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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096310/characterization-of-the-dtdp-fuc3n-and-dtdp-qui3n-biosynthetic-pathways-in-campylobacter-jejuni-81116%C3%A2
#1
Zack Z Li, Alexander S Riegert, Marie-France Goneau, Anna M Cunningham, Evgeny Vinogradov, Jianjun Li, Ian C Schoenhofen, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden, Michel Gilbert
The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni 81116 (Penner serotype HS:6) has a class E lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus containing 19 genes, which encode for 11 putative glycosyltransferases, 1 lipid A acyltransferase and 7 enzymes thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of dideoxyhexosamine (ddHexN) moieties. Although the LOS outer core structure of C. jejuni 81116 is still unknown, recent mass spectrometry analyses suggest that it contains acetylated forms of two ddHexN residues. For this investigation, five of the genes encoding enzymes reportedly involved in the biosyntheses of these sugar residues were examined, rmlA, rmlB, wlaRA, wlaRB and wlaRG Specifically, these genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding enzymes were purified and tested for biochemical activity...
January 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091764/isolation-of-campylobacter-spp-from-three-species-of-antarctic-penguins-in-different-geographic-locations
#2
F J García-Peña, M T Llorente, T Serrano, M J Ruano, J Belliure, J Benzal, S Herrera-León, V Vidal, V D'Amico, D Pérez-Boto, A Barbosa
The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P...
January 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#3
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091524/formate-simultaneously-reduces-oxidase-activity-and-enhances-respiration-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#4
Issmat I Kassem, Rosario A Candelero-Rueda, Kawthar A Esseili, Gireesh Rajashekara
The foodborne microaerophilic pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses a periplasmic formate dehydrogenase and two terminal oxidases, which serve to metabolize formate and facilitate the use of oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor, respectively. Formate, a primary energy source for C. jejuni, inhibits oxidase activity in other bacteria. Here, we hypothesized that formate might affect both energy metabolism and microaerobic survival in C. jejuni. Subsequently, we showed that C. jejuni 81-176 (wildtype) exhibited enhanced chemoattraction to and respiration of formate in comparison to other organic acids...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087921/pathogen-characterization-of-fresh-and-stored-mesophilic-anaerobically-digested-biosolids
#5
Cecily A
Culturable bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia) and indicators (E. coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) were quantified at six wastewater treatment plants that land apply anaerobically digested biosolids in Ontario, Canada. Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia were also quantified by PCR. Salmonella and Listeria were frequently detected in sludge and liquid biosolids (70-100% of samples) but less often in fresh dewatered cake biosolids (50-60%); with low levels in fresh cake (<100 cells/g dw)...
January 13, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087306/molecular-epidemiological-analysis-of-human-and-chicken-derived-isolates-of-campylobacter-jejuni-in-japan-using-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Takayuki Ohishi, Kotaro Aoki, Yoshikazu Ishii, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Michiko Kawanishi, Ohnishi Kenji, Kazuhiro Tateda
In this research, we analyzed the main sequence types (ST) and ST complexes of human- and chicken-derived isolates of Campylobacter jejuni in Japan by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We also analyzed lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis locus classes (LOS locus classes) and the numbers of isolates carrying genes coding resistance factors against various antibiotics, and observed their relationships. ST-21 complex was the main ST complex in isolates from humans (n = 38) and chickens (n = 25). None of the isolates showed resistance to imipenem, chloramphenicol, or erythromycin...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080213/campylobacter-jejuni-transducer-like-proteins-chemotaxis-and-beyond
#7
Kshipra Chandrashekhar, Issmat I Kassem, Gireesh Rajashekara
Chemotaxis, a process that mediates directional motility towards or away from chemical stimuli (chemoeffectors/ ligands that can be attractants or repellents) in the environment, plays an important role in the adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to disparate niches. The chemotaxis system consists of core signal transduction proteins and methyl-accepting-domain-containing Transducer like proteins (Tlps). Ligands binding to Tlps relay a signal to chemotaxis proteins in the cytoplasm which initiate a signal transduction cascade, culminating into a directional flagellar movement...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080049/modeling-diversity-in-structures-of-bacterial-outer-membrane-lipids
#8
Huilin Ma, Daniel D Cummins, Natalie Brooke Edelstein, Jerry Gomez, Aliza Khan, Masud Dikita Llewellyn, Tara Picudella, Sarah Rose Willsey, Shikha Nangia
Lipopolysaccharides are vital components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and they act as extremely strong stimulators of innate immunity in diverse eukaryotic species. The primary immunostimulatory center of the LPS molecule is lipid A-a disaccharide-bound lipophilic domain. Considering the broad diversity in bacterial species, there are variations in the lipid A structure and their immunogenic potency. In this work, we model the lipid A structures of eight commensal or human pathogenic bacterial species: Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria meningitidis, and Salmonella minnesota...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077560/mechanistic-insights-into-type-i-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-helicobacter-pylori-the-importance-of-mrna-folding-in-controlling-toxin-expression
#9
Hélène Arnion, Dursun Nizam Korkut, Sara Masachis Gelo, Sandrine Chabas, Jérémy Reignier, Isabelle Iost, Fabien Darfeuille
Type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been identified in a wide range of bacterial genomes. Here, we report the characterization of a new type I TA system present on the chromosome of the major human gastric pathogen, Helicobacter pylori We show that the aapA1 gene encodes a 30 amino acid peptide whose artificial expression in H. pylori induces cell death. The synthesis of this toxin is prevented by the transcription of an antitoxin RNA, named IsoA1, expressed on the opposite strand of the toxin gene. We further reveal additional layers of post-transcriptional regulation that control toxin expression: (i) transcription of the aapA1 gene generates a full-length transcript whose folding impedes translation (ii) a 3' end processing of this message generates a shorter transcript that, after a structural rearrangement, becomes translatable (iii) but this rearrangement also leads to the formation of two stem-loop structures allowing formation of an extended duplex with IsoA1 via kissing-loop interactions...
January 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061877/campylobacter-coli-infection-in-pet-birds-in-southern-italy
#10
Ludovico Dipineto, Luca Borrelli, Antonino Pace, Violante Romano, Stefano D'Orazio, Lorena Varriale, Tamara Pasqualina Russo, Alessandro Fioretti
Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp...
January 6, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057746/large-scale-release-of-campylobacter-draft-genomes-resources-for-food-safety-and-public-health-from-the-100k-pathogen-genome-project
#11
Allison M Weis, Bihua C Huang, Dylan B Storey, Nguyet Kong, Poyin Chen, Narine Arabyan, Brent Gilpin, Carl Mason, Andrea K Townsend, Woutrina A Smith, Barbara A Byrne, Conor C Taff, Bart C Weimer
Campylobacter is a food-associated bacterium and a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, being associated with poultry in the food supply. This is the initial public release of 202 Campylobacter genome sequences as part of the 100K Pathogen Genome Project. These isolates represent global genomic diversity in the Campylobacter genus.
January 5, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056838/first-case-report-of-myopericarditis-linked-to-campylobacter-coli-enterocolitis
#12
Cameron R M Moffatt, Soniah B Moloi, Karina J Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. Although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. Such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely Campylobacter jejuni. We report the first case of myopericarditis following Campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054368/acid-suppression-medications-and-bacterial-gastroenteritis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Li Wei, Lasantha Ratnayake, Gabby Phillips, Chris C McGuigan, Steve V Morant, Robert W Flynn, Isla S Mackenzie, Thomas M MacDonald
AIMS: To investigate whether acid suppression medicines (ASMs) increase the risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. METHODS: A population-based, propensity-score matched cohort study using a record-linkage database in Tayside, Scotland. The study consisted of 188,323 exposed to ASMs [proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA)] and 376,646 controls (a propensity-score matched cohort from the rest of population who were not exposed to ASMs) between 1999 and 2013...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#14
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045552/factors-influencing-knowledge-food-safety-practices-and-food-preferences-during-warm-weather-of-salmonella-and-campylobacter-cases-in-south-australia
#15
Adriana Milazzo, Lynne C Giles, Ying Zhang, Ann P Koehler, Janet E Hiller, Peng Bi
OBJECTIVE: To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days...
January 3, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042765/study-of-serum-levels-of-some-oxidative-stress-markers-in-children-with-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#16
Adel A Hagag, Saleh M Amin, Rasha B El-Fiky, Magda E El-Sayad
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative spiral shaped bacteria, with sheathed flagella. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infections in humans. Infection is usually acquired during childhood, and becomes a lifelong infection in most people unless treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of oxidative stress indices in children with H. pylori infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was carried out on 60 children infected with H...
January 2, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041738/epimural-bacterial-community-structure-in-the-rumen-of-holstein-cows-with-different-responses-to-a-long-term-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-diet-challenge
#17
S U Wetzels, E Mann, P Pourazad, M Qumar, B Pinior, B U Metzler-Zebeli, M Wagner, S Schmitz-Esser, Q Zebeli
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a prevalent metabolic disorder in cattle, characterized by intermittent drops in ruminal pH. This study investigated the effect of a gradual adaptation and continuously induced long-term SARA challenge diet on the epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of cows. Eight rumen-cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were transitioned over 1 wk from a forage-based baseline feeding diet (grass silage-hay mix) to a SARA challenge diet, which they were fed for 4 wk. The SARA challenge diet consisted of 60% concentrates (dry matter basis) and 40% grass silage-hay mix...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035601/epidemiological-relationships-of-campylobacter-jejuni-strains-isolated-from-humans-and-chickens-in-south-korea
#18
Jae-Young Oh, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Bai Wei, Hyung-Kwan Jang, Suk-Kyung Lim, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Suk-Chan Jung, Min-Su Kang
Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029188/a-novel-isolation-protocol-and-probe-based-rt-pcr-for-diagnosis-of-gastric-infections-with-the-zoonotic-pathogen-helicobacter-suis
#19
Caroline Blaecher, Eva Bauwens, Alfred Tay, Fanny Peters, Sylvia Dobbs, John Dobbs, André Charlett, Richard Ducatelle, Freddy Haesebrouck, Annemieke Smet
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious microorganism associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In vitro isolation of this agent from human patients has so far been unsuccessful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A probe-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for the rapid detection of H. suis in gastric biopsies was developed. Secondly, a mouse-passage-based protocol was optimized for isolation of low numbers of viable H...
December 28, 2016: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028852/structural-investigation-on-wlarg-from-campylobacter-jejuni-a-sugar-aminotransferase
#20
Garrett T Dow, Michel Gilbert, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Of particular concern is the link between C. jejuni infections and the subsequent development of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an acquired autoimmune disorder leading to paralysis. All Gram-negative bacteria contain complex glycoconjugates anchored to their outer membranes, but in most strains of C. jejuni, this lipoglycan lacks the O-antigen repeating units. Recent mass spectrometry analyses indicate that the C...
December 28, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
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