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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245104/who-goes-first-understanding-hepatitis-c-risk-among-injecting-networks-in-the-prison-setting
#1
Lise Lafferty, Jake Rance, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is a blood-borne virus that is most commonly transmitted through shared injecting equipment. Due to the criminalisation of injecting drug use, HCV is highly prevalent among those incarcerated. Using a risk environment framework, this qualitative study sought to understand the role of HCV risk within injecting networks in the prison setting. METHODS: Thirty-two adult prisoners (n=24 men; n=8 women) with a history of injecting drug use participated in this qualitative sub-study...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243934/water-like-behavior-of-formamide-jump-reorientation-probed-by-extended-depolarized-light-scattering
#2
Stefania Perticaroli, Lucia Comez, Paola Sassi, Assunta Morresi, Daniele Fioretto, Marco Paolantoni
Water is a strong self-associated liquid with peculiar properties that crucially depend on H-bonding. As regards its molecular dynamics, only recently water reorientation has been successfully described based on a jump mechanism, which is responsible for the overall H-bonding exchange. Here, using high-resolution broad-band depolarized light scattering, we have investigated the reorientational dynamics of formamide (FA) as a function of concentration from the neat liquid to diluted aqueous solutions. Our main findings indicate that in the diluted regime the water rearrangement can trigger the motion of FA solute molecules, which are forced to reorient at the same rate as water...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243932/role-of-aromatic-crosslinks-in-structure-and-dynamics-of-model-three-stranded-%C3%AE-sheet-peptides
#3
David Scheerer, Heng Chi, Dan McElheny, Ayesha Samer, Timothy A Keiderling, Karin Hauser
A series of closely related peptide sequences that form triple-strand structures were designed with a variation of cross-strand aromatic interactions and spectroscopically studied as models for β-sheet formation and stabilities. Structures of the three-strand models were determined with NMR methods and temperature-dependent equilibrium studies carried out using CD and FTIR spectroscopies. Our equilibrium data show that the presence of a direct cross-strand aromatic contact in an otherwise folded peptide does not automatically result in an increased thermal stability, and can even distort the structure...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242889/interplay-of-spectral-diffusion-and-phonon-broadening-in-individual-photo-emitters-the-case-of-carbon-nanotubes
#4
A Jeantet, Y Chassagneux, T Claude, J S Lauret, C Voisin
At cryogenic temperatures, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of nano-emitters may still be significantly broadened due to interactions with the environment. The interplay of spectral diffusion (SD) and phonon broadening in this context is still a debated issue. Singlewall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are a particularly relevant system to address this topic as they show intense spectral diffusion and undergo a high exciton-phonon coupling due to their one-dimensional geometry. Here, we investigate the correlations between the spectral diffusion of the main line and that of the wings in SWNTs quantitatively and demonstrate that the photoluminescence spectrum undergoes spectral jumps as a whole, without distortions...
December 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241099/perceptual-motor-regulation-in-locomotor-pointing-while-approaching-a-curb
#5
Steven van Andel, Michael H Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping
Locomotor pointing is a task that has been the focus of research in the context of sport (e.g. long jumping and cricket) as well as normal walking. Collectively, these studies have produced a broad understanding of locomotor pointing, but generalizability has been limited to laboratory type tasks and/or tasks with high spatial demands. The current study aimed to generalize previous findings in locomotor pointing to the common daily task of approaching and stepping on to a curb. Sixteen people completed 33 repetitions of a task that required them to walk up to and step onto a curb...
December 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239991/a-multiple-repeated-sprint-ability-test-with-four-changes-of-direction-for-badminton-players-part-2-predicting-skill-level-with-anthropometry-strength-shuttlecock-and-displacement-velocity
#6
Michael Phomsoupha, Guillaume Laffaye
The goal of this study was: (i) to assess general and specific lower and upper limb force, shuttlecock velocity, displacement ability and the anthropometric characteristics of badminton players at five skill levels, and (ii) to predict individual players' number of points. We divided 83 participants into groups of novice (n=15), intermediate (n=16), skilled (n=23), highly skilled (n=14) and elite (n=15) players. The number of points scored for each player performing tournaments (excluding novices) during the entire season was used as a continuous and dependent variable after logarithmic transformation for correlational study...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238255/does-shoe-collar-height-influence-ankle-joint-kinematics-and-kinetics-in-sagittal-plane-maneuvers
#7
Yang Yang, Ying Fang, Xini Zhang, Junliang He, Weijie Fu
The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238253/plyometric-training-improves-sprinting-jumping-and-throwing-capacities-of-high-level-female-volleyball-players-better-than-skill-based-conditioning
#8
Bahri Gjinovci, Kemal Idrizovic, Ognjen Uljevic, Damir Sekulic
There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230404/experimental-gait-analysis-to-study-stress-distribution-of-the-human-foot
#9
Vidya K Nandikolla, Robin Bochen, Steven Meza, Allan Garcia
Researchers and clinicians are increasingly using plantar pressure and force measurement system to evaluate foot functions. This research evaluates the quality and reliability of a Tekscan HR mat to study the plantar pressures and forces acting during walking, running, jumping, and standing of healthy subjects. The following regions of the foot were investigated: heel, mid foot, metatarsophalangeal joint, hallux, and the toes. The arches of both feet of the three healthy subjects in the gait analysis were presented which addresses the balancing issues of the body during locomotion...
2017: Journal of Medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228409/short-term-effects-of-combined-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-interval-training-on-anthropometric-characteristics-and-physical-performance-of-elite-team-handball-players
#10
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed Souhail Chelly, Georg Fieseler, Thomas Bartels, Stephan Schulze, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shepard, René Schwesig
Muscular strength and speed are critical physical factors in determining the technical and tactical skills of elite team handball players. This study thus investigated the effect of high-intensity muscular strength and sprint interval training (SIT) on lower limb explosive performance and anthropometric characteristics in 22 male handball athletes aged 20.2 ± 0.1 years. A training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 10) were followed over 8 weeks parallel to regular handball training...
December 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222478/viscosity-jump-in-the-lower-mantle-inferred-from-melting-curves-of-ferropericlase
#11
Jie Deng, Kanani K M Lee
Convection provides the mechanism behind plate tectonics, which allows oceanic lithosphere to be subducted into the mantle as "slabs" and new rock to be generated by volcanism. Stagnation of subducting slabs and deflection of rising plumes in Earth's shallow lower mantle have been suggested to result from a viscosity increase at those depths. However, the mechanism for this increase remains elusive. Here, we examine the melting behavior in the MgO-FeO binary system at high pressures using the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell and show that the liquidus and solidus of (Mg x Fe1-x )O ferropericlase (x = ~0...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219416/glassy-anomalies-in-the-low-temperature-thermal-properties-of-a-minimally-disordered-crystalline-solid
#12
J F Gebbia, M A Ramos, D Szewczyk, A Jezowski, A I Krivchikov, Y V Horbatenko, T Guidi, F J Bermejo, J Ll Tamarit
The low-temperature thermal and transport properties of an unusual kind of crystal exhibiting minimal molecular positional and tilting disorder have been measured. The material, namely, low-dimensional, highly anisotropic pentachloronitrobenzene has a layered structure of rhombohedral parallel planes in which the molecules execute large-amplitude in-plane as well as concurrent out-of-plane librational motions. Our study reveals that low-temperature glassy anomalies can be found in a system with minimal disorder due to the freezing of (mostly in-plane) reorientational jumps of molecules between equivalent crystallographic positions with partial site occupation...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214806/hierarchical-superhydrophobic-surfaces-with-micropatterned-nanowire-arrays-for-high-efficiency-jumping-droplet-condensation
#13
Rongfu Wen, Shanshan Xu, Dongliang Zhao, Yung-Cheng Lee, Xuehu Ma, Ronggui Yang
Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomena and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214194/data-concerning-the-effect-of-plyometric-training-on-jump-performance-in-soccer-players-a-meta-analysis
#14
Maamer Slimani, Armin Paravlić, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
Plyometric training (PT) enhances soccer performance, particularly vertical jump. However, the effectiveness of PT depends on various factors. A systematic search of the research literature was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effects of PT on countermovement jump (CMJ) height in soccer players. Ten studies were obtained through manual and electronic journal searches (up to April 2017). Significant differences were observed when compared: (1) PT group vs. control group (ES=0.85; 95% CI 0...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211079/probing-the-conformational-dynamics-of-photosystem-i-in-unconfined-and-confined-spaces
#15
Gaurav Das, Shyamtanu Chattoraj, Somen Nandi, Prasenjit Mondal, Abhijit Saha, Kankan Bhattacharyya, Surajit Ghosh
The fluorescence dynamics of Photosystem I (PSI) in bulk water and inside a confined environment like a liposome have been investigated using time resolved confocal microscopy. In bulk water, PSI exhibits a major emission peak at ∼680 nm, while in the liposome it exhibits a markedly blue shifted emission maximum at ∼485 nm. This is indicative of conformational changes due to entrapment and emergence of a stressed conformation of PSI inside the liposome. The observed time constants for the fluorescence lifetime of PSI inside the liposome are significantly high as opposed to PSI in bulk water...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210324/patterns-of-locomotor-regulation-during-the-pole-vault-approach-phase
#16
Laurie Needham, Timothy A Exell, Ian N Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
A successful approach phase is key to achieving high performances in the pole vault. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of locomotor control patterns during the pole vault approach phase. Fourteen well-trained athletes performed ten jumps which were recorded using 2D video sampling at 200 Hz and analysed. Key kinematics were reconstructed from camera data using a modified 2D-DLT. Patterns of regulation were determined from the standard deviation of footfall locations during the approach phase...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209006/levitated-nanoparticles-nanoparticles-jumping-high
#17
Nikolai Kiesel, Eric Lutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202784/sprint-and-jump-performance-in-elite-male-soccer-players-following-a-10-week-nordic-hamstring-exercise-protocol-a-randomised-pilot-study
#18
K Krommes, J Petersen, M B Nielsen, P Aagaard, P Hölmich, K Thorborg
OBJECTIVE: The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump-performance outcomes tended to increase or decrease following implementation of the NHP in elite male soccer-players. RESULTS: Nineteen male soccer players from the Danish 1st division were randomised to perform NHP (27 sessions) during pre-season, or to control group (CG)...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196840/conception-of-the-l%C3%A3-beck-toolbox-curriculum-for-basic-minimally-invasive-surgery-skills
#19
Tilman Laubert, Hamed Esnaashari, Paul Auerswald, Anna Höfer, Michael Thomaschewski, Hans-Peter Bruch, Tobias Keck, Claudia Benecke
PURPOSE: Difficulties at the beginning of the learning curve in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can well be overcome by simulation outside the operating room. Despite a great number of available devices, standardized, structured, and validated training curricula for video simulators are scarce. METHODS: The Lübeck Toolbox (LTB) video trainer provides six training modules and online video tutorials. Proficiency levels for the tasks were defined by performance analysis of MIS experts (n = 15)...
December 1, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192297/rapid-spheroid-clearing-on-a-microfluidic-chip
#20
Tomas Silva Santisteban, Omid Rabajania, Iana Kalinina, Stephen Robinson, Matthias Meier
Spheroids are three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures that aim to bridge the gap between the use of whole animals and cellular monolayers. Microfluidics is regarded as an enabling technology to actively control the chemical environment of 3D cell cultures. Although a wide variety of platforms have been developed to handle spheroid cultures, the development of analytical systems for spheroids remains a major challenge. In this study, we engineered a microfluidic large-scale integration (mLSI) chip platform for tissue-clearing and imaging...
December 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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