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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625133/recent-advances-in-targeting-the-hiv-1-tat-tar-complex
#1
Fardokht A Abulwerdi, Stuart F J Le Grice
Following seminal discoveries by Rosen and co-workers in 1985, the HIV-1 TAR has emerged as one of the most extensively studied regulatory elements of the HIV-1 genome. Located adjacent to the long terminal repeat promoter, this cis-acting motif, in conjunction with the viral Tat protein, plays a critical role in viral genomic RNA synthesis via modification of the transcription complex. As such, the Tat/TAR axis has been the subject of intense efforts aimed at developing therapeutic interventions, directed against both the protein and nucleic acid components...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620577/population-structure-of-the-soft-tick-ornithodoros-maritimus-and-its-associated-infectious-agents-within-a-colony-of-its-seabird-host-larus-michahellis
#2
Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Elodie Devillers, Thomas Blanchon, Eric Elguero, Marion Vittecoq, Sara Moutailler, Karen D McCoy
The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602961/progress-and-biotechnological-prospects-in-fish-transgenesis
#3
REVIEW
Fernanda M P Tonelli, Samyra M S N Lacerda, Flávia C P Tonelli, Guilherme M J Costa, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo R Resende
The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting...
June 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596938/genome-edited-t-cell-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Juliette M K M Delhove, Waseem Qasim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alternative approaches to conventional drug-based cancer treatments have seen T cell therapies deployed more widely over the last decade. This is largely due to their ability to target and kill specific cell types based on receptor recognition. Introduction of recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) using viral vectors and HLA-independent T cell therapies using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are discussed. This article reviews the tools used for genome editing, with particular emphasis on the applications of site-specific DNA nuclease mediated editing for T cell therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592530/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-utilizes-and-manipulates-rna-n-6-adenosine-methylation-to-promote-lytic-replication
#5
Fengchun Ye, E Ricky Chen, Timothy W Nilsen
N(6)-adenosine methylation (m(6)A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification in mammalian cells. We found that most transcripts encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) undergo m(6)A modification. The levels of m(6)A-modified mRNAs increase substantially upon stimulation for lytic replication. Blocking m(6)A inhibits splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding replication transcription activator (RTA), a key KSHV lytic switch protein, and halts viral lytic replication. We identified several m(6)A sites in RTA pre-mRNA crucial for splicing through interactions with YTH domain containing 1 (YTHDC1), an m(6)A nuclear reader protein, in conjunction with serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) and SRSF10...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588491/therapeutic-effects-of-breviscapine-in-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Jialiang Gao, Guang Chen, Haoqiang He, Chao Liu, Xingjiang Xiong, Jun Li, Jie Wang
Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz., containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583446/phenotypic-and-genetic-aspects-of-epithelial-barrier-function-in-asthmatic-patients
#7
REVIEW
Matthew Loxham, Donna E Davies
The bronchial epithelium is continuously exposed to a multitude of noxious challenges in inhaled air. Cellular contact with most damaging agents is reduced by the action of the mucociliary apparatus and by formation of a physical barrier that controls passage of ions and macromolecules. In conjunction with these defensive barrier functions, immunomodulatory cross-talk between the bronchial epithelium and tissue-resident immune cells controls the tissue microenvironment and barrier homeostasis. This is achieved by expression of an array of sensors that detect a wide variety of viral, bacterial, and nonmicrobial (toxins and irritants) agents, resulting in production of many different soluble and cell-surface molecules that signal to cells of the immune system...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#8
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535396/molecular-identification-of-viral-agents-associated-with-acute-conjunctivitis-a-prospective-controlled-study
#9
Emine Akçay, Ahmet Çarhan, Gözde Hondur, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Necati Demir, Selçuk Kılıç, Ezgi Naz Ensari, Nagihan Uğurlu, Nurullah Çağıl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528687/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-human-papillomavirus-e6-and-e7-oncoprotein-induced-cell-transformation
#10
REVIEW
Suruchi Mittal, Lawrence Banks
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of 5% of all human cancers, with cervical cancer being the most important. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are essential for the development and maintenance of malignancy. Both proteins function by targeting critical pathways that are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. As a consequence of these activities, this produces an environment that is favourable for the normal viral life cycle, but when perturbed, can result in the initiation of changes to the host cell, which ultimately results in the development of a malignancy...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523438/reversible-splenial-lesions-presenting-in-conjunction-with-febrile-illness-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#11
David Lin, Matthew Rheinboldt
Transient restricted diffusion and increased T2 signal intensity within the splenium of the corpus callosum is an increasingly recognized albeit uncommon imaging feature in the setting of acute encephalitis and antecedent viral illness. This review will discuss three index cases obtained from an institutional databank. Additionally, the current understanding of the underlying neurophysiologic pathogenesis will be discussed together with differential clinical and imaging diagnostic considerations, treatment options, and outcome metrics...
May 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516841/us3-and-us9-proteins-contribute-to-the-stromal-invasion-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-in-the-respiratory-mucosa
#12
Jing Zhao, Katrien C K Poelaert, Lennert Steukers, Herman W Favoreel, Yewei Li, Shafiqul I Chowdhury, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Brigitte Caij, Hans J Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection may lead to conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract problems, pneumonia, genital disorders and abortion. BHV-1 is able to spread quickly in a plaque-wise manner and invade by breaching the basement membrane (BM) barrier in the respiratory mucosa. BHV-1 Us3, a serine/threonine kinase, induces a dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization and BHV-1 Us9, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is required for axonal transport of viruses in neurons. In this study, we investigated the role of Us3 and Us9 during BHV-1 infection in the respiratory mucosa...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502333/zika-virus-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-human-disease
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth K Nugent, Anne K Nugent, Rebecca Nugent, Kenneth Nugent
The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461070/suramin-inhibits-zika-virus-replication-by-interfering-with-virus-attachment-and-release-of-infectious-particles
#14
Irina C Albulescu, Kristina Kovacikova, Ali Tas, Eric J Snijder, Martijn J van Hemert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that mostly causes asymptomatic infections or mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and malaise. However, the recent massive ZIKV epidemics in the Americas have also linked ZIKV infection to fetal malformations like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and have uncovered previously unrecognized routes of vertical and sexual transmission. Here we describe inhibition of ZIKV replication by suramin, originally an anti-parasitic drug, which was more recently shown to inhibit multiple viruses...
April 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445592/polo-like-kinase-1-is-a-proviral-host-factor-for-hepatitis-b-virus-replication
#15
Ahmed M Diab, Adrien Foca, Floriane Fusil, Thomas Lahlali, Pascal Jalaguier, Fouzia Amirache, Lia N'Guyen, Nathalie Isorce, François-Loïc Cosset, Fabien Zoulim, Ourania M Andrisani, David Durantel
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and current treatments for CHB and HCC are perfectible. Herein, we identified cellular Serine/Threonine Polo-like-kinase 1 (PLK1) as a positive effector of HBV replication. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the proviral role of PLK1 in HBV biosynthesis and validate PLK1 inhibition a potential antiviral strategy. To this end, we employed physiologically relevant HBV infection models of Primary Human Hepatocytes (PHH) and differentiated HepaRG cells, in conjunction with pharmacologic PLK1 inhibitors, siRNA-mediated knockdown, and overexpression of constitutively active PLK1 (PLK1(CA) )...
April 26, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441238/diaphragm-activation-in-ventilated-patients-using-a-novel-transvenous-phrenic-nerve-pacing-catheter
#16
Steven Reynolds, Adrian Ebner, Tracy Meffen, Viral Thakkar, Matt Gani, Kaity Taylor, Linda Clark, Gautam Sadarangani, Ramasamy Meyyappan, Rodrigo Sandoval, Elizabeth Rohrs, Joaquín A Hoffer
OBJECTIVES: Over 30% of critically ill patients on positive-pressure mechanical ventilation have difficulty weaning from the ventilator, many of whom acquire ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Temporary transvenous phrenic nerve pacing using a novel electrode-bearing catheter may provide a means to prevent diaphragm atrophy, to strengthen an atrophied diaphragm, and mitigate the harms of mechanical ventilation. We tested the initial safety, feasibility, and impact on ventilation of this novel approach...
July 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438213/cervid-herpesvirus-2-and-not-moraxella-bovoculi-caused-keratoconjunctivitis-in-experimentally-inoculated-semi-domesticated-eurasian-tundra-reindeer
#17
Morten Tryland, Javier Sánchez Romano, Nina Marcin, Ingebjørg Helena Nymo, Terje Domaas Josefsen, Karen Kristine Sørensen, Torill Mørk
BACKGROUND: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a transmissible disease in semi-domesticated Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). It is regarded as multifactorial and a single causative pathogen has not yet been identified. From clinical outbreaks we have previously identified Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) and Moraxella bovoculi as candidates for experimental investigations. Eighteen reindeer were inoculated in the right eye with CvHV2 (n = 5), M. bovoculi (n = 5), CvHV2 and M...
April 24, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438142/%C3%AE-molecular-epidemiological-analysis-of-adenoviruses-from-excess-conjunctivitis-cases
#18
A Balasopoulou, P Κokkinos, D Pagoulatos, P Plotas, O E Makri, C D Georgakopoulos, A Vantarakis
BACKGROUND: Τo perform a molecular epidemiological analysis of viral conjunctivitis among excess conjunctivitis cases recorded at the University Hospital of Patras, Greece, for the period March to June 2012. METHODS: A structured questionnaire containing demographic and clinical data was developed in order to collect retrospective data on the cases. Eye swab specimens were collected and molecular detection of adenoviruses was performed by nested PCR. Positive results were confirmed by sequencing...
April 24, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432927/type-2-bvdv-n-pro-suppresses-ifn-1-pathway-signaling-in-bovine-cells-and-augments-brsv-replication
#19
Abdulrahman A Alkheraif, Christina L Topliff, Jay Reddy, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Ruben O Donis, Gregor Meyers, Kent M Eskridge, Clayton L Kelling
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection induces immunosuppression and in conjunction with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) contributes to the bovine respiratory disease complex. Bovine turbinate cells were single or co-infected with type 2 BVDV wild-type (BVDV2-wt), its dysfunctional N(pro) mutant (BVDV2-E), and/or BRSV. BVDV2-E significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-7, TBK-1, IRF-3, and IFN-β mRNAs based on real-time Q-RT-PCR. BRSV-infected cells expressed significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-β mRNAs, whereas BVDV2-wt, but not BVDV2-E, abolished this up-regulation in co-infection...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405631/electric-cell-substrate-impedance-sensing-to-monitor-viral-growth-and-study-cellular-responses-to-infection-with-alphaherpesviruses-in-real-time
#20
Matthew R Pennington, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) measures changes in an electrical circuit formed in a culture dish. As cells grow over a gold electrode, they block the flow of electricity and this is read as an increase in electrical impedance in the circuit. ECIS has previously been used in a variety of applications to study cell growth, migration, and behavior in response to stimuli in real time and without the need for cellular labels. Here, we demonstrate that ECIS is also a valuable tool with which to study infection by alphaherpesviruses...
March 2017: MSphere
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