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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156625/gene-based-pathogen-detection-can-we-use-qpcr-to-predict-the-outcome-of-diagnostic-metagenomics
#1
Sandra Christine Andersen, Mette Sofie Rousing Fachmann, Kristoffer Kiil, Eva Møller Nielsen, Jeffrey Hoorfar
In microbial food safety, molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bacterial isolates can potentially be replaced by diagnostic shotgun metagenomics. However, the methods for pre-analytical sample preparation are often optimized for qPCR, and do not necessarily perform equally well for qPCR and sequencing. The present study investigates, through screening of methods, whether qPCR can be used as an indicator for the optimization of sample preparation for NGS-based shotgun metagenomics with a diagnostic focus...
November 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155570/chemistry-antimicrobial-mechanisms-and-antibiotic-activities-of-cinnamaldehyde-against-pathogenic-bacteria-in-animal-feeds-and-human-foods
#2
Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151896/genotypic-diversity-antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-abilities-of-campylobacter-isolated-from-chicken-in-central-china
#3
Tengfei Zhang, Jun Dong, Yiluo Cheng, Qin Lu, Qingping Luo, Guoyuan Wen, Guoping Liu, Huabin Shao
Background: Campylobacter is considered to be the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, of which poultry is the main reservoir. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products are a major cause of human Campylobacter infection. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken in central China was investigated, and the genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm of these isolates were characterized. Results: A total of 206 Campylobacter isolates, including 166 C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151444/effect-of-morphological-changes-in-feather-follicles-of-chicken-carcasses-after-defeathering-and-chilling-on-the-degree-of-skin-contamination-by-campylobacter-species
#4
Khin Maung Latt, Ayaka Urata, Taisuke Shinki, Satomi Sasaki, Takako Taniguchi, Naoaki Misawa
Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the leading causes of enteric infections in many developed countries. Healthy chickens are considered to act as reservoirs of campylobacters, as the organisms colonize the intestinal tract. Once infected birds enter a processing plant, contamination of chicken carcasses with campylobacters occurs over the entire skin during defeathering and evisceration due to leakage of crop and/or intestinal contents. Although the role of feather follicles in the contamination of chicken carcasses by campylobacters during processing is still debatable, it has been considered that the microorganisms would be entrapped and retained in the follicles due to the morphological changes resulting from defeathering and chilling...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#5
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149023/antibiotic-susceptibility-genetic-diversity-and-the-presence-of-toxin-producing-genes-in-campylobacter-isolates-from-poultry
#6
Jeeyeon Lee, Jiyeon Jeong, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Sejeong Kim, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kunho Seo, Yohan Yoon, Soomin Lee
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152) and duck (n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLab(TM) system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148878/molecular-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanisms-of-campylobacter-isolates-from-duck-meats
#7
Min Kang, Bai Wei, Sung-Woon Choi, Se-Yeoun Cha, Hyung-Kwan Jang
The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular basis of quinolone resistance of Campylobacter isolates recovered from duck meats. Sixty-one isolates from duck meat samples were studied using sequence analysis of the gyrA gene, and PCR assays were used to identify the presence of the CmeABC efflux pump and its restored sensitivity in the presence of efflux-pump inhibitors. High-level resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was attributed to amino acid substitutions Thr-86-Ile in some isolates...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148876/food-safety-at-farmers-markets-a-knowledge-synthesis-of-published-research
#8
Ian Young, Abhinand Thaivalappil, Danielle Reimer, Judy Greig
Farmers' markets are increasingly popular venues in North America for the sale of fresh produce and other foods. However, the nature of their operation can present possible food safety issues, challenges, and risks to consumers. A knowledge synthesis was conducted to identify, characterize, and summarize published research on the microbial food safety issues and implications associated with farmers' markets. A scoping review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy, relevance screening of abstracts, and characterization of relevant articles...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147015/structure-of-flgk-reveals-the-divergence-of-the-bacterial-hook-filament-junction-of-campylobacter
#9
Paula V Bulieris, Nausad H Shaikh, Peter L Freddolino, Fadel A Samatey
Evolution of a nano-machine consisting of multiple parts, each with a specific function, is a complex process. A change in one part should eventually result in changes in other parts, if the overall function is to be conserved. In bacterial flagella, the filament and the hook have distinct functions and their respective proteins, FliC and FlgE, have different three-dimensional structures. The filament functions as a helical propeller and the hook as a flexible universal joint. Two proteins, FlgK and FlgL, assure a smooth connectivity between the hook and the filament...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140745/passage-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-subtypes-through-0-45-and-0-65-micrometer-pore-size-nitrocellulose-filters
#11
Mark E Berrang, Richard J Meinersmann, Nelson A Cox
Campylobacter can be difficult to recover from complex samples due to overgrowth by background bacteria. A 0.45- or 0.65-μm-pore-size filter overlaid on agar plates can be used as a means to separate Campylobacter from confounding non-Campylobacter cells, facilitating detection on solid plating media. It is unclear what percentage of cells in a Campylobacter suspension passes through a filter and results in visible colonies. The objective of this study was to compare the number of Campylobacter cells detected by the filter method with those detected by direct plating and determine if the filter method can be used to estimate cellular density of an unknown Campylobacter in suspension...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134588/encapsulation-strategies-of-bacteriophage-felix-o1-for-oral-therapeutic-application
#12
Golam S Islam, Qi Wang, Parviz M Sabour
Due to emerging antibiotic-resistant strains among the pathogens, a variety of strategies, including therapeutic application of bacteriophages, have been suggested as a possible alternative to antibiotics in food animal production. As pathogen-specific biocontrol agents, bacteriophages are being studied intensively. Primarily their applications in the food industry and animal production have been recognized in the USA and Europe, for pathogens including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Listeria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133896/the-food-borne-pathogen-campylobacter-jejuni-responds-to-the-bile-salt-deoxycholate-with-countermeasures-to-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
Nicholas M Negretti, Christopher R Gourley, Geremy Clair, Joshua N Adkins, Michael E Konkel
Bile plays an important role in digestion, absorption of fats, and the excretion of waste products, while concurrently providing a critical barrier against colonization by harmful bacteria. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut pathogens react to bile by adapting their protein synthesis. The ability of pathogens to respond to bile is remarkably complex and still incompletely understood. Here we show that Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human diarrheal illness worldwide, responds to deoxycholate, a component of bile, by altering global gene transcription in a manner consistent with a strategy to mitigate exposure to reactive oxygen stress...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133155/a-prospective-study-of-travellers-diarrhoea-analysis-of-pathogen-findings-by-destination-in-various-sub-tropical-regions
#14
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari H Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study employing modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens, followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130018/virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-campylobacter-spp-from-a-peruvian-pediatric-cohort
#15
Angela Lluque, Maribel Riveros, Ana Prada, Theresa J Ochoa, Joaquim Ruiz
The presence of virulence factors (VFs) and mechanisms of quinolones and macrolide resistance was analyzed in Campylobacter spp. from a pediatric cohort study in Lima. In 149 isolates (39 Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli from diarrheic cases; 57 C. jejuni and 29 C. coli from controls), the presence of the cdtABC and cadF genes and iam marker was established. Nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin susceptibilities were established in 115 isolates and tetracycline-susceptibility was established in 100 isolates...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128919/genome-wide-prediction-of-potential-vaccine-candidates-for-campylobacter-jejuni-using-reverse-vaccinology
#16
Richa Jain, Sarita Singh, Santosh Kumar Verma, Ankit Jain
Campylobacteriosis is a deadly disease which has developed resistance to most of the available chemotherapeutic agents. Although various studies provide evidence of acquired immunity following exposure to Campylobacter jejuni, no effective vaccine has been developed, still. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify potential vaccine candidates for Campylobacter species. In the proposed study, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni serotype O:2 (strain NCTC 11168) was taken and computational approach was employed to screen C...
November 11, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121442/enteric-infections-in-young-children-are-associated-with-environmental-enteropathy-and-impaired-growth
#17
Christine Marie George, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Lauren Oldja, Shwapon Biswas, David Sack, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Nurul Amin Bhuiyan, Tahmina Parvin, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Mahmuda Akter, Shan Li, Gayathri Natarajan, Mohammad Shahnaij, Abu G Faruque, O Colin Stine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between fecal contamination in child play spaces, enteric infections, environmental enteropathy (EE), and impaired growth among young children. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 203 children 6-30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Stool samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp. Four fecal markers of intestinal inflammation were also measured: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, and calprotectin...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119393/in-vitro-culturing-and-storage-of-campylobacter-genus-bacteria
#18
N R Efimochkina, V V Stetsenko, I B Bykova, A S Polyanina, A S Aleshkina, S A Sheveleva
Experimental model for in vitro evaluation of Campylobacter genus bacteria growth kinetics, inhibition, or inactivation is proposed. The model allows quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity to various types of stress exposure and promotes detection of the regularities of their transformation into uncultivable forms. The model implies the use of 96-well plates for parallel culturing of several subpopulations of the test strain in media with various parameters. The proposed algorithm includes evaluation of the proportion of viable CFU to total level of planktonic and uncultivable cells in the population, which is estimated by the content of genomic DNA in the samples by quantitative PCR (or real-time PCR) with ciaB, cdtB, or 16S rRNA primers...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118316/distinct-campylobacter-fetus-lineages-adapted-as-livestock-pathogens-and-human-pathobionts-in-the-intestinal-microbiota
#19
Gregorio Iraola, Samuel C Forster, Nitin Kumar, Philippe Lehours, Sadjia Bekal, Francisco J García-Peña, Fernando Paolicchi, Claudia Morsella, Helmut Hotzel, Po-Ren Hsueh, Ana Vidal, Simon Lévesque, Wataru Yamazaki, Claudia Balzan, Agueda Vargas, Alessandra Piccirillo, Bonnie Chaban, Janet E Hill, Laura Betancor, Luis Collado, Isabelle Truyers, Anne C Midwinter, Hatice T Dagi, Francis Mégraud, Lucía Calleros, Ruben Pérez, Hugo Naya, Trevor D Lawley
Campylobacter fetus is a venereal pathogen of cattle and sheep, and an opportunistic human pathogen. It is often assumed that C. fetus infection occurs in humans as a zoonosis through food chain transmission. Here we show that mammalian C. fetus consists of distinct evolutionary lineages, primarily associated with either human or bovine hosts. We use whole-genome phylogenetics on 182 strains from 17 countries to provide evidence that C. fetus may have originated in humans around 10,500 years ago and may have "jumped" into cattle during the livestock domestication period...
November 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113919/lighting-up-my-life-a-lov-based-fluorescent-reporter-for-campylobacter-jejuni
#20
Bassam A Elgamoudi, Julian M Ketley
In this study, a LOV-based fluorescent reporter (light, oxygen, or voltage-sensing domains of phototropin), termed iLOV, was adapted for Campylobacter jejuni and used to investigate promoter activity via monitoring fluorescence intensity and to study the localisation of two chemotaxis proteins. The pC46 complementation vector contains coding sequence from cj0046, a C. jejuni NCTC11168 pseudo-gene and is used to integrate cloned genes onto the C. jejuni chromosome. The pC46 vector was used to construct plasmids containing iLOV, driven by three different C...
November 4, 2017: Research in Microbiology
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