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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440802/genetic-hurdles-limit-the-arms-race-between-prochlorococcus-and-the-t7-like-podoviruses-infecting-them
#1
Daniel A Schwartz, Debbie Lindell
Phages and hosts coexist in nature with a high degree of population diversity. This is often explained through coevolutionary models, such as the arms race or density-dependent fluctuating selection, which differ in assumptions regarding the emergence of phage mutants that overcome host resistance. Previously, resistance in the abundant marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, was found to occur frequently. However, little is known about the ability of phages to overcome this resistance. Here we report that, in some cases, T7-like cyanophage mutants emerge to infect resistant Prochlorococcus strains...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438132/early-detection-of-multidrug-and-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-from-smear-positive-sputum-by-direct-sequencing
#2
Jun Chen, Peng Peng, Yixiang Du, Yi Ren, Lifeng Chen, Youyi Rao, Weihua Wang
BACKGROUND: Emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major hurdle for TB control programs especially in developing countries like China. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is high among MDR-TB patients. Early diagnosis of MDR/pre-XDR-TB is essential for lowering transmission of drug-resistant TB and adjusting the treatment regimen. METHODS: Smear-positive sputum specimens (n = 186) were collected from Wuhan Institute for Tuberculosis Control...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436829/modelling-the-effect-of-combined-antimicrobials-a-base-model-for-multiple-hurdles
#3
M Anastasiadi, R J W Lambert
Combining antimicrobials to reduce microbial growth and to combat the potential impact of antimicrobial resistance is an important subject both in foods and in pharmaceutics. Modelling of combined treatments designed to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination in foods (microbiological predictive modelling) has become commonplace. Two main reference models are used to analyse mixtures: the Bliss Independence and the Loewe reference models (LRM). By using optical density to analyse the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila, Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli in combined NaCl/NaCl (a mock combination experiment) and combined NaCl/KCl experiments, previous models for combined antimicrobials in foods, based on the Bliss approach, were shown to be inconsistent and that models based on the LRM more applicable...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436137/insights-into-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-in-mammals-past-present-future
#4
REVIEW
Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Mohammad Nouri
Considering the self-renewal and differentiation ability of pluripotent stem cells, some studies have pointed out the possibility of stem cell-derived sperm production. Most studies that test this hypothesis have been conducted on rodents, with some promising results; however, studies on humans are progressing slowly, and have encountered technical and ethical hurdles. Established methods to differentiate stem cells - including embryoid bodies, co-culturing, and various feeder cells - may provide a niche that is similar to in vivo conditions and resolve epigenetic abnormalities, but a gonadal-like three-dimensional structure is still required to produce germ cells with the correct imprinting...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435341/empowering-patients-of-a-mental-rehabilitation-center-in-a-low-resource-context-a-moroccan-experience-as-a-case-study
#5
Hicham Khabbache, Abdelhak Jebbar, Nadia Rania, Marie-Chantal Doucet, Ali Assad Watfa, Joël Candau, Mariano Martini, Anna Siri, Francesco Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders represent a major source of disability and premature mortality worldwide. However, in developing countries patients with MNS disorders are often poorly managed and treated, particularly in marginalized, impoverished areas where the mental health gap and the treatment gap can reach 90%. Efforts should be made in promoting help by making mental health care more accessible. In this article, we address the challenges that psychological and psychiatric services have to face in a low-resource context, taking our experience at a Moroccan rehabilitation center as a case study...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432130/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-engaging-our-endogenous-adjuvants
#6
Nicholas Collins, Yasmine Belkaid
The reliance of the immune system on constitutive microbial stimulation support the idea that both responsiveness to vaccines and vaccine design need to be considered in the context of host-microbiota interactions. Manipulation of microbe function or composition via diet alteration or microbiota engraftment may soon become a viable approach to control immunity and, as such, vaccine responses. Learning from our endogenous original adjuvants could be critical in overcoming the enormous hurdle of vaccine design against the numerous pathogens that cause chronic infection...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431582/social-media-engagement-analysis-of-u-s-federal-health-agencies-on-facebook
#7
Sanmitra Bhattacharya, Padmini Srinivasan, Philip Polgreen
BACKGROUND: It is becoming increasingly common for individuals and organizations to use social media platforms such as Facebook. These are being used for a wide variety of purposes including disseminating, discussing and seeking health related information. U.S. Federal health agencies are leveraging these platforms to 'engage' social media users to read, spread, promote and encourage health related discussions. However, different agencies and their communications get varying levels of engagement...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426219/solution-processed-cesium-hexabromopalladate-iv-cs2pdbr6-for-optoelectronic-applications
#8
Nobuya Sakai, Amir Abbas Haghighirad, Marina R Filip, Pabitra K Nayak, Simantini Nayak, Alexandra Ramadan, Zhiping Wang, Feliciano Giustino, Henry J Snaith
Lead halide perovskites are materials with excellent optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties. However, some hurdles remain prior to commercialization of these materials, such as chemical stability, phase stability, sensitivity to moisture, and potential issues due to the toxicity of lead. Here, we report a new type of lead-free perovskite related compound, Cs2PdBr6. This compound is solution processable, exhibits long-lived photoluminescence, and an optical band gap of 1.6 eV. Density functional theory calculations indicate that this compound has dispersive electronic bands, with electron and hole effective masses of 0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424972/biosimilars-in-the-united-states-emerging-issues-in-litigation
#9
REVIEW
Alice Yuen-Ting Wong, Martha M Rumore, Albert Wai-Kit Chan
Many first-generation biologics will lose their patent protection by 2020. The biosimilars market is not only attractive but also competitive and tough. The United States (US) is the world's largest pharmaceutical market and is critical to the success of most drugs. However, unclear regulatory requirements and confusing patent resolution procedures create hurdles to market entry of biosimilars. Trade secret exposure and scant exclusivity and adoption also limit the market access of biosimilars. Both biologics and biosimilar developers should closely follow the regulatory and litigation landscape to successfully navigate through the challenges...
April 19, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424694/immune-responses-in-the-central-nervous-system-are-anatomically-segregated-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#10
Barbara Tavano, Vicky Tsipouri, Gareth A D Hardy, Caroline M Royle, Michael R Keegan, Dietmar Fuchs, Steven Patterson, Neil Almond, Neil Berry, Claire Ham, Deborah Ferguson, Adriano Boasso
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accesses the central nervous system (CNS) early during infection, leading to HIV-associated cognitive impairment and establishment of a viral reservoir. Here, we describe a dichotomy in inflammatory responses in different CNS regions in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, a model for HIV infection. We found increased expression of inflammatory genes and perivascular leukocyte infiltration in the midbrain of SIV-infected macaques. Conversely, the frontal lobe showed downregulation of inflammatory genes associated with interferon-γ and interleukin-6 pathways, and absence of perivascular cuffing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423733/nanocrystals-of-a-new-camptothecin-derivative-wcn-21-enhance-its-solubility-and-efficacy
#11
Jia You, Yuyuan Chen, Zubaeda M Mohamed Alsayeh, Xingyu Shen, Chun Li, Pengxuan Zhao, Fei Chen, Yingqian Liu, Chuanrui Xu
WCN-21 is a new camptothecin derivative we synthesized and has desirable anti-tumor efficacy, but its aqueous solubility is very low and hurdles the further evaluation and development. In this study, we prepared nanocrystals of WCN-21 through a bottom-up approach to enhance its solubility and obtained WCN-21 nanorods (WND) and nanospheres (WNP). We investigated the crystallization of WND and WNP in different temperature and solvents and found that both temperature and solvents affect the crystal shapes and sizes...
March 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422478/reduction-of-ammineruthenium-iii-by-sulfide-enables-in-vivo-electrochemical-monitoring-of-free-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide
#12
Shujun Wang, Xiaomeng Liu, Meining Zhang
The discovery of endogenous sulfide in mammalian brain opens up a door to understanding of the physiological function of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The transformation of different forms of sulfide (i.e., S2-, HS-, H2S, bound sulfane sulfur, et al.) in various physiological conditions hurdles the direct detection of hydrogen sulfide in vivo. Here, we find that ammineruthenium (III) (Ru(NH3)63+) can catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of free sulfide including HS- and H2S in a neutral solution (pH 7.4). This property is used to constitute an electrochemical mechanism for selective detection of hydrogen sulfide...
April 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414907/cell-isolation-and-recovery-using-hollow-glass-microspheres-coated-with-nanolayered-films-for-applications-in-resource-limited-settings
#13
Ziye Dong, Caroline C Ahrens, Dan Yu, Zhenya Ding, HyunTaek Lim, Wei Li
Established cell isolation and purification techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), isolation through magnetic micro/nanoparticles, and recovery via microfluidic devices have limited application as disposable technologies appropriate for point-of-care use in remote areas where lab equipment as well as electrical, magnetic, and optical sources are restricted. We report a simple yet effective method for cell isolation and recovery that requires neither specialized lab equipment nor any form of power source...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414205/molecular-tumor-targeting-of-gelonin-by-fusion-with-f3-peptide
#14
Song-Hee Ham, Kyoung Ah Min, Meong Cheol Shin
Therapeutically potent macromolecular drugs have shown great promise for overcoming the limitations of small-molecule anti-cancer drugs. But tumor cell-selective intracellular delivery of the macromolecules remains a major hurdle for their successful clinical application. To overcome this challenge, we engineered a novel genetic fusion protein (F3-Gel) that composed of F3 peptide, a tumor-homing peptide, and gelonin, a plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), and then evaluated its anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo...
April 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413022/humanized-immunoglobulin-mice-models-for-hiv-vaccine-testing-and-studying-the-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-problem
#15
REVIEW
Laurent Verkoczy
A vaccine that can effectively prevent HIV-1 transmission remains paramount to ending the HIV pandemic, but to do so, will likely need to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses. A major technical hurdle toward achieving this goal has been a shortage of animal models with the ability to systematically pinpoint roadblocks to bnAb induction and to rank vaccine strategies based on their ability to stimulate bnAb development. Over the past 6 years, immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in (KI) technology has been leveraged to express bnAbs in mice, an approach that has enabled elucidation of various B-cell tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production and evaluation of strategies to circumvent such processes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411851/the-molecular-revolution-in-cutaneous-biology-era%C3%A2-of-next-generation-sequencing
#16
REVIEW
Ofer Sarig, Eli Sprecher
Like any true conceptual revolution, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has not only radically changed research and clinical practice, it has also modified scientific culture. With the possibility to investigate DNA contents of any organism and in any context, including in somatic disorders or in tissues carrying complex microbial populations, it initially seemed as if the genetic underpinning of any biological phenomenon could now be deciphered in an almost streamlined fashion. However, over the past recent years, we have once again come to understand that there is no such a thing as great opportunities without great challenges...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410140/pathway-based-classification-of-breast-cancer-subtypes
#17
Alex Graudenzi, Claudia Cava, Gloria Bertoli, Bastian Fromm, Kjersti Flatmark, Giancarlo Mauri, Isabella Castiglioni
Cancer heterogeneity represents a major hurdle in the development of effective theranostic strategies, as it prevents to devise unique and maximally efficient diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures even for patients affected by the same tumor type. Computational techniques can nowadays leverage the huge and ever increasing amount of (epi)genomic data to tackle this problem, therefore providing new and valuable instruments for decision support to biologists and pathologists, in the broad sphere of precision medicine...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407578/a-peek-into-the-drug-development-scenario-of-endometriosis-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Luxitaa Goenka, Melvin George, Maitrayee Sen
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease that is characterised by the presence of endometrium like tissue-epithelium and stroma that develops outside the uterine cavity, which is responsible for pelvic pain and infertility. Even though several medical therapies exist for the treatment of endometriosis, each of the drug class has its own limitations such as cost of treatment, side-effects and its short-term effect on the symptoms of endometriosis. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the current status and challenges of drug development for endometriosis...
April 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407438/process-intensification-for-cellulosic-biorefineries
#19
Sunitha Sadula, Abhay Athaley, Weiqing Zheng, Marianthi Ierapetritou, Basudeb Saha
Utilization of renewable carbon source, especially non-food biomass is critical to address the climate change and future energy challenge. Current chemical and enzymatic processes for producing cellulosic sugars are multistep, and energy- and water-intensive. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) suggests that upstream lignocellulose processing is a major hurdle to the economic viability of the cellulosic biorefineries. Process intensification, which integrates processes and uses less water and energy, has the potential to overcome the aforementioned challenges...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407038/emmaw-computing-minimal-absent-words-in-external-memory
#20
Alice Heliou, Solon P Pissis, Simon J Puglisi
Motivation: The biological significance of minimal absent words has been investigated in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. For instance, three minimal absent words of the human genome were found in Ebola virus genomes (Silva et al., Bioinf., 2015). There exists an O(n)-time and O(n)-space algorithm for computing all minimal absent words of a sequence of length n on a fixed-sized alphabet based on suffix arrays (Barton et al., BMC Bioinf., 2014). A standard implementation of this algorithm, when applied to a large sequence of length n, requires more than 20n bytes of RAM...
April 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
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