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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820847/effectiveness-of-a-16-week-high-intensity-cardioresistance-training-program-in-adults
#1
Tina A Greenlee, Daniel R Greene, Nathan J Ward, Ginger E Reeser, Courtney M Allen, Nicholas W Baumgartner, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Aron K Barbey
Greenlee, TA, Greene, DR, Ward, NJ, Reeser, GE, Allen, CM, Baumgartner, NW, Cohen, NJ, Kramer, AF, Hillman, CH, and Barbey, AK. Effectiveness of a 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training program in adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2528-2541, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower-body explosive power, and self-reported activity level...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808227/exactly-solvable-model-for-a-velocity-jump-observed-in-crack-propagation-in-viscoelastic-solids
#2
Naoyuki Sakumichi, Ko Okumura
Needs to impart appropriate elasticity and high toughness to viscoelastic polymer materials are ubiquitous in industries such as concerning automobiles and medical devices. One of the major problems to overcome for toughening is catastrophic failure linked to a velocity jump, i.e., a sharp transition in the velocity of crack propagation occurred in a narrow range of the applied load. However, its physical origin has remained an enigma despite previous studies over 60 years. Here, we propose an exactly solvable model that exhibits the velocity jump incorporating linear viscoelasticity with a cutoff length for a continuum description...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808019/next-step-in-the-ongoing-arms-race-between-myxoma-virus-and-wild-rabbits-in-australia-is-a-novel-disease-phenotype
#3
Peter J Kerr, Isabella M Cattadori, June Liu, Derek G Sim, Jeff W Dodds, Jason W Brooks, Mary J Kennett, Edward C Holmes, Andrew F Read
In host-pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806086/role-of-electrostatics-in-protein-rna-binding-the-global-vs-the-local-energy-landscape
#4
Zhaleh Ghaemi, Irisbel Guzman, David Gnutt, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Martin Gruebele
U1A protein - stem loop 2 RNA association is a basic step in the assembly of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Long-range electrostatic interactions due to the positive charge of U1A are thought to provide high binding affinity for the negatively charged RNA. Short range interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and contacts between RNA bases and protein side chains, favor a specific binding site. Here, we propose that electrostatic interactions are as important as local contacts in biasing the protein-RNA energy landscape towards a specific binding site...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805506/kinematic-and-neuromuscular-relationships-between-lower-extremity-clinical-movement-assessments
#5
Timothy C Mauntel, Tyler R Cram, Barnett S Frank, Rebecca L Begalle, Marc F Norcross, J Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua
Lower extremity injuries have immediate and long-term consequences. Lower extremity movement assessments can assist with identifying individuals at greater injury risk and guide injury prevention interventions. Movement assessments identify similar movement characteristics and evidence suggests large magnitude kinematic relationships exist between movement patterns observed across assessments; however, the magnitude of the relationships for electromyographic (EMG) measures across movement assessments remains largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803215/structural-tribological-and-mechanical-properties-of-the-hind-leg-joint-of-a-jumping-insect-using-katydids-to-inform-bioinspired-lubrication-systems
#6
Jun Kyun Oh, Spencer T Behmer, Richelle Marquess, Cengiz Yegin, Ethan A Scholar, Mustafa Akbulut
This study investigates the structural properties of the hind leg femur-tibia joint in adult katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), including its tribological and mechanical properties. It is of particular interest because the orthopteran (e.g., grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids) hind leg is highly specialized for jumping. We show that the katydid hind leg femur-tibia joint had unique surfaces and textures, with a friction coefficient (μ) at its coupling surface of 0.053 ± 0.001. Importantly, the sheared surfaces at this joint showed no sign of wear or damage, even though it had undergone thousands of external shearing cycles...
August 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802221/in-vivo-mechanical-behaviour-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-a-study-of-six-daily-and-high-impact-activities
#7
Elisa Roldán, Neil D Reeves, Glen Cooper, Kirstie Andrews
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays a key role in the stability of the knee joint restricting the rotation and anterior tibial translation. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the in vivo ACL mechanical behaviour during high impact manoeuvres. The motion of 12 young participants with healthy knees was captured while they performed the following activities: walking, running, cross-over cutting, sidestep cutting, jumping and jumping with one leg. The in vivo ACL length and strain were estimated using experimental kinematic data and three degree of freedom (DOF) knee model...
August 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801751/activity-demands-during-multi-directional-team-sports-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Taylor, Alexis A Wright, Steven L Dischiavi, M Allison Townsend, Adam R Marmon
BACKGROUND: Late-stage rehabilitation programs often incorporate 'sport-specific' demands, but may not optimally simulate the in-game volume or intensity of such activities as sprinting, cutting, jumping, and lateral movement. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to characterize, quantify, and compare straight-line running and multi-directional demands during sport competition. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted...
August 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795586/fixture-congestion-modulates-post-match-recovery-kinetics-in-professional-soccer-players
#9
Tommy R Lundberg, Kristoffer Weckström
This study examined the influence of fixture congestion on physical performance and biochemical variables in professional male footballers. After 3 competitive matches within a week (3M cycle), 16 players underwent blood sampling and field testing 72 h after the last match. The same tests were performed after a regular 1 match-week cycle (1M cycle). The 1M vs. 3M change scores were compared between Congested (high match exposure) and non-selected Control players. The change score in muscle soreness was greater (effect size 1...
August 10, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783846/cardiorespiratory-responses-to-continuous-and-intermittent-exercises-in-children
#10
Georges Baquet, François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, Serge Berthoin
The aim of the study was to characterize aerobic responses to high intensity intermittent (HIIE) and continuous (CE) exercises in prepubertal children. 26 children aged 8 to 11-year-old took part in a preliminary session to determine peakVO2 and Maximal Aerobic Velocity (MAV). In 5 subsequent experimental visits, the participants completed 2 CE and 3 HIIE sessions in a randomized order. HIIE consisted of short intermittent 10-s and 20-s running bouts at 100 to 130% MAV, interspersed with recovery periods of equal duration (S-HIIE1 and S-HIIE2 respectively) and 5-s of sprinting and jumping at maximal intensity with 15-s recovery periods (S-HIIE3)...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777592/first-constraints-on-fuzzy-dark-matter-from-lyman-%C3%AE-forest-data-and-hydrodynamical-simulations
#11
Vid Iršič, Matteo Viel, Martin G Haehnelt, James S Bolton, George D Becker
We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-α forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of ∼1  kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time, we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-α flux power spectrum in these models and compare it to the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777246/the-effects-of-jaw-clenching-and-jaw-alignment-mouthpiece-use-on-force-production-during-vertical-jump-and-isometric-clean-pull
#12
Charles R Allen, Yang-Chieh Fu, Vanessa Cazas-Moreno, Melinda W Valliant, Jacob R Gdovin, Charles C Williams, John C Garner
This study examined the effects of jaw clenching, and a self-adapted, jaw repositioning mouthpiece on force production during maximum countermovement vertical jump and maximum isometric mid-thigh clean pull assessments in an attempt to determine any ergogenic effects attributable to clenching, jaw repositioning mouthpiece use, or the combination of both. Thirty-six male subjects performed vertical jump and isometric clean pull assessments from a force platform under various mouthpiece and clench conditions...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771514/sign-realized-jump-risk-and-the-cross-section-of-stock-returns-evidence-from-china-s-stock-market
#13
Youcong Chao, Xiaoqun Liu, Shijun Guo
Using 5-minute high frequency data from the Chinese stock market, we employ a non-parametric method to estimate Fama-French portfolio realized jumps and investigate whether the estimated positive, negative and sign realized jumps could forecast or explain the cross-sectional stock returns. The Fama-MacBeth regression results show that not only have the realized jump components and the continuous volatility been compensated with risk premium, but also that the negative jump risk, the positive jump risk and the sign jump risk, to some extent, could explain the return of the stock portfolios...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766630/the-dynamics-of-benzene-on-cu-111-a-combined-helium-spin-echo-and-dispersion-corrected-dft-study-into-the-diffusion-of-physisorbed-aromatics-on-metal-surfaces
#14
M Sacchi, P Singh, D M Chisnall, D J Ward, A P Jardine, W Allison, J Ellis, H Hedgeland
We use helium spin-echo spectroscopy (HeSE) to investigate the dynamics of the diffusion of benzene adsorbed on Cu(111). The results of these measurements show that benzene moves on the surface through an activated jump-diffusion process between the adsorption sites on a Bravais lattice. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations with van der Waals (vdW) corrections help us understand that the molecule diffuses by jumping through non-degenerate hollow sites. The results of the calculations shed light on the nature of the binding interaction between this prototypical aromatic molecule and the metallic surface...
August 2, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761699/high-intensity-flywheel-exercise-and-recovery-of-atrophy-after-90-days-bed-rest
#15
Daniel L Belavý, Hiroshi Ohshima, Jörn Rittweger, Dieter Felsenberg
AIMS: To investigate differential muscle atrophy during bed-rest, the impact of a high-intensity concentric-eccentric (flywheel) resistance exercise countermeasure and muscle recovery after bed-rest. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent 90 dayshead-down tilt bed-rest. Volume of individual lower-limb muscles was measured via MRI before, twice during and four times up to 1 year after bed-rest. Subjects were either inactive (n=16) or performed flywheel exercise every third day of bed-rest (n=9)...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759537/the-effects-of-multiple-sets-of-squats-and-jump-squats-on-mechanical-variables
#16
Michael L Rossetti, Shawn N Munford, Brandon W Snyder, Shala E Davis, Gavin L Moir
PURPOSE: The mechanical responses to two non-ballistic squat and two ballistic jump squat protocols performed over multiple sets were investigated. One protocol from each of the two non-ballistic and ballistic conditions incorporated a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases of the movements in order to determine the influence of the coupling time on the mechanical variables and post-activation potentiation (PAP). METHODS: Eleven men (age: 21.9 ± 1.8 years; height: 1...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756733/relative-age-effect-in-physical-fitness-among-elementary-and-junior-high-school-students
#17
Hiroki Nakata, Miki Akido, Kumi Naruse, Motoko Fujiwara
The present study investigated characteristics of the relative age effect (RAE) among a general sample of Japanese elementary and junior high school students. Japan applies a unique annual age-grouping by birthdates between April 1 and March 31 of the following year for sport and education. Anthropometric and physical fitness data were obtained from 3,610 Japanese students, including height, weight, the 50-m sprint, standing long jump, grip strength, bent-leg sit-ups, sit and reach, side steps, 20-m shuttle run, and ball throw...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753624/muscular-fatigue-in-response-to-different-modalities-of-crossfit-sessions
#18
José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Juan H Lougedo, Manuel Barba, Pablo García-Fernández, Manuel V Garnacho-Castaño, Raúl Domínguez
BACKGROUND: CrossFit is a new strength and conditioning regimen involving short intense daily workouts called workouts of the day (WOD). This study assesses muscular fatigue levels induced by the three modalities of CrossFit WOD; gymnastics (G), metabolic conditioning (M) and weightlifting (W). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 34 healthy subjects undertook three WOD (one per week): a G WOD consisting of completing the highest number of sets of 5 pull-ups, 10 push-ups and 15 air squats in 20 min; an M WOD, in which the maximum number of double skipping rope jumps was executed in 8 sets (20 s), resting (10 s) between sets; and finally, a W WOD in which the maximum number of power cleans was executed in 5 min, lifting a load equivalent to 40% of the individual's 1RM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748371/acute-effects-of-heated-resistance-exercise-in-female-and-male-power-athletes
#19
Julia R Casadio, Adam G Storey, Fabrice Merien, Andrew E Kilding, James D Cotter, Paul B Laursen
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of heated resistance exercise on thermal strain, neuromuscular function and hormonal responses in power athletes. METHODS: Sixteen (n = 8 female; 8 male) highly trained power athletes completed a combined strength and power resistance exercise session in hot (HOT ~30 °C) and temperate (CON ~20 °C) conditions. Human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol and testosterone concentrations in plasma, peak power (counter-movement jump, CMJ) and peak force (isometric mid-thigh pull) were measured before and after each training session; thermoregulatory responses were monitored during training...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746248/relationships-between-countermovement-jump-ground-reaction-forces-and-jump-height-reactive-strength-index-and-jump-time
#20
Leland A Barker, John R Harry, John A Mercer
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ground reaction force (GRF) variables to jump height, jump time, and the Reactive Strength Index (RSI). Twenty-six Division I male soccer players performed three maximum effort CMJs on a dual-force platform system that measured three-dimensional kinetic data. The trial producing peak jump height was used for analysis. Vertical GRF (Fz) variables were divided into unloading, eccentric, amortization, and concentric phases and correlated to jump height, RSI (RSI= Jump height/jump time), and jump time (from start to takeoff)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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