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Major histocompatibility complex

Jiayi Yan, Guanghui Chen, Xuesong Zhao, Fangying Chen, Ting Wang, Fei Miao
Diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 (DPCR1) is located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. It was reported to be downregulated in invasive pituitary adenoma compared with that in non-invasive tumors, but upregulated in the precursor of gastric carcinogenesis. However, the direct effect of DPCR1 on cancer cells has rarely been reported, and the role DPCR1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. The clinical sample validation and public data analysis of the present study demonstrated that DPCR1 was upregulated markedly in PDAC and this high expression was negatively correlated with the patient prognosis...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vincent Guichard, Nelly Bonilla, Aurélie Durand, Alexandra Audemard-Verger, Thomas Guilbert, Bruno Martin, Bruno Lucas, Cédric Auffray
Continuous contact with self-major histocompatibility complex ligands is essential for the survival of naive CD4 T cells. We have previously shown that the resulting tonic TCR signaling also influences their fate upon activation by increasing their ability to differentiate into induced/peripheral regulatory T cells. To decipher the molecular mechanisms governing this process, we here focus on the TCR signaling cascade and demonstrate that a rise in intracellular calcium levels is sufficient to modulate the phenotype of mouse naive CD4 T cells and to increase their sensitivity to regulatory T-cell polarization signals, both processes relying on Calcineurin activation...
December 14, 2017: ELife
Hong-Yi Liu, Fei Xue, Jie Gong, Qiu-Hong Wan, Sheng-Guo Fang
Amphibians can be more vulnerable to environmental changes and diseases than other species because of their complex life cycle and physiological requirements. Therefore, understanding the adaptation of amphibians to environmental changes is crucial for their conservation. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents an excellent tool for the investigation of adaptive variations and the assessment of adaptive potential because it can be under strong diversifying selection. Here, we isolated the MHC class II B (MHCIIB) gene from cDNA sequences of the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), a widespread amphibian species in China, and designed locus-specific primers to characterize adaptive variability of this amphibian...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
T Maroilley, G Lemonnier, J Lecardonnel, D Esquerré, Y Ramayo-Caldas, M J Mercat, C Rogel-Gaillard, J Estellé
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve sustainability in livestock production systems have focused on two objectives: investigating the genetic control of immune function as it pertains to robustness and disease resistance, and finding predictive markers for use in breeding programs. In this context, the peripheral blood transcriptome represents an important source of biological information about an individual's health and immunological status, and has been proposed for use as an intermediate phenotype to measure immune capacity...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
Akito Nakao, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Nobuteru Usuda, Shunsuke Ishii, Kazuyoshi Murata, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Accumulating evidence suggests that subcellular-scale structures such as dendritic spine and mitochondria may be involved in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Previously, we proposed mice lacking Schnurri-2 (Shn2; also called major histocompatibility complex [MHC]-binding protein 2 [MBP-2], or human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 2 [HIVEP2]) as a schizophrenia and intellectual disability model with mild chronic inflammation. In the mutants' brains, there are increases in C4b and C1q genes, which are considered to mediate synapse elimination during postnatal development...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
Hernando Curtidor, César Reyes, Adriana Bermúdez, Magnolia Vanegas, Yahson Varela, Manuel E Patarroyo
Synthetic peptides have become invaluable biomedical research and medicinal chemistry tools for studying functional roles, i.e., binding or proteolytic activity, naturally-occurring regions' immunogenicity in proteins and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines. Synthetic peptides can mimic protein sites; their structure and function can be easily modulated by specific amino acid replacement. They have major advantages, i.e., they are cheap, easily-produced and chemically stable, lack infectious and secondary adverse reactions and can induce immune responses via T- and B-cell epitopes...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
K E Hopperton, D Mohammad, M O Trépanier, V Giuliano, R P Bazinet
Neuroinflammation is proposed as one of the mechanisms by which Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-β plaques, leads to neuronal death and dysfunction. Increases in the expression of markers of microglia, the main neuroinmmune cell, are widely reported in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, but the literature has not yet been systematically reviewed to determine whether this is a consistent pathological feature. A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PsychINFO for articles published up to 23 February 2017...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Alida S D Kindt, Rainer W Fuerst, Jan Knoop, Michael Laimighofer, Tanja Telieps, Markus Hippich, Maria A Woerheide, Simone Wahl, Rory Wilson, Eva-Maria Sedlmeier, Angela Hommel, John A Todd, Jan Krumsiek, Anette-G Ziegler, Ezio Bonifacio
The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is influenced by genes encoding major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. By examining the epigenetic methylation maps of cord blood samples, we found marked differences in the methylation status of CpG sites within the MHC genes (cis-metQTLs) between carriers of the type 1 diabetes risk haplotypes HLA-DRB1*03-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (DR3-DQ2) and HLA-DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DR4-DQ8). These differences were found in children and adults, and were accompanied by reduced HLA-DR protein expression in immune cells with the HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotype...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Keita Omote, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Chizuko Nishida, Keisuke Saito, Satoshi Fujimoto, Ryuichi Masuda
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) includes many genes that are essential for the adaptive immune system, and variation in the antigen binding site (ABS) is related to resistance against pathogens. In the present study, quantitative real-time PCR indicated a larger number of MHC gene copies in the endangered population of Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) than in five other owl species, and massively parallel pyrosequencing detected more MHC class IIβ per individual alleles in B. blakistoni than in the other species...
December 2017: Zoological Science
D Burger, S Thomas, H Aepli, M Dreyer, G Fabre, E Marti, H Sieme, M R Robinson, C Wedekind
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been shown to influence social signalling and mate preferences in many species, including humans. First observations suggest that MHC signalling may also affect female fertility. To test this hypothesis, we exposed 191 female horses (Equus caballus) to either an MHC-similar or an MHC-dissimilar stimulus male around the time of ovulation and conception. A within-subject experimental design controlled for non-MHC-linked male characteristics, and instrumental insemination with semen of other males (n = 106) controlled for potential confounding effects of semen or embryo characteristics...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jawaher Alsughayyir, Reza Motallebzadeh, Gavin J Pettigrew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following solid organ transplantation (SOT), populations of donor lymphocytes are frequently found in the recipient circulation. Their impact on host alloimmunity has long been debated but remains unclear, and it has been suggested that transferred donor lymphocytes may either promote tolerance to the graft or hasten its rejection. We discuss possible mechanisms by which the interaction of donor passenger lymphocytes with recipient immune cells may either augment the host alloimmune response or inhibit it...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Bharathi Krishnan, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar A Rajasekaran, Muhammad Z Afzal, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Jennifer L Strande, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
Myocarditis/dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients can develop autoantibodies to various cardiac antigens and one major antigen is β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Previous reports indicate that animals immunized with a β1AR fragment encompassing, 197-222 amino acids for a prolonged period can develop DCM by producing autoantibodies, but existence of T cell epitopes, if any, were unknown. Using A/J mice that are highly susceptible to lymphocytic myocarditis, we have identified β1AR 171-190, β1AR 181-200, and β1AR 211-230 as the major T cell epitopes that bind major histocompatibility complex class II/IAk or IEk alleles, and by creating IAk and IEk dextramers, we demonstrate that the CD4 T cell responses to be antigen-specific...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Obada Hasan, Muneeba Jessar, Muhammad Ashar, Shahryar Noordin, Tashfeen Ahmad
INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis is a rare and progressive multisystem autoimmune disorder that is characterized pathologically by vascular abnormalities, connective tissue sclerosis and atrophy of skin and various internal organs (e.g., alimentary tract, lungs, heart, kidney, CNS), and autoantibodies. With an unknown etiology, Scleroderma is a complex polygenetic disease. A recent Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) confirmed a strong association with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and autoimmunity...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Yan-Long Zhao, Pu-Xun Tian, Feng Han, Jin Zheng, Xin-Xin Xia, Wu-Jun Xue, Xiao-Ming Ding, Chen-Guang Ding
Macrophages have a diverse set of functions based upon their activation states. The activation states, including resting (M0) and polarizing (M1 and M2) states, of macrophages derived from the mouse bone marrow, spleen, and peritoneal cavity (BMs, SPMs, and PCMs, respectively) were compared. We evaluated the macrophage yield per mouse and compared the surface markers major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II and CD86 by flow cytometry. The relative mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, mannose receptor (MR), and Ym1 in the M0, M1, and M2 states were also compared using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Max A Stockslager, Josephine Shaw Bagnall, Vivian C Hecht, Kevin Hu, Edgar Aranda-Michel, Kristofor Payer, Robert J Kimmerling, Scott R Manalis
The physical characteristics of the T cell receptor (TCR)-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) interaction are known to play a central role in determining T cell function in the initial stages of the adaptive immune response. State-of-the-art assays can probe the kinetics of this interaction with single-molecular-bond resolution, but this precision typically comes at the cost of low throughput, since the complexity of these measurements largely precludes "scaling up." Here, we explore the feasibility of detecting specific TCR-pMHC interactions by flowing T cells past immobilized pMHC and measuring the reduction in cell speed due to the mechanical force of the receptor-ligand interaction...
November 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Yu Zhang, Lifeng Tian, Patrick Sleiman, Soumitra Ghosh, Hakon Hakonarson
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified and validated 200 risk loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to date, including risk loci for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Previously studies mainly used single SNP testing methods and only reported the most significant association within each locus. Advanced methods are needed to detect additional joint effects of multiple SNPs and fine map causal variants in presence of strong linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we applied a powerful Bayesian method to analyze an existing Immunochip data sets for IBD from the international inflammatory bowel disease genetics consortium...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Larissa Fernanda Simielli Fonseca, Daniele Fernanda Jovino Gimenez, Danielly Beraldo Dos Santos Silva, Roger Barthelson, Fernando Baldi, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, Lucia Galvão Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: Meat tenderness is the consumer's most preferred sensory attribute. This trait is affected by a number of factors, including genotype, age, animal sex, and pre- and post-slaughter management. In view of the high percentage of Zebu genes in the Brazilian cattle population, mainly Nellore cattle, the improvement of meat tenderness is important since the increasing proportion of Zebu genes in the population reduces meat tenderness. However, the measurement of this trait is difficult once it can only be made after animal slaughtering...
December 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
Yayi He, Leslie Rozeboom, Christopher J Rivard, Kim Ellison, Rafal Dziadziuszko, Hui Yu, Caicun Zhou, Fred R Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. METHODS: We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Seven (12...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Na Qin, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Qun Lu, Zijian Ma, Mingtao Huang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Guangfu Jin, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen
OBJECTIVES: The polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a vital role in the immune system and drives predisposition to multiple cancers. A number of lung cancer-related genetic variants in the MHC have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies; however, the causal variants remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we conducted a large-scale fine-mapping study of lung cancer in the MHC region of 13,945 unrelated Asian individuals to search for potential causal variants...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Hong-Xi Zhao, Feng Jiang, Ya-Jing Zhu, Li Wang, Ke Li, Yang Li, Xiao-Hong Wang, Ling-Song Li, Yuan-Qing Yao
BACKGROUND: Despite the great potential of utilizing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived cells as cell source for transplantation, these cells were often rejected during engraftment by the immune system due to adaptive immune response. METHODS: We first evaluated HLA-G expression level in both hESCs and differentiated progenitor cells. After that, we generated modified hESC lines that over-express HLA-G1 using lentiviral infection with the construct contains both HLA-G1 and GFP tag...
November 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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