-CPI- infection of human laryngeal cancer HEp-2 cells results in the majority of the cells dying, but unexpectedly, over time there is an emergence of a population of cells which survive as P/V-CPI- persistently infected (PI) cells. P/V-CPI- PI cells had elevated levels of basal caspase activation, and viability was highly dependent on activity of cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) such as Survivin and XIAP...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328024/endometrial-polyps-in-women-of-reproductive-age-clinical-and-pathogene-tic-variations
#8
N Kosei, N Zakharenko, D Herman
The aim of the study was to study the relationship between the morphofunctional characteristics of the endometrium, hormonal homeostasis and microbiocenosis of the reproductive system in patients with endometrial polyps. The study involved 130 patients aged 18-35 years: 34 patients with endometrial polyps, 30 patients with micropolyps, 36 patients with endometrial polyps and micropolyps, 30 healthy women of the control group. Hysteroscopy was performed for women who had been suspected for endometrial polyps and who had infertility or repeated recurrent miscarriages...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321303/infection-and-replication-of-influenza-virus-at-the-ocular-surface
#9
Hannah M Creager, Amrita Kumar, Hui Zeng, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Though influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316956/next-generation-in-situ-hybridization-approaches-to-define-and-quantify-hiv-and-siv-reservoirs-in-tissue-microenvironments
#10
REVIEW
Claire Deleage, Chi N Chan, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Jacob D Estes
The development of increasingly safe and effective antiretroviral treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the past several decades has led to vastly improved patient survival when treatment is available and affordable, an outcome that relies on uninterrupted adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy for life. Looking to the future, the discovery of an elusive 'cure' for HIV will necessitate highly sensitive methods for detecting, understanding, and eliminating viral reservoirs. Next-generation, in situ hybridization (ISH) approaches offer unique and complementary insights into viral reservoirs within their native tissue environments with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity...
January 9, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284752/role-of-enhanced-receptor-engagement-in-the-evolution-of-a-pandemic-acute-hemorrhagic-conjunctivitis-virus
#11
Jim Baggen, Daniel L Hurdiss, Georg Zocher, Nitesh Mistry, Richard W Roberts, Jasper J Slager, Hongbo Guo, Arno L W van Vliet, Maryam Wahedi, Kimberley Benschop, Erwin Duizer, Cornelis A M de Haan, Erik de Vries, José M Casasnovas, Raoul J de Groot, Niklas Arnberg, Thilo Stehle, Neil A Ranson, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a painful, contagious eye disease, with millions of cases in the last decades. Coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) was not originally associated with human disease, but in 1970 a pathogenic "variant" (CV-A24v) emerged, which is now the main cause of AHC. Initially, this variant circulated only in Southeast Asia, but it later spread worldwide, accounting for numerous AHC outbreaks and two pandemics. While both CV-A24 variant and nonvariant strains still circulate in humans, only variant strains cause AHC for reasons that are yet unknown...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276724/infection-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-via-microinjection
#12
Adam Martin, Emily A Rex, Takao Ishidate, Rueyling Lin, Don B Gammon
Over the past 15 years, the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans has become an important model system for exploring eukaryotic innate immunity to bacterial and fungal pathogens. More recently, infection models using either natural or non-natural nematode viruses have also been established in C. elegans. These models offer new opportunities to use the nematode to understand eukaryotic antiviral defense mechanisms. Here we report protocols for the infection of C. elegans with a non-natural viral pathogen, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) through microinjection...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260782/-the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-allergic-rhinitis-among-the-children-of-the-preschool-age
#13
N V Shakhova, E M Kamaltynova, Yu F Lobanov, T S Ardatova, K S Nikolaeva
The objective of the present work was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of the development of allergic rhinitis among the children at the age from 3 to 6 years. The cross-sectional study was carried out in five cities of the Altai region during the period from 2015 to 2016. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was evaluated with the use of the Russian language version of the ISAAC questionnaire filled up by the parents of the children. A child whose parents answered in the affirmative to the question 'Did your child have the runny nose, nasal congestion, and/or sneezing in the absence of cold symptoms and acute viral infection during the last 12 months?' were considered to be suffering from active allergic rhinitis (AAR)...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260103/crystalline-lens-dislocation-secondary-to-bacterial-endogenous-endophthalmitis
#14
Amit Sangave, Rahul Komati, Allison Weinmann, Linoj Samuel, Uday Desai
Purpose: To present an unusual case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to Group A streptococcus (GAS) that resulted in dislocation of the crystalline lens. Observations: An immunocompetent 51-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms and painful right eye. He was diagnosed with URI and viral conjunctivitis and discharged on oral azithromycin and polytrim eyedrops. He returned to the ER 30 h later with sepsis and findings consistent with endophthalmitis, including light perception only vision...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258242/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-and-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-associated-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-an-hiv-patient
#15
Marie-Françoise Rey, Charles Mary, Diane Sanguinetti, Stéphane Ranque, Christophe Bartoli, Coralie L'Ollivier
In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for P. jirovecii and brain abscess for T. gondii. Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reported an uncommon case of an AIDS patient (6 CD4 + T cells/mm³) with both pulmonary and cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with pneumocystis pneumonia...
December 18, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227420/us-state-public-health-departments-special-pathogen-planning
#16
Jocelyn J Herstein, Paul D Biddinger, Shawn G Gibbs, Aurora B Le, Katelyn C Jelden, Angela L Hewlett, John J Lowe
CONTEXT: US state public health departments played key roles in planning for and responding to confirmed and suspected cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2014-2016 outbreak, including designating select hospitals as high-level isolation units (HLIUs) for EVD treatment in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing guidelines and perspectives of state health departments pertaining to the management and transport of patients with EVD and other highly hazardous communicable diseases (HHCDs)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226567/a-strain-specific-multiplex-rt-pcr-for-australian-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-viruses-uncovers-a-new-recombinant-virus-variant-in-rabbits-and-hares
#17
R N Hall, J E Mahar, A J Read, R Mourant, M Piper, N Huang, T Strive
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196449/sustained-t-follicular-helper-cell-response-is-essential-for-control-of-chronic-viral-infection
#18
Ute Greczmiel, Nike Julia Kräutler, Alessandro Pedrioli, Ilka Bartsch, Paola Agnellini, Gregor Bedenikovic, James Harker, Kirsten Richter, Annette Oxenius
During chronic viral infections, both CD8 and CD4 T cell responses are functionally compromised. Alongside exhaustion of CD8 T cells during chronic viral infections, it has also been documented that the CD4 T cells have an increased propensity to differentiate toward CXCR5+ T follicular helper cell (TFH) lineage. Whether these TFH cells contribute to the immune response to chronic viral infection has remained unclear. Using chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in conjunction with an in vivo system where TFH cells can be conditionally ablated, we have established that these TFH cells do in fact play an important protective function...
December 1, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174718/z-fa-fmk-demonstrates-differential-inhibition-of-aquatic-orthoreovirus-prv-aquareovirus-csrv-and-rhabdovirus-ihnv-replication
#19
Olivia Roscow, Rosemarie Ganassin, Kyle Garver, Mark Polinski
Benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanyl-alanyl-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-FA-FMK) is a protease inhibitor that has been shown to strongly inhibit mammalian orthoreovirus replication. Here we explore the ability of Z-FA-FMK to inhibit three important yet genetically discrete aquatic fish viruses: chum salmon aquareovirus (CSRV), piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and the rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Z-FA-FMK significantly attenuated CSRV in vitro transcription and infectious yield following low-dose (2-20μM) exposure, yet a relatively high dose (200μM) was required to completely block CSRV replication...
November 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162476/prevention-and-treatment-of-respiratory-viral-infections-presentations-on-antivirals-traditional-therapies-and-host-directed-interventions-at-the-5th-isirv-antiviral-group-conference
#20
Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin, Shibo Jiang, David S Hui, John H Beigel, Elena A Govorkova, Nelson Lee
The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases held its 5th Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG) Conference in Shanghai, China, in conjunction with the Shanghai Public Health Center and Fudan University from 14-16 June, 2017. The three-day programme encompassed presentations on some of the clinical features, management, immune responses and virology of respiratory infections, including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) viruses, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, adenovirus Type 80, enterovirus D68, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
November 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
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