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Mario Bonato, Matteo Lisi, Sara Pegoraro, Gilles Pourtois
Voluntary orienting of spatial attention is typically investigated by visually presented directional cues, which are called predictive when they indicate where the target is more likely to appear. In this study, we investigated the nature of the potential link between cue predictivity (the proportion of valid trials) and the strength of the resulting covert orienting of attention. Participants judged the orientation of a unilateral Gabor grating preceded by a centrally presented, non-directional, color cue, arbitrarily prompting a leftwards or rightwards shift of attention...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Research
Xin Zhang, Hua Zhao, Yinda Tang, Jin Zhu, Xuhui Wang, Shiting Li
OBJECTIVE: To compare the curative effect of reoperation in short-term and percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PRT) when trigeminal neuralgia patient after microvascular decompression (MVD) is invalid. METHODS: Follow-up of 54 patients (30 patients with reoperation in the short term, 24 patients with PRT of primitive trigeminal neuralgia) when MVD is invalid between January 2008 and December 2014. To evaluate the degree of pain relief and facial numbness of patients after the treatment in short-term (1 month), in long-term (1 year)...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Julia Depa, Jenny Schweizer, Sandra-Kristin Bekers, Carolin Hilzendegen, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop
PURPOSE: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. METHODS: A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268)...
October 19, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Dandan Zhang, Yunzhe Liu, Lili Wang, Hui Ai, Yuejia Luo
Appropriately attending to threatening environmental stimuli is evolutionarily adaptive and crucial for survival. This study revealed that nonconscious attentional modulation of disgust has different behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) patterns, as compared to fear and anger. To facilitate its evolutionary purpose of avoidance, disgust first diverts rather than attracts attention. Accordingly, the N1 was smaller in a validly than in an invalidly disgust-cued condition. Furthermore, the frontal P3a for disgust, anger, and fear was found to be larger in the valid than in the invalid condition, which was interpreted as an involuntary switching of attention toward threat-related events to mobilize cognitive resources for action or defense...
October 19, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Tobias Marczewski, Yong-Peng Ma, Xue-Mei Zhang, Wei-Bang Sun, A Jane Marczewski
Hybridisation has become a focal topic in evolutionary biology, and many taxonomists are aware that the process occurs more frequently than previously assumed. Nonetheless many species and varieties are still described without explicitly considering the possibility of hybridisation, especially in countries that have relatively short scientific histories, but which often possess the highest species diversities. Furthermore, new taxa are often described based only on herbarium specimens, not taking into account information from wild populations, significantly decreasing the potential to detect morphologies arising from hybridisation at this crucial descriptive stage...
October 6, 2016: AoB Plants
R John Sawyer, S Marc Testa, Moira Dux
OBJECTIVE: Various research studies and neuropsychology practice organizations have reiterated the importance of developing embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect potentially invalid neurocognitive test data. This study investigated whether measures within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R) could accurately classify individuals who fail two or more PVTs during routine clinical assessment. METHOD: The present sample of 109 United States military veterans (Mean age = 52...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Matthew H Holden, Stephen P Ellner
Despite major advances in quantitative approaches to natural resource management, there has been resistance to using these tools in the actual practice of managing ecological populations. Given a managed system and a set of assumptions, translated into a model, optimization methods can be used to solve for the most cost-effective management actions. However, when the underlying assumptions are not met, such methods can potentially lead to decisions that harm the environment and economy. Managers who develop decisions based on past experience and judgment, without the aid of mathematical models, can potentially learn about the system and develop flexible management strategies...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Khaled J Saleh, Aileen Davis
INTRODUCTION: To develop an osteoarthritis (OA) quality measure that satisfies quality-reporting initiatives, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify and evaluate measures of pain and function commonly used to assess outcomes in patients with upper and lower extremity OA. METHODS: English-language systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating validity of pain and function instruments in OA patients published between 1995 and 2014 were considered for inclusion...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Gang Li, Hong-Bing Tao, Jia-Zhi Liao, Jin-Hui Tang, Fang Peng, Qin Shu, Wen-Gang Li, Shun-Gui Tu, Zhuo Chen
Patient safety education is conducive to medical students' cognition on patient safety and to improvement of medical quality and safety. Developing patient safety education for medical students is more and more widely recognized by World Health Organization and countries all over the world. However, in China, patient safety courses aiming at medical students are relatively few, and there are few reports about the effect of patient safety courses. This paper explored the influence of patient safety curriculum on medical students' attitude to and knowledge of patient safety...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
H N Alexander Logemann, Koen B E Böcker, Peter K H Deschamps, Peter N van Harten, Jeroen Koning, Chantal Kemner, Zsófia Logemann-Molnár, J Leon Kenemans
RATIONALE: The dopaminergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, but the exact role has yet to be elucidated. Scarce literature suggests that attenuation of dopaminergic neurotransmission negatively affects attentional focusing and inhibition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of dopaminergic antagonism on stopping performance. METHODS: Dopaminergic neurotransmission was attenuated in 28 healthy male participants by using 2 mg haloperidol...
October 17, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Lilah Toker, Min Feng, Paul Pavlidis
Concern about the reproducibility and reliability of biomedical research has been rising. An understudied issue is the prevalence of sample mislabeling, one impact of which would be invalid comparisons. We studied this issue in a corpus of human transcriptomics studies by comparing the provided annotations of sex to the expression levels of sex-specific genes. We identified apparent mislabeled samples in 46% of the datasets studied, yielding a 99% confidence lower-bound estimate for all studies of 33%. In a separate analysis of a set of datasets concerning a single cohort of subjects, 2/4 had mislabeled samples, indicating laboratory mix-ups rather than data recording errors...
2016: F1000Research
A Illés, B Nemes, L Zsom, S Kovács, A Bugán
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was the exploration of chronic renal insufficiency patients' attitudes toward treatment, various motifs underlying their acceptance or refusal of kidney therapy, and understanding of their psychologic content. Examinations were carried out of chronic renal insufficiency patients' attitudes toward renal treatments, and a questionnaire suitable for its assessment was developed. METHODS: Suppositions of patients before and after renal transplantation were explored by means of semistructured interviews...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
George O Agogo, Hilko van der Voet, Pieter van 't Veer, Pietro Ferrari, David C Muller, Emilio Sánchez-Cantalejo, Christina Bamia, Tonje Braaten, Sven Knüppel, Ingegerd Johansson, Fred A van Eeuwijk, Hendriek C Boshuizen
BACKGROUND: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. METHODS: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Daniele Starnoni, John Michael Duff, Gopalakrishnan Chittur Viswanathan
CONTEXT: Anatomical variations of the filum terminale (FT) have been described in association with split cord malformations (SCM) but they appear to be a rare finding in its absence. We report the first case in literature of a duplicated FT in a patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) without any radiological evidence of SCM. FINDINGS: A 47-year-old man presented with invalidating back pain radiating to both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural dorsal lipoma in a low-lying conus...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Tatyana Darienko, Lydia Gustavs, Thomas Pröschold
The genera Elliptochloris and Pseudochlorella were erected for Chlorella-like green algae producing two types of autospores and cell packages, respectively. Both genera are widely distributed in different soil habitats, either free-living or as photobionts of lichens. The species of these genera are often difficult to identify because of the high phenotypic plasticity and sometimes lack of characteristic features. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of these species therefore remains unclear. In this study, 34 strains were investigated using an integrative approach...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Elizabeth R Schotter, Mallorie Leinenger
Current theories of eye movement control in reading posit that processing of an upcoming parafoveal preview word is used to facilitate processing of that word once it is fixated (i.e., as a foveal target word). This preview benefit is demonstrated by shorter fixation durations in the case of valid (i.e., identical or linguistically similar) compared with invalid (i.e., dissimilar) preview conditions. However, we suggest that processing of the preview can directly influence fixation behavior on the target, independent of similarity between them...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Indu Waidyatilaka, Angela de Silva, Maduka de Lanerolle-Dias, Sunethra Atukorala, Pulani Lanerolle
BACKGROUND: Valid skinfold thickness (SFT) equations for the prediction of body fat are currently unavailable for South Asian women and would be a potentially robust field tool. Our aim was to assess the validity of existing SFT equations against deuterium ((2)H2O) dilution and, if invalid, to develop and validate an SFT equation for % fat mass (%FM) in Sri Lankan women. METHODS: H2O dilution was used with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as the criterion method for the assessment of %FM in urban Sri Lankan women (30-45 years)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Leslie A Hayduk
BACKGROUND: Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions - including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. DISCUSSION: Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Sebastiaan J van Hal, Camilla L C Ip, M Azim Ansari, Daniel J Wilson, Bjorn A Espedido, Slade O Jensen, Rory Bowden
Enterococcus faecium, a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, remains problematic because of its propensity to acquire resistance to vancomycin, which currently is considered first-line therapy. Here, we assess the evolution and resistance acquisition dynamics of E. faecium in a clinical context using a series of 132 bloodstream infection isolates from a single hospital. All isolates, of which 49 (37 %) were vancomycin-resistant, underwent whole-genome sequencing. E. faecium was found to be subject to high rates of recombination with little evidence of sequence importation from outside the local E...
January 19, 2016: Microbial Genomics
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