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Viral conjunctivitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819973/mobile-platform-for-multiplexed-detection-and-differentiation-of-disease-specific-nucleic-acid-sequences-using-microfluidic-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-and-smartphone-detection
#1
Weili Chen, Hojeong Yu, Fu Sun, Akid Ornob, Ryan Brisbin, Anurup Ganguli, Vinay Kumar Vemuri, Piotr Strzebonski, Guangzhe Cui, Karen J Allen, Smit A Desai, Weiran Lin, David M Nash, David Hirschberg, Ian Brooks, Rashid Bashir, Brian T Cunningham
New tools are needed to enable rapid detection, identification, and reporting of infectious viral and microbial pathogens in a wide variety of point-of-care applications that impact human and animal health. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a platform for multiplexed analysis of disease-specific DNA sequences that utilizes a smartphone camera as the sensor in conjunction with a handheld "cradle" that interfaces the phone with a silicon-based microfluidic chip embedded within a credit card-sized cartridge...
August 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815498/recombinase-mediated-cassette-exchange-using-adenoviral-vectors
#2
Andreas F Kolb, Christopher Knowles, Patrikas Pultinevicius, Jennifer A Harbottle, Linda Petrie, Claire Robinson, David A Sorrell
Site-specific recombinases are important tools for the modification of mammalian genomes. In conjunction with viral vectors, they can be utilized to mediate site-specific gene insertions in animals and in cell lines which are difficult to transfect. Here we describe a method for the generation and analysis of an adenovirus vector supporting a recombinase-mediated cassette exchange reaction and discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814737/susceptibility-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm2009-seasonal-a-h3n2-and-b-viruses-to-oseltamivir-in-guangdong-china-between-2009-and-2014
#3
Shan-Shan Liu, Xiao-Yang Jiao, Sheng Wang, Wen-Zhe Su, Ling-Zhi Jiang, Xin Zhang, Chang-Wen Ke, Ping Xiong
Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients through the influenza surveillance network of the CDC of Guangdong. All specimens between 2009 and 2014 were checked for influenza virus using MDCK cells and further subtyped. Of those collected, 542 H1N1pdm09, 230 A(H3N2)and 448 B viruses selected at random were subjected to fluorescence-based NAI assays. Viral RNA was extracted from resistant isolates, and their NA genes were amplified by RT-PCR. Alignment of nucleotides and amino acids was performed. We performed structural modelling and simulations of mutants using Modeller 9...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812530/feline-herpesvirus-pneumonia-investigations-into-the-pathogenesis
#4
Josep Maria Monne Rodriguez, Gail Leeming, Kernt Köhler, Anja Kipar
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794020/adenovirus-core-protein-vii-down-regulates-the-dna-damage-response-on-the-host-genome
#5
Daphne C Avgousti, Ashley N Della Fera, Clayton J Otter, Christin Herrmann, Neha J Pancholi, Matthew D Weitzman
Viral manipulation of cellular proteins allows viruses to suppress host defenses and generate infectious progeny. Due to the linear double-stranded DNA nature of the adenovirus genome, the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is considered a barrier for successful infection. The adenovirus genome is packaged with protein VII, a viral-encoded histone-like core protein that is suggested to protect incoming viral genomes from detection by cellular DNA damage machinery. We showed that protein VII localizes to host chromatin during infection, leading us to hypothesize that protein VII may affect DNA damage responses on the cellular genome...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694795/modulation-of-host-mirnas-transcriptome-in-lung-and-spleen-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-infected-sheep-and-goats
#6
Aruna Pandey, Amit R Sahu, Sajad A Wani, Shikha Saxena, Sonam Kanchan, Vaishali Sah, Kaushal K Rajak, Alok Khanduri, Aditya P Sahoo, Ashok K Tiwari, Bina Mishra, D Muthuchelvan, Bishnu P Mishra, Raj K Singh, Ravi K Gandham
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious viral disease, characterized by fever, sore mouth, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and pneumonia, primarily affecting sheep and goats. Reports suggested variable host response in goats and sheep and this host response vis-a-vis the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has not been investigated. Here, miRNAs were sequenced and proteomics data were generated to identify the role of differentially expressed miRNA (DEmiRNA) in PPR virus (PPRV) infected lung and spleen tissues of sheep and goats...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684158/the-high-mobility-group-at-hook-1-protein-stimulates-bovine-herpesvirus-1-productive-infection
#7
Liqian Zhu, Clinton Jones
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle that causes clinical symptoms in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctivitis. Like most alpha-herpesvirinae subfamily members, BoHV-1 establishes latency in sensory neurons. Stress consistently induces reactivation from latency, which is essential for virus transmission. Recent studies demonstrated that a viral protein (ORF2) expressed in a subset of latently infected neurons is associated with β-catenin and the high mobility group AT-hook 1 protein (HMGA1), which correlates with increased expression of these proteins in latently infected neurons...
July 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683899/zika-virus-cutaneous-manifestations-in-3-patients
#8
A Cosano-Quero, V Velasco-Tirado, M P Sánchez Seco, L Manzanedo-Bueno, M Belhassen-García
Zika virus infection should be suspected in travelers or immigrants with the signs or symptoms of a viral infection (rash, fever, joint pains, conjunctivitis, headache, etc.) and a compatible epidemiological history. Although cutaneous manifestations are among the most common clinical signs of Zika, they are not specific and very few images are available. We present 3 patients (2 travelers and 1 immigrant) in whom a rash was the presenting manifestation of Zika virus infection. Prompt diagnosis optimizes outcomes in these patients, improves the management of severe disease, and minimizes the risk of local transmission by Aedes albopictus, now a potential local vector for the virus due to its presence in areas along Spain's Mediterranean coast...
July 3, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657731/structural-effects-of-single-mutations-in-a-filamentous-viral-capsid-across-multiple-length-scales
#9
Gili Abramov, Rona Shaharabani, Omry Morag, Ram Avinery, Anat Haimovich, Inbal Oz, Roy Beck, Amir Goldbourt
Filamentous bacteriophage (phage) are single-stranded DNA viruses that infect bacteria. Single-site mutants of fd phage have been studied by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and by small-angle X-ray scattering. Detailed analysis has been performed that provides insight into structural variations on three length scales. The results, analyzed in conjunction with existing literature data, suggest that a single charge mutation on the capsid surface affects direct interviral interactions but not the structure of individual particles or the macroscale organization...
July 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625133/recent-advances-in-targeting-the-hiv-1-tat-tar-complex
#10
Fardokht A Abulwerdi, Stuart F J Le Grice
Following seminal discoveries by Rosen and co-workers in 1985, the HIV-1 TAR has emerged as one of the most extensively studied regulatory elements of the HIV-1 genome. Located adjacent to the long terminal repeat promoter, this cis-acting motif, in conjunction with the viral Tat protein, plays a critical role in viral genomic RNA synthesis via modification of the transcription complex. As such, the Tat/TAR axis has been the subject of intense efforts aimed at developing therapeutic interventions, directed against both the protein and nucleic acid components...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620577/population-structure-of-the-soft-tick-ornithodoros-maritimus-and-its-associated-infectious-agents-within-a-colony-of-its-seabird-host-larus-michahellis
#11
Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Elodie Devillers, Thomas Blanchon, Eric Elguero, Marion Vittecoq, Sara Moutailler, Karen D McCoy
The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602961/progress-and-biotechnological-prospects-in-fish-transgenesis
#12
REVIEW
Fernanda M P Tonelli, Samyra M S N Lacerda, Flávia C P Tonelli, Guilherme M J Costa, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo R Resende
The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting...
June 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596938/genome-edited-t-cell-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Juliette M K M Delhove, Waseem Qasim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alternative approaches to conventional drug-based cancer treatments have seen T cell therapies deployed more widely over the last decade. This is largely due to their ability to target and kill specific cell types based on receptor recognition. Introduction of recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) using viral vectors and HLA-independent T cell therapies using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are discussed. This article reviews the tools used for genome editing, with particular emphasis on the applications of site-specific DNA nuclease mediated editing for T cell therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592530/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-utilizes-and-manipulates-rna-n-6-adenosine-methylation-to-promote-lytic-replication
#14
Fengchun Ye, E Ricky Chen, Timothy W Nilsen
N(6)-adenosine methylation (m(6)A) is the most common posttranscriptional RNA modification in mammalian cells. We found that most transcripts encoded by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome undergo m(6)A modification. The levels of m(6)A-modified mRNAs increased substantially upon stimulation for lytic replication. The blockage of m(6)A inhibited splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding the replication transcription activator (RTA), a key KSHV lytic switch protein, and halted viral lytic replication...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588491/therapeutic-effects-of-breviscapine-in-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Jialiang Gao, Guang Chen, Haoqiang He, Chao Liu, Xingjiang Xiong, Jun Li, Jie Wang
Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz., containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583446/phenotypic-and-genetic-aspects-of-epithelial-barrier-function-in-asthmatic-patients
#16
REVIEW
Matthew Loxham, Donna E Davies
The bronchial epithelium is continuously exposed to a multitude of noxious challenges in inhaled air. Cellular contact with most damaging agents is reduced by the action of the mucociliary apparatus and by formation of a physical barrier that controls passage of ions and macromolecules. In conjunction with these defensive barrier functions, immunomodulatory cross-talk between the bronchial epithelium and tissue-resident immune cells controls the tissue microenvironment and barrier homeostasis. This is achieved by expression of an array of sensors that detect a wide variety of viral, bacterial, and nonmicrobial (toxins and irritants) agents, resulting in production of many different soluble and cell-surface molecules that signal to cells of the immune system...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#17
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535396/molecular-identification-of-viral-agents-associated-with-acute-conjunctivitis-a-prospective-controlled-study
#18
Emine Akçay, Ahmet Çarhan, Gözde Hondur, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Necati Duru, Selçuk Kılıç, Ezgi Naz Ensari, Nagihan Uğurlu, Nurullah Çağıl
BACKGROUND: Viral conjunctivitis are the most frequent infections in ophthalmology clinics. The diagnosis is usually relying on clinical findings and medical history. However, topical antibiotics are often used unnecessarily addition to symptomatic treatment because of unsure agents. We aimed to detect the Adenovirus, Coxsackievirus and Enterovirus from conjunctiva and pharyngeal samples of patients. METHODS: The conjunctiva and pharyngeal samples of the patients with conjunctivitis were taken by Virocult transport media and kept at -80̊C up to study day...
May 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528687/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-human-papillomavirus-e6-and-e7-oncoprotein-induced-cell-transformation
#19
REVIEW
Suruchi Mittal, Lawrence Banks
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of 5% of all human cancers, with cervical cancer being the most important. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are essential for the development and maintenance of malignancy. Both proteins function by targeting critical pathways that are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. As a consequence of these activities, this produces an environment that is favourable for the normal viral life cycle, but when perturbed, can result in the initiation of changes to the host cell, which ultimately results in the development of a malignancy...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523438/reversible-splenial-lesions-presenting-in-conjunction-with-febrile-illness-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#20
David Lin, Matthew Rheinboldt
Transient restricted diffusion and increased T2 signal intensity within the splenium of the corpus callosum is an increasingly recognized albeit uncommon imaging feature in the setting of acute encephalitis and antecedent viral illness. This review will discuss three index cases obtained from an institutional databank. Additionally, the current understanding of the underlying neurophysiologic pathogenesis will be discussed together with differential clinical and imaging diagnostic considerations, treatment options, and outcome metrics...
May 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
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