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Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight
Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego's SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors...
August 18, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Todd R Robeck, Kevin Willis, Michael R Scarpuzzi, Justine K O'Brien
Data collected on life-history parameters of known-age animals from the northern (NR) and southern resident (SR) killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the eastern North Pacific were compared with life-history traits of killer whales located at SeaWorld (SEA) facilities. For captive-born SEA animals, mean age and body length at 1st estrus was 7.5 years and 483.7cm, respectively. Estimated mean age at 1st conception was different (P < 0.001) for the combined data from both northern and southern resident (NSR) free-ranging populations (12...
September 29, 2015: Journal of Mammalogy
Bruce Korf, Reza Ahmadian, Judith Allanson, Yoko Aoki, Annette Bakker, Emma Burkitt Wright, Brian Denger, Ype Elgersma, Bruce D Gelb, Karen W Gripp, Bronwyn Kerr, Maria Kontaridis, Conxi Lazaro, Corinne Linardic, Reymundo Lozano, Calum A MacRae, Ludwine Messiaen, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Benjamin Neel, Scott Plotkin, Katherine A Rauen, Amy Roberts, Alcino J Silva, Sitta G Sittampalam, Chao Zhang, Lisa Schoyer
"The Third International Meeting on Genetic Disorders in the RAS/MAPK Pathway: Towards a Therapeutic Approach" was held at the Renaissance Orlando at SeaWorld Hotel (August 2-4, 2013). Seventy-one physicians and scientists attended the meeting, and parallel meetings were held by patient advocacy groups (CFC International, Costello Syndrome Family Network, NF Network and Noonan Syndrome Foundation). Parent and patient advocates opened the meeting with a panel discussion to set the stage regarding their hopes and expectations for therapeutic advances...
August 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Jerry Laws
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Occupational Health & Safety
James Arthur Gillaspy, Jennifer L Brinegar, Robert E Bailey
Despite the wide spread use of operant conditioning within marine animal training, relatively little is known about this unique application of behavioral technology. This article explores the expansion of operant psychology to commercial marine animal training from 1955 to 1965, specifically at marine parks such as Marine Studios Florida, Marineland of the Pacific, Sea Life Park, and SeaWorld. The contributions of Keller and Marian Breland and their business Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) as well as other early practitioners of behavioral technology are reviewed...
2014: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Carolyn E Schlundt, Randall L Dear, Dorian S Houser, Ann E Bowles, Tom Reidarson, James J Finneran
The hearing sensitivities of two short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) were investigated by measuring auditory evoked potentials generated in response to clicks and sinusoidal amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. The first whale tested, an adult female, was a long-time resident at SeaWorld San Diego with a known health history. Click-evoked responses in this animal were similar to those measured in other echolocating odontocetes. Auditory thresholds were comparable to dolphins of similar age determined with similar evoked potential methods...
February 2011: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Margherita Bernardeschi, Patrizia Guidi, Vittoria Scarcelli, Giada Frenzilli, Marco Nigro
Titanium dioxide is extensively used in a variety of products, including industrial materials and cosmetics. Studies mainly performed on human cell lines and in vivo exposure on experimental animals have raised concern about the toxic effects of ultrafine titanium dioxide; however, scarce information is available about its impact on aquatic life. The aim of this article was to assess the genotoxic potential of TiO(2) (anatase and rutile) on bottlenose dolphin leukocytes. Blood samples were obtained from four male and one female specimens reared at the Adriatic SeaWorld "Oltremare" (Riccione, Italy)...
January 2010: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
A D Henningsen, F L Murru, L E L Rasmussen, B R Whitaker, G C Violetta
Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone were determined via radioimmunoassay in adult male sharks from 1988 to 2000. Sampling overlap between the two institutions occurred for 3 months of the year, but steroid concentrations were compared only for April due to the occurrence of sexual conflicts in the sharks at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in that month...
December 2008: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Hongwei Ma, Robin M Overstreet, James H Sniezek, Mobashir Solangi, D Wayne Coats
Examination of mucus discharged from the blowhole of Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) at Marine Life Oceanarium, Gulfport, Mississippi, and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) and Atlantic bottlenose dolphin at SeaWorld Orlando, Orlando, Florida, using live observations and protargol impregnation revealed mixed infections of Kyaroikeus cetarius and two new species. Planilamina n. gen. is characterized by a C-shaped argentophilic band located along the laterally flattened margin of cell and extending from the cell apex to subposterior cone-shaped podite; a deep oral cavity containing one short preoral kinety, two circumoral kineties, seven to 13 infundibular kineties, and a cytostome; a broadly funnel-shaped cytopharynx reinforced by argentophilic fibers but without nematodesmata; closely packed postoral kinetofragments set in a pocket located anterior left of the podite; and somatic kineties as a right field closely situated at the right surface and a left field bordering the anterior left margin of the oral cavity...
November 2006: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
T R Robeck, L M Dalton
During a 10-yr period, a killer whale (Orcinus orca), two Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), all housed at SeaWorld of Texas from 1991 to 2001, were infected with fungi from the class Zygomycetes. In four out of five cases, the fungi were identified as either Saksenaea vasiformis or Apophysomyces elegans. All fungi in the class Zygomycetes aggressively invade the vascular system. Death occurred within 23 days after the initial clinical signs...
December 2002: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Angela M Colagross-Schouten, Jonna A K Mazet, Frances M D Gulland, Melissa A Miller, Sharon Hietala
The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) as a method for detection of exposure to Leptospira spp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were determined. Sera came from individuals that demonstrated clinical signs of renal disease, had lesions suggestive of leptospirosis at necropsy, and had visible leptospires in silver stained kidney sections as positive controls. Sera from unexposed captive individuals were used as negative controls. The test was 100% sensitive at 1:3,200 for confirming renal infection and 100% specific at negative < 1:100 for detection of Leptospira interrogans scrovar pomona antibodies by MAT in California sea lions...
January 2002: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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