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Major histocompatibility complex

Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Adam H Haines, Ning Zhang, A Courtney DeVries
Social isolation presents a risk factor and worsens outcome to cerebrovascular diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. This study examines the effect of social environment on microglial reactivity after global cerebral ischemia, to test the hypothesis that social isolation leads to greater microglial responses. Adult female and male mice were pair-housed or socially isolated for one week prior to cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) or the sham procedure, and following either 2 or 24 h of reperfusion, microglia samples were enriched and analyzed for gene expression...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
G R Gowane, Najif Akram, S S Misra, Ved Prakash, Arun Kumar
The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of the Sirohi goat for DQB and DQB1 loci, and to study their association with antibody response induced by the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine. A total of 360 Sirohi kids were studied using single stranded confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) followed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) for DQB and DQB1 diversities. The competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (C-ELISA) was used to evaluate immune response post-PPR vaccination...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Sunday O Peters, Tanveer Hussain, Adeyemi S Adenaike, Matthew A Adeleke, Marcos De Donato, Jordan Hazzard, Masroor E Babar, Ikhide G Imumorin
Genetic polymorphisms and diversity of BoLA-DRB3.2 are essential because of DRB3 gene's function in innate immunity and its association with infectious diseases resistance or tolerance in cattle. The present study was aimed at assessing the level of genetic diversity of DRB3 in the exon 2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) region in African, American and Asian cattle breeds. Amplification of exon 2 in 174 cattle revealed 15 haplotypes. The breeds with the highest number of haplotypes were Brangus (10), Sokoto Gudali (10) and Dajal (9), while the lowest number of haplotypes were found in Holstein and Sahiwal with 4 haplotypes each...
2018: Journal of Genomics
Mona S Abdellateif, Sabry M Shaarawy, Eman Z Kandeel, Ahmed H El-Habashy, Mohamed L Salem, Motawa E El-Houseini
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been used in a number of clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy; however, they have achieved limited success in solid tumors. Consequently the aim of the present study was to identify a novel potential immunotherapeutic target for breast cancer patients through in vitro optimization of a viable DC-based vaccine. Immature DCs were primed by viable MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the activity and maturation of DCs were assessed through measuring CD83, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II expression, in addition to different T cell subpopulations, namely CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+ CD25+ forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), by flow cytometric analysis...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Yuki Kinjo, Shogo Takatsuka, Naoki Kitano, Shun Kawakubo, Masahiro Abe, Keigo Ueno, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T ( i NKT) cells are innate-type lymphocytes that express a T-cell receptor (TCR) containing an invariant α chain encoded by the Vα14 gene in mice and Vα24 gene in humans. These i NKT cells recognize endogenous, microbial, and synthetic glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule CD1d. Upon TCR stimulation by glycolipid antigens, i NKT cells rapidly produce large amounts of cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anna Sanecka, Nagisa Yoshida, Elizabeth Motunrayo Kolawole, Harshil Patel, Brian D Evavold, Eva-Maria Frickel
T cell receptor-major histocompatibility complex (TCR-MHC) affinities span a wide range in a polyclonal T cell response, yet it is undefined how affinity shapes long-term properties of CD8 T cells during chronic infection with persistent antigen. Here, we investigate how the affinity of the TCR-MHC interaction shapes the phenotype of memory CD8 T cells in the chronically Toxoplasma gondii- infected brain. We employed CD8 T cells from three lines of transnuclear (TN) mice that harbor in their endogenous loci different T cell receptors specific for the same Toxoplasma antigenic epitope ROP7...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paula Nunes-Hasler
In a recent publication in Nature Communications the group of Dr. Dmitry Gabrilovich takes us one step closer to understanding why lipid accumulation impairs the function of tumour-associated dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, the authors present two surprising and significant findings. First, they show that in mouse DCs oxidized lipids function as a sink that traps the heat shock chaperone HSP70, a molecular target of emerging anti-cancer strategies. Secondly, they find that HSP70 in turn regulates the trafficking of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHC-I) molecules, a complex that triggers the proliferation of cancer-killing T cells...
June 20, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Md Kamal Hossain, Abhishek Vartak, Partha Karmakar, Steven J Sucheck, Katherine A Wall
Utilizing natural antibodies to augment vaccine immunogenicity is a promising approach towards cancer immunotherapy. Anti-rhamnose (anti-Rha) antibodies are some of the most common natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies present in human serum. Therefore, rhamnose can be utilized as a targeting moiety for a rhamnose-containing vaccine to prepare an effective vaccine formulation. It was shown previously that anti-Rha antibody generated in mice binds effectively with Rha-conjugated vaccine and is picked up by antigen presenting cells (APCs) through stimulatory Fc receptors...
June 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
C A Dominguez, M Kalliomäki, U Gunnarsson, A Moen, G Sandblom, I Kockum, E Lavant, T Olsson, F Nyberg, L J Rygh, C Røe, J Gjerstad, T Gordh, F Piehl
Neuropathic pain conditions are common after nerve injuries and are suggested to be regulated in part by genetic factors. We have previously demonstrated a strong genetic influence of the rat major histocompatibility complex on development of neuropathic pain behavior after peripheral nerve injury. In order to study if the corresponding human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) also influences susceptibility to pain, we performed an association study in patients that had undergone surgery for inguinal hernia (n = 189)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Guerard W Byrne
The major histocompatibility complex class I and class II human leukocyte antigens (HLA) play a central role in adaptive immunity but are also the dominant polymorphic proteins targeted in allograft rejection. Sensitized patients with high levels of panel-reactive anti-HLA antibody (PRA) are at risk of early allograft injury, rejection, reduced allograft survival and often experience prolonged waiting times prior to transplantation. Xenotransplantation, using genetically modified porcine organs, offers a unique source of donor organs for these highly sensitized patients if the anti-HLA antibody, which places the allograft at risk, does not also enhance anti-pig antibody reactivity responsible for xenograft rejection...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Zhan Wang, Zenan Wang, Shu Li, Binghao Li, Lingling Sun, Hengyuan Li, Peng Lin, Shengdong Wang, Wangsiyuan Teng, Xingzhi Zhou, Zhaoming Ye
γδ T cell-based immunotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS) has shown limited success thus far. DNA-demethylating agents not only induce tumor cell death but also have an immunomodulatory function. In this study, we have assessed the potential benefit of combining decitabine (DAC, a DNA demethylation drug) and γδ T cells for OS immunotherapy. DAC increased the expression of natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) ligands (NKG2DLs), including major histocompatibility complex class I-related chains B (MICB) and UL16-binding protein 1 (ULBP1), on the OS cell surface, making the cells more sensitive to recognition and destruction by cytotoxic γδ T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arjan P Palstra, Jeroen Kals, Ainhoa Blanco Garcia, Ron P Dirks, Marnix Poelman
Seaweeds may represent immuno-stimulants that could be used as health-promoting fish feed components. This study was performed to gain insights into the immunomodulatory effects of dietary seaweeds in Atlantic salmon. Specifically tested were 10% inclusion levels of Laminaria digitata (SW1) and a commercial blend of seaweeds (Oceanfeed® ) (SW2) against a fishmeal based control diet (FMC). Differences between groups were assessed in growth, feed conversion ratio and blood parameters hematocrit and hemoglobin...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Oleksandr H Minchenko, Dariia O Tsymbal, Dmytro O Minchenko, Svitlana V Prylutska, Oksana S Hnatiuk, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Nikos G Tsierkezos, Uwe Ritter
The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the expression of a subset of immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation -associated genes was studied in normal human astrocytes (line NHA/TS). In the cells treated with SWCNTs (2, 10 and 50 ng/ml of medium for 24 h) we observed a strong dose-dependent down-regulation of the expression of a cell surface glycoproteins HLA-DRA (major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha) and HLA-DRB1. At the same time, the expression of HLA-F (major histocompatibility complex, class I, F), LMNB1 (lamin B1), and HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A1) genes as well as the level of miR-190b and miR-7 was up-regulated in NHA/TS subjected to different concentrations of SWCNTs...
June 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
A S Hess, B R Trible, M K Hess, R R R Rowland, J K Lunney, G S Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Genetic and antigenic variability between Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) isolates has encumbered vaccine development. Here, the genetic basis of PRRSV antibody response was assessed using data from experimental infection trials of commercial crossbred weaner pigs across with one of two distinct PRRSV isolates, NVSL-97-7895 (~750 pigs) and KS-2006-72109 (~450 pigs). Objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of antibody response, measured as the sample to positive ratio (S:P) of PRRSV N-protein specific IgG in serum at 42 days post infection (dpi); assess the relationship of S:P at 42 dpi with serum viremia and growth under infection; and identify genomic regions associated with S:P at 42 dpi...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Leah C Kottyan, Avery Maddox, Julian R Braxton, Emily M Stucke, Vince Mukkada, Philip E Putnam, J Pablo Abonia, Mirna Chehade, Robert A Wood, Robbie D Pesek, Brian P Vickery, Glenn T Furuta, Peter Dawson, Hugh A Sampson, Lisa J Martin, Jennifer A Kelly, Robert P Kimberly, Kathy Sivils, Patrick M Gaffney, Kenneth Kaufman, John B Harley, Marc E Rothenberg
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by immune hypersensitivity to food. Herein, we tested whether genetic risk factors for known, non-allergic, immune-mediated diseases, particularly those involving autoimmunity, were associated with EoE risk. We used the high-density Immunochip platform, encoding 200,000 genetic variants for major auto-immune disease. Accordingly, 1214 subjects with EoE of European ancestry and 3734 population controls were genotyped and assessed using data directly generated or imputed from the previously published GWAS...
June 8, 2018: Genes and Immunity
Zhenjie Cao, Lu Wang, Yajing Xiang, Xiaocen Liu, Zhigang Tu, Yun Sun, Yongcan Zhou
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the vertebrate immune response to antigenic peptides, and it is essential for recognizing foreign pathogens in organisms. In this study, MHC class IIα (Trov-MHC IIα) from the golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) was first cloned and identified. The gene structure of Trov-MHC IIα was contained four exons and three introns. High levels of polymorphism were found in the exon 2 of Trov-MHC IIα. A total of 29 different MHC class IIα alleles with high polymorphism were identified from 80 individuals...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Daniel M Altmann
At a time when immunology seeks to progress ever more rapidly from characterization of a microbial or tumour antigen to the immune correlates that may define protective T-cell immunity, there is a need for robust tools to enable accurate predictions of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) and peptide-MHC-T-cell receptor binding. Improvements in the curation of data sets from high throughput pMHC analysis, such as the NIH Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), and the associated developments of predictive tools rooted in machine-learning approaches, are having significant impact...
July 2018: Immunology
Corinne Letendre, Jean-Philippe Auger, Paul Lemire, Tristan Galbas, Marcelo Gottschalk, Jacques Thibodeau, Mariela Segura
Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent. Encapsulated strains of S. suis modulate dendritic cell (DC) functions, leading to poorly activated CD4+ T cells. However, the antigen presentation ability of S. suis -stimulated DCs has not been investigated yet. In this work, we aimed to characterize the antigen presentation profiles of S. suis- stimulated DCs, both in vitro and in vivo . Upon direct activation in vitro, S. suis- stimulated murine bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs) preserved their antigen capture/processing capacities...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Finetti Francesca, Cosima T Baldari
The development of T cell mediated immunity relies on the assembly of a highly specialized interface between T cell and antigen presenting cell (APC), known as the immunological synapse (IS). IS assembly is triggered when the T cell receptor (TCR) binds to specific peptide antigen presented in association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) by the APC, and is followed by the spatiotemporal dynamic redistribution of TCR, integrins, co-stimulatory receptors and signaling molecules, allowing for the fine-tuning and integration of the signals that lead to T cell activation...
June 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Federica Pierini, Tobias L Lenz
The highly polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a key role in adaptive immunity. Divergent allele advantage, a mechanism of balancing selection, is proposed to contribute to their exceptional polymorphism. It assumes that MHC genotypes with more divergent alleles allow for broader antigen-presentation to immune effector cells, by that increasing immunocompetence. However, the direct correlation between pairwise sequence divergence and the corresponding repertoire of bound peptides has not been studied systematically across different MHC genes...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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