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Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
E Schleihauf, S Mutschall, B Billard, E N Taboada, D Haldane
A subtyping methodology for Campylobacter, Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting (CGF40), has been described recently. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of CGF40 as a tool to enhance routine public health surveillance of campylobacteriosis. Isolates of Campylobacter from across the province were requested and sent for CGF40 subtyping. Epidemiological data from cases reported to public health officials in Nova Scotia, Canada, from January 2012 to March 2015 were linked with blinded CGF40 subtyping results...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Xiaoyan Zhang, Tiantian Yin, Xueqing Du, Wenbin Yang, Jinlin Huang, Xinan Jiao
Poultry is the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at the farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers, and the environments of 9 chicken flocks in 2 farms during their growth process were observed. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Norah Lynn-Anne Mund, Wycliffe Omurwa Masanta, Anne-Marie Goldschmidt, Raimond Lugert, Uwe Groß, Andreas E Zautner
Campylobacter jejuni's flagellar locomotion is controlled by eleven chemoreceptors. Assessment of the distribution of the relevant chemoreceptor genes in the C. jejuni genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database led to the identification of two previously unknown tlp genes and a tlp5 pseudogene. These two chemoreceptor genes share the same locus in the C. jejuni genome with tlp4 and tlp11, but the gene region encoding the periplasmic ligand binding domain differs significantly from other chemoreceptor genes...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Aruna Devi, Adam S Gunjilac, Jenny M Wilkinson, Thiru Vanniasinkam, Timothy J Mahony
Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease in many industrialized countries including Australia. New South Wales (NSW) is the most populous state in Australia yet the lack of any Campylobacter species surveillance programs has led to a knowledge gap in the importance of these pathogens as causes of diarrhoea. The data collected in this study demonstrated a need for such programs. In this study, 400 human clinical fecal samples were collected from two NSW locations, Western Sydney and Wagga Wagga, and tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Christopher J Day, Rebecca M King, Lucy K Shewell, Greg Tram, Tahria Najnin, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Jennifer C Wilson, Aaron D Fleetwood, Igor B Zhulin, Victoria Korolik
A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Athanasios Papathanasiou, Ioannis Markakis
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is mainly classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Although diagnosis of GBS requires progressive weakness and universal areflexia or hyporeflexia, cases of GBS with preserved or increased deep tendon reflexes (DTRs) have been increasingly recognized. We report three cases of GBS, presenting at a single unit in six months. Our first case presented with pure sensory symptoms. The second case had nonspecific generalized weakness, while the third presented with typical ascending weakness...
2016: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Katarzyna A Radomska, Mahdi M Vaezirad, Koen M Verstappen, Marc M S M Wösten, Jaap A Wagenaar, Jos P M van Putten
Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant) activity of the vaccine...
2016: PloS One
Young-Ho Yoon, Clive S Barker, Paula V Bulieris, Hideyuki Matsunami, Fadel A Samatey
Across bacteria, the protein that makes the flagellar hook, FlgE, has a high variability in amino acid residue composition and sequence length. We hereby present the structure of two fragments of FlgE protein from Campylobacter jejuni and from Caulobacter crescentus, which were obtained by X-ray crystallography, and a high-resolution model of the hook from Caulobacter. By comparing these new structures of FlgE proteins, we show that bacterial hook can be divided in two distinct parts. The first part comprises domains that are found in all FlgE proteins and that will make the basic structure of the hook that is common to all flagellated bacteria...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joon Heng Tan, Liam Healy, Kristel Yap, Aditya Mandal
We present the first documented case of erythema multiforme following campylobacter gastroenteritis.
October 2016: JRSM Open
Miguel Bouzas, Vincent Tchana-Sato, Jean Paul Lavigne
Early diagnosis of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is still a medical challenge due to its diverse and non-specific symptoms and signs. The most common responsible pathogens are Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter and Streptococcus species. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man, admitted for high fever and finally diagnosed with Escherichia coli (E.coli)-related IAAA. The IAAA ruptured during the general anaesthesia induction, leading to an emergency surgery. The authors successfully proceeded to an open aneurysmectomy with extensive debridement and in situ graft replacement...
October 19, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Islam I Sabike, Ryoko Uemura, Yumi Kirino, Hirohisa Mekata, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Tamaki Okabayashi, Yoshitaka Goto, Wataru Yamazaki
Rapid identification of Campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the Campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. We evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for C. jejuni/C. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. In a comparison study of 165 broilers, the LAMP assay showed 82...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Mary E Torrence
This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
M A Landrum, N A Cox, D E Cosby, M E Berrang, S M Russell
New regulations and performance standards for Campylobacter have been implemented by the USDA - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment with a low pH processing aid (CMS(1) PoultrypHresh), a formulated low pH processing aid, to reduce numbers of Campylobacter which could help companies meet regulatory requirements. Two experiments (3 replicates each) were conducted. Experiment 1, in each of 3 replicates, skin-on split chicken breasts (n = 15) were obtained from a local grocery and divided into groups of 5...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Allison M Weis, Dylan B Storey, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bihua C Huang, Nguyet T Kong, Kristin A Clothier, Abigail Spinner, Barbara A Byrne, Bart C Weimer
: Campylobacter is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds, including American crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and are likely zoonotic vectors of Campylobacter. Their proximity to humans and livestock increases the potential spreading of Campylobacter via crows between the environment, livestock, and humans. However, no studies have definitively demonstrated that crows are a vector for pathogenic Campylobacter We used genomics to evaluate zoonotic and pathogenic potential of Campylobacter from crows to other animals with 184 isolates obtained from crow, chicken, cow, sheep, goat, human, and non-human primates...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
John P Dekker
Whole genome sequence databases offer new in silico approaches for designing and validating PCR assays in the clinical microbiology laboratory. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (M. J. Jansen van Rensburg, C. Swift, A. J. Cody, C. Jenkins, and M. C. J. Maiden, J Clin Microbiol, volume:page, 2016) demonstrates the use of publicly available genomic sequence data to evaluate a PCR assay for distinguishing Campylobacter species.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg, Craig Swift, Alison J Cody, Claire Jenkins, Martin C J Maiden
The application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to problems in clinical microbiology has had a major impact on the field. Clinical laboratories are now using WGS for pathogen identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing. WGS data also represents a valuable resource for the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostic assays, which continue to play an important role in clinical microbiology. To demonstrate this application of WGS, the current study used publicly available genomic data to evaluate a duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay that targets mapA and ceuE for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, leading global causes of bacterial gastroenteritis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Camila Faria Carrada, Flávia Almeida Ribeiro Scalioni, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Karina Lopes Devito, Luiz Cláudio Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare salivary periodontopathic bacteria between groups of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included a sample of 30 Down syndrome children and adolescents (G-DS) and 30 age- and sex-matched non-Down syndrome subjects (G-ND). Clinical examination determined the gingival bleeding index (GBI) and plaque index. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all participants...
2016: PloS One
Walid Q Alali, Charles L Hofacre
Preharvest food safety in broiler production is a systematic approach to control the introduction, propagation, and dissemination of Salmonella and Campylobacter from breeder flocks to the end of their progeny (broilers) life cycle. New and revised more stringent performance standards for these pathogens at the processing plant level require continuous evaluation of the preharvest management practices and intervention strategies used by the poultry industry. The implementation of stricter biosecurity plans, vaccination of breeder flocks for Salmonella, and usage of feed that is free of animal by-products are some of the measures recommended to control the pathogens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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