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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914001/subtilosin-prevents-biofilm-formation-by-inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing
#1
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913631/cutting-edge-lymphotoxin-signaling-is-essential-for-clearance-of-salmonella-from-the-gut-lumen-and-generation-of-anti-salmonella-protective-immunity
#3
Joanna A Wroblewska, Yuan Zhang, Haidong Tang, Xiaohuan Guo, Cathryn Nagler, Yang-Xin Fu
The immunological components that control resolution of Salmonella infection and successful vaccination are poorly defined. In a model of chronic gastrointestinal infection, we observed that the lymphotoxin (LT) pathway is essential for the clearance and resolution of primary infection of attenuated Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain SL3261 ΔaroA Using gnotobiotic mice, we show that LTβ receptor (LTβR) signaling and the microbiota are required to promote clearance of attenuated S. enterica Typhimurium from the gut lumen...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913589/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#4
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane, which can mediate some of these signals...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913425/cd36-mediates-h2o2-induced-calcium-influx-in-lung-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#5
Karthik Suresh, Laura Servinsky, Jose Reyes, Clark Undem, Joel Zaldumbide, Otgonchimeg Rentsendorj, Sruti Modekurty, Jeffrey M Dodd-O, Alan L Scott, David B Pearse, Larissa A Shimoda
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular Ca2+ play a key role in endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury (ALI). We previously showed that H2O2-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in LMVECs involve the membrane Ca2+ channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4), and that inhibiting this channel attenuated H2O2-induced barrier disruption in vitro. We also showed that phosphorylation of TRPV4 by the Src family kinase, Fyn, contributes to H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx in LMVEC...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913309/sequence-determinants-of-the-caenhorhabditis-elegansdopamine-transporter-dictating-in-vivoaxonal-export-and-synaptic-localization
#6
Sarah B Robinson, J Andrew Hardaway, Shannon L Hardie, Jane Wright, Ryan M Glynn, Daniel P Bermingham, Qiao Han, Sarah M Sturgeon, Phyllis Freeman, Randy D Blakely
The monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) acts across phylogeny to modulate both simple and complex behaviors. The presynaptic DA transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of DA signaling capacity in ensuring efficient extracellular DA clearance. In humans, DAT is also a major target for prescribed and abused psychostimulants. Multiple structural determinants of DAT function and regulation have been defined, though largely these findings have arisen from heterologous expression or ex vivo cell culture studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913140/comparative-analysis-of-tcdd-induced-ahr-mediated-gene-expression-in-human-mouse-and-rat-primary-b-cells
#7
Natalia Kovalova, Rance Nault, Robert Crawford, Timothy R Zacharewski, Norbert E Kaminski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) resulting in altered gene expression. In vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that B cells are directly impaired by TCDD, and are a sensitive target as evidenced by suppression of antibody responses. The window of sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM secretion among mouse, rat and human B cells is similar. Specifically, TCDD must be present within the initial 12h post B cell stimulation, indicating that TCDD disrupts early signaling network(s) necessary for B lymphocyte activation and differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913094/hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches-produce-lineage-instructive-signals-to-control-multipotent-progenitor-differentiation
#8
Ana Cordeiro Gomes, Takahiro Hara, Vivian Y Lim, Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter, Erin Nevius, Tatsuki Sugiyama, Shizue Tani-Ichi, Susan Schlenner, Ellen Richie, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Richard A Flavell, Takashi Nagasawa, Koichi Ikuta, João Pedro Pereira
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) self-renew in bone marrow niches formed by mesenchymal progenitors and endothelial cells expressing the chemokine CXCL12, but whether a separate niche instructs multipotent progenitor (MPP) differentiation remains unclear. We show that MPPs resided in HSC niches, where they encountered lineage-instructive differentiation signals. Conditional deletion of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in MPPs reduced differentiation into common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which decreased lymphopoiesis...
November 23, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911411/preparation-and-in-vivo-use-of-an-activity-based-probe-for-n-acylethanolamine-acid-amidase
#9
Elisa Romeo, Silvia Pontis, Stefano Ponzano, Fabiola Bonezzi, Marco Migliore, Simona Di Martino, Maria Summa, Daniele Piomelli
Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a method for the identification of an enzyme of interest in a complex proteome through the use of a chemical probe that targets the enzyme's active sites. A reporter tag introduced into the probe allows for the detection of the labeled enzyme by in-gel fluorescence scanning, protein blot, fluorescence microscopy, or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Here, we describe the preparation and use of the compound ARN14686, a click chemistry activity-based probe (CC-ABP) that selectively recognizes the enzyme N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910998/aurora-a-shines-on-t-cell-activation-through-the-regulation-of-lck
#10
Noelia Blas-Rus, Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noa B Martín-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Different protein kinases control signaling emanating from the T cell receptor (TCR) during antigen-specific T cell activation. Mitotic kinases, e.g. Aurora-A, have been widely studied in the context of mitosis due to their role during microtubule (MT) nucleation, becoming critical regulators of cell cycle progression. We have recently described a specific role for Aurora-A kinase in antigenic T cell activation. Blockade of Aurora-A in T cells severely disrupts the dynamics of MTs and CD3ζ-bearing signaling vesicles during T cell activation...
December 2, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910960/unc-5-homolog-b-unc5b-is-one-of-the-key-downstream-targets-of-n-%C3%AE-acetyltransferase-10-naa10
#11
Huiyu Xu, Yong Han, Bing Liu, Rong Li
N-α-acetyltransferase 10 (Naa10) displays alpha (N-terminal) acetyltransferase activity. It functions as a major modulator of cell growth and differentiation. Until now, a few downstream targets were found, but no studies have concerned about which gene is the early event of Naa10 downstream target. As we know, the earlier events may play more significant role in Naa10 pathway. Through construction of Naa10 stably knocked down H1299 cell line, we discovered cell morphological changes induced by Naa10. Moreover, potential function of Naa10 in cell morphogenesis was also indicated using cDNA microarray analysis of the Naa10 stably knock-down cell line...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909990/orexin-hypocretin-signaling
#12
Jyrki P Kukkonen
Orexin/hypocretin peptide (orexin-A and orexin-B) signaling is believed to take place via the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), named OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors, as described in the previous chapters. Signaling of orexin peptides has been investigated in diverse endogenously orexin receptor-expressing cells - mainly neurons but also other types of cells - and in recombinant cells expressing the receptors in a heterologous manner. Findings in the different systems are partially convergent but also indicate cellular background-specific signaling...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909955/suppressive-effects-of-dabrafenib%C3%A2-on-endothelial-protein-c-receptor-shedding
#13
Sae-Kwang Ku, Jongdoo Kim, Sang Chan Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
Beyond its role in the activation of protein C, the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway. EPCR can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Dabrafenib (DAB) is a B-Raf inhibitor and initially used for the treatment of metastatic melanoma therapy. However, little is known about the effects of DAB on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of DAB on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-, interleukin (IL)-1β-induced EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding in mice and underlying mechanism...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909693/unfractionated-and-low-molecular-weight-heparin-and-the-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-ibmx-and-cilostazol-block-ex-vivo-equid-herpesvirus-type-1-induced-platelet-activation
#14
Tracy Stokol, Priscila B D Serpa, Muhammad N Zahid, Marjory B Brooks
Equid herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. These clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. The mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. We have previously shown that EHV-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. Activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by providing a surface to localize coagulation factor complexes that amplify and propagate thrombin generation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909648/fc%C3%AE-receptors-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Menna R Clatworthy
In the current era, one of the major factors limiting graft survival is chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), whilst patient survival is impacted by the effects of immunosuppression on susceptibility to infection, malignancy and atherosclerosis. IgG antibodies play a role in all of these processes, and many of their cellular effects are mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). These surface receptors are expressed by most immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909439/the-a-allele-of-the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs630923-creates-a-binding-site-for-mef2c-resulting-in-reduced-cxcr5-promoter-activity-in-b-cell-lymphoblastic-cell-lines
#16
Nikita A Mitkin, Alisa M Muratova, Anton M Schwartz, Dmitry V Kuprash
Chemokine receptor CXCR5 is highly expressed in B-cells and under normal conditions is involved in their migration to specific areas of secondary lymphoid organs. B-cells are known to play an important role in various autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) where areas of demyelinating lesions attract B-cells by overexpressing CXCL13, the CXCR5 ligand. In this study, we aimed to determine the functional significance of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs630923 (A/C), which is located in cxcr5 gene promoter, and its common allele is associated with increased risk of MS...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909235/a-simple-and-sensitive-high-content-assay-for-the-characterization-of-antiproliferative-therapeutic-antibodies
#18
Andreas Stengl, David Hörl, Heinrich Leonhardt, Jonas Helma
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a central class of therapeutic agents in particular as antiproliferative compounds. Their often complex modes of action require sensitive assays during early, functional characterization. Current cell-based proliferation assays often detect metabolites that are indicative of metabolic activity but do not directly account for cell proliferation. Measuring DNA replication by incorporation of base analogues such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) fills this analytical gap but was previously restricted to bulk effect characterization in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formats...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909057/structure-of-the-tir-domain-of-bcap-which-links-phosphoinositide-metabolism-with-the-negative-regulation-of-the-tlr-signalosome
#19
Samer Halabi, Eiki Sekine, Brett Verstack, Nicholas J Gay, Martin C Moncrieffe
Ligand binding to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) results in dimerization of their cytosolic TIR domains and recruitment of post-receptor signal transducers into a complex signalosome. TLR activation leads to the production of transcription factors, pro-inflammatory molecules and the activation of Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) in a process that requires the multi-modular B-cell Adaptor for Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (BCAP). BCAP has a sequence previously proposed as a "cryptic" TIR domain. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal region of human BCAP and show that it possesses a canonical TIR-fold...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909050/notch-pathway-is-activated-via-genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-and-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-clear-cell-renal-cancer
#20
Tushar D Bhagat, Yiyu Zou, Shizeng Huang, Jihwan Park, Matthew B Palmer, Caroline Hu, Wejuan Li, Niraj Shenoy, Orsolya Giricz, Gaurav Choudhary, Yiting Yu, Yi-An Ko, Maria C Izquierdo, Ae Seo Deok Park, Nishanth Vallumsetla, Remi Laurence, Robert Lopez, Masako Suzuki, James Pullman, Justin Kaner, Benjamin Gartrell, A Ari Hakimi, John M Greally, Bharvin Patel, Karim Benhadji, Kith Pradhan, Amit Verma, Katalin Susztak
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is an incurable malignancy in advanced stages and needs newer therapeutic targets. Transcriptomic analysis of CCRCCs and matched microdissected renal tubular controls revealed overexpression of NOTCH ligands and receptors in tumor tissues. Examination of the TCGA RNA-seq dataset also revealed widespread activation of NOTCH pathway in a large cohort of CCRCC samples. Samples with NOTCH pathway activation were also clinically distinct and were associated with better overall survival...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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