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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140933/t-spot-tb%C3%A2-performance-in-routine-pediatric-practice-in-a-low-tb-burden-setting
#1
Anna M Mandalakas, Heather Y Highsmith, Nadine M Harris, Anna Pawlicka, H Lester Kirchner
BACKGROUND: The T-SPOT.TB, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), is an indirect test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Due to sparse and conflicting evidence, IGRA use is limited in young and HIV-infected children. We determined the prevalence of invalid, borderline, positive, and negative results and associations with key demographic variables during routine pediatric use in a TB low-burden setting. METHODS: For pediatric samples received at Oxford Diagnostic Laboratories from 2010-2015, the associations between initial test outcome and demographics were estimated by bivariate analysis and logistic regression...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138658/-femoral-varising-osteotomy-by-external-opening-for-the-treatment-of-lateral-femorotibial-gonarthroses-associated-with-idiopathic-genu-valgum-a-retrospective-a-study-of-10-cases
#2
Asma Ben Cheikh, Mahmoud Ben Maitigue, Karim Masmoudi, Thabet Mouelhi, Nader Naouar, Yamen Grissa, Karim Bouattour, Walid Osman, Mohamed Laziz Ben Ayeche
Femoral varus osteotomy is a conservative treatment for external single-compartment gonarthrosis. This surgical procedure is little used and outcomes are little studied.This study aimed to assess the clinical and radiological results of femoral varising osteotomy in subjects with external femorotibial gonarthrosis associated with idiopathic genu valgum whose data were recorded over a period of 21 years (1992- 2013) in the Department of Orthopedics at Sahloul University Hospital, Sousse. The clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the IKS score (International Knee Society)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136832/interleaved-incremental-association-markov-blanket-as-a-potential-feature-selection-method-for-improving-accuracy-in-near-infrared-spectroscopic-analysis
#3
Kyeol Chang, Junghye Lee, Chi-Hyuck Jun, Hoeil Chung
The interleaved Incremental Association Markov Blanket (inter-IAMB) is described herein as a feature selection method for the NIR spectroscopic analysis of several samples (diesel, gasoline, and etchant solutions). Although the Markov blanket (MB) has been proven to be the minimal optimal set of features (variables) that does not change the original target distribution, variables selected by the existing IAMB algorithm could be redundant and/or misleading as the IAMB requires an unnecessarily large amount of learning data to identify the MB...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136112/local-production-of-tenascin-c-acts-as-a-trigger-for-monocyte-macrophage-recruitment-that-provokes-cardiac-dysfunction
#4
Dounia Abbadi, Fanny Laroumanie, Mathilde Bizou, Joffrey Pozzo, Danièle Daviaud, Christine Delage, Denis Calise, Fréderique Gaits-Iacovoni, Marianne Dutaur, Florence Tortosa, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Victorine Douin-Echinard, Anne-Catherine Prats, Jerome Roncalli, Angelo Parini, Nathalie Pizzinat
Aims: Tenascin-C (TNC) is an endogenous danger signal molecule strongly associated with inflammatory diseases and with poor outcome in patients with cardiomyopathies. Its function within pathological cardiac tissue during pressure overload remains poorly understood. Methods and results: We showed that TNC accumulates after 1 week of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the heart of 12-week-old male mice. By cross bone marrow transplantation experiments, we determined that TNC deposition relied on cardiac cells and not on haematopoietic cells...
November 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129596/amyloid-toxicity-is-enhanced-after-pharmacological-or-genetic-invalidation-of-the-%C3%AF-1-receptor
#5
Tangui Maurice, Manon Strehaiano, Fanny Duhr, Nathalie Chevallier
The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a molecular chaperone which activity modulates several intracellular signals including calcium mobilization at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. S1R agonists are potent neuroprotectants against neurodegenerative insults and particularly in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here analyzed whether S1R inactivation modifies vulnerability to amyloid toxicity in AD models. Two strategies were used: (1) amyloid β[25-35] (Aβ25-35) peptide (1, 3, 9nmol) was injected intracerebroventricularly in mice treated repeatedly with the S1R antagonist NE-100 or in S1RKO mice, and (2) WT, APPSweInd, S1RKO, and APPSweInd/S1RKO mice were created and female littermates analyzed at 8 months of age...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120513/in-modelling-effects-of-global-warming-invalid-assumptions-lead-to-unrealistic-projections
#6
Sjannie Lefevre, David J McKenzie, Göran E Nilsson
In a recent Opinion paper, Pauly and Cheung (2017) argue against the criticisms we raised (Lefevre et al., 2017) about the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) and its application in modelling. Rather than providing point-by-point responses to their arguments we highlight some key issues that, in our opinion, disqualify GOLT as a mechanistic basis for model projections about the future size of fishes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118725/cognitive-and-neural-correlates-of-mathematical-giftedness-in-adults-and-children-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Timothy Myers, Emma Carey, Dénes Szűcs
Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117200/feasibility-of-including-patients-with-migration-background-in-a-structured-heart-failure-management-programme-a-prospective-case-control-study-exemplarily-on-turkish-migrants
#8
Roman Pfister, Peter Ihle, Birgit Mews, Elisabeth Kohnen, Marcus Wähner, Ute Karbach, Hasan Aslan, Hans-Wilhelm Höpp, Christian Alfons Schneider
AIMS: Structured management programmes deliver optimized care in heart failure patients and improve outcome. We examined the feasibility of including patients with migration background speaking little or no German in a heart failure management programme. METHODS AND RESULTS: After adaption of script material and staff to Turkish language we aimed to recruit 300 Turkish and 300 German (control group) patients within 18 months using the operational basis of a local heart failure management programme for screening, contact and inclusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116373/the-fundamental-theorem-of-natural-selection-with-mutations
#9
William F Basener, John C Sanford
The mutation-selection process is the most fundamental mechanism of evolution. In 1935, R. A. Fisher proved his fundamental theorem of natural selection, providing a model in which the rate of change of mean fitness is equal to the genetic variance of a species. Fisher did not include mutations in his model, but believed that mutations would provide a continual supply of variance resulting in perpetual increase in mean fitness, thus providing a foundation for neo-Darwinian theory. In this paper we re-examine Fisher's Theorem, showing that because it disregards mutations, and because it is invalid beyond one instant in time, it has limited biological relevance...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116093/the-challenge-of-mapping-the-human-connectome-based-on-diffusion-tractography
#10
Klaus H Maier-Hein, Peter F Neher, Jean-Christophe Houde, Marc-Alexandre Côté, Eleftherios Garyfallidis, Jidan Zhong, Maxime Chamberland, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Ying-Chia Lin, Qing Ji, Wilburn E Reddick, John O Glass, David Qixiang Chen, Yuanjing Feng, Chengfeng Gao, Ye Wu, Jieyan Ma, H Renjie, Qiang Li, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Samuel Deslauriers-Gauthier, J Omar Ocegueda González, Michael Paquette, Samuel St-Jean, Gabriel Girard, François Rheault, Jasmeen Sidhu, Chantal M W Tax, Fenghua Guo, Hamed Y Mesri, Szabolcs Dávid, Martijn Froeling, Anneriet M Heemskerk, Alexander Leemans, Arnaud Boré, Basile Pinsard, Christophe Bedetti, Matthieu Desrosiers, Simona Brambati, Julien Doyon, Alessia Sarica, Roberta Vasta, Antonio Cerasa, Aldo Quattrone, Jason Yeatman, Ali R Khan, Wes Hodges, Simon Alexander, David Romascano, Muhamed Barakovic, Anna Auría, Oscar Esteban, Alia Lemkaddem, Jean-Philippe Thiran, H Ertan Cetingul, Benjamin L Odry, Boris Mailhe, Mariappan S Nadar, Fabrizio Pizzagalli, Gautam Prasad, Julio E Villalon-Reina, Justin Galvis, Paul M Thompson, Francisco De Santiago Requejo, Pedro Luque Laguna, Luis Miguel Lacerda, Rachel Barrett, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Marco Catani, Laurent Petit, Emmanuel Caruyer, Alessandro Daducci, Tim B Dyrby, Tim Holland-Letz, Claus C Hilgetag, Bram Stieltjes, Maxime Descoteaux
Tractography based on non-invasive diffusion imaging is central to the study of human brain connectivity. To date, the approach has not been systematically validated in ground truth studies. Based on a simulated human brain data set with ground truth tracts, we organized an open international tractography challenge, which resulted in 96 distinct submissions from 20 research groups. Here, we report the encouraging finding that most state-of-the-art algorithms produce tractograms containing 90% of the ground truth bundles (to at least some extent)...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115690/the-effects-of-intravoxel-contrast-agent-diffusion-on-the-analysis-of-dce-mri-data-in-realistic-tissue-domains
#11
Ryan T Woodall, Stephanie L Barnes, David A Hormuth, Anna G Sorace, C Chad Quarles, Thomas E Yankeelov
PURPOSE: Quantitative evaluation of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) allows for estimating perfusion, vessel permeability, and tissue volume fractions by fitting signal intensity curves to pharmacokinetic models. These compart mental models assume rapid equilibration of contrast agent within each voxel. However, there is increasing evidence that this assumption is violated for small molecular weight gadolinium chelates. To evaluate the error introduced by this invalid assumption, we simulated DCE-MRI experiments with volume fractions computed from entire histological tumor cross-sections obtained from murine studies...
November 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114564/the-effect-of-pretest-exercise-on-baseline-computerized-neurocognitive-test-scores
#12
Alec Pawlukiewicz, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary Solomon
Background: Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes...
October 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113027/detect-correct-retract-how-to-manage-incorrect-structural-models
#13
REVIEW
Alexander Wlodawer, Zbigniew Dauter, Przemyslaw J Porebski, Wladek Minor, Robyn Stanfield, Mariusz Jaskolski, Edwin Pozharski, Christian X Weichenberger, Bernhard Rupp
The massive technical and computational progress of biomolecular crystallography has generated some adverse side effects. Most crystal structure models, produced by crystallographers or well-trained structural biologists, constitute useful sources of information, but occasional extreme outliers remind us that the process of structure determination is not fail-safe. The occurrence of severe errors or gross misinterpretations raises fundamental questions: Why do such aberrations emerge in the first place? How did they evade the sophisticated validation procedures which often produce clear and dire warnings, and why were severe errors not noticed by the depositors themselves, their supervisors, referees, and editors? Once detected, what can be done to either correct, improve, or eliminate such models? How do incorrect models affect the underlying claims or biomedical hypotheses they were intended, but failed, to support? What is the long-range effect of the propagation of such errors? And finally, what mechanisms can be envisioned to restore the validity of the scientific record and, if necessary, retract publications that are clearly invalidated by the lack of experimental evidence? We suggest that cognitive bias and flawed epistemology are likely at the root of the problem...
November 7, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104875/a-novel-system-for-the-quantification-of-the-adcc-activity-of-therapeutic-antibodies
#14
Christophe Lallemand, Feifei Liang, Flore Staub, Maud Simansour, Benoit Vallette, Lue Huang, Rosa Ferrando-Miguel, Michael G Tovey
Novel ADCC effector cells expressing the V-variant or F-variant of FcγRIIIa (CD16a) and firefly luciferase under the control of a chimeric promoter incorporating recognition sequences for the principal transcription factors involved in FcγRIIIa signal transduction, together with novel target cells overexpressing a constant high level of the specific antigen recognized by rituximab, trastuzumab, cetuximab, infliximab, adalimumab, or etanercept, confer improved sensitivity, specificity, and dynamic range in an ADCC assay relative to effector cells expressing a NFAT-regulated reporter gene and wild-type target cells...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100091/mutations-in-greb1l-cause-bilateral-kidney-agenesis-in-humans-and-mice
#15
Lara De Tomasi, Pierre David, Camille Humbert, Flora Silbermann, Christelle Arrondel, Frédéric Tores, Stéphane Fouquet, Audrey Desgrange, Olivier Niel, Christine Bole-Feysot, Patrick Nitschké, Joëlle Roume, Marie-Pierre Cordier, Christine Pietrement, Bertrand Isidor, Philippe Khau Van Kien, Marie Gonzales, Marie-Hélène Saint-Frison, Jelena Martinovic, Robert Novo, Juliette Piard, Christelle Cabrol, Ishwar C Verma, Ratna Puri, Hubert Journel, Jacqueline Aziza, Laurent Gavard, Marie-Hélène Said-Menthon, Laurence Heidet, Sophie Saunier, Cécile Jeanpierre
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children and 20% of prenatally detected anomalies. CAKUT encompass a spectrum of developmental kidney defects, including renal agenesis, hypoplasia, and cystic and non-cystic dysplasia. More than 50 genes have been reported as mutated in CAKUT-affected case subjects. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bilateral kidney agenesis (BKA) remain largely elusive. Whole-exome or targeted exome sequencing of 183 unrelated familial and/or severe CAKUT-affected case subjects, including 54 fetuses with BKA, led to the identification of 16 heterozygous variants in GREB1L (growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1-like), a gene reported as a target of retinoic acid signaling...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097379/data-science-in-radiology-a-path-forward
#16
Hugo Jwl Aerts
Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, has the potential to fundamentally alter clinical radiology. AI algorithms, which excel in quantifying complex patterns in data, have shown remarkable progress in applications ranging from self-driving cars to speech recognition. The AI application within radiology, known as radiomics, can provide detailed quantifications of the radiographic characteristics of underlying tissues. This information can be used throughout the clinical care path to improve diagnosis and treatment planning, as well as assess treatment response...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092190/new-theoretical-formulation-for-the-determination-of-radiance-transmittance-at-the-water-air-interface
#17
Pravin Jeba Dev, Palanisamy Shanmugam
Radiative transfer across the water-air interface has important implications for optics and remote sensing of natural waters. The upward radiance emerging from the water suffers a critical change when it passes through the water-air interface. Upwelling radiance transmittance τw,a is an optical process occurring at the water-air interface that determines the in-water radiances propagating through the interface. In previous studies, τw,a was successfully derived for determining the water-leaving radiances in open ocean waters, despite being oversimplified with a constant value...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090325/comprehensive-comparison-of-therapeutic-efficacy-of-radiofrequency-target-disc-decompression-and-nucleoplasty-for-lumbar-disc-herniation-a-five%C3%A2-year-follow-up
#18
Hui-Yong Nie, Ya-Bin Qi, Na Li, Suo-Liang Wang, Yong-Xiao Cao
PURPOSE: To compare the therapeutic efficacy of radiofrequency target disc decompression(TDD) and nucleoplasty for lumbar disc herniation. METHODS: Two hundred sixty patients with lumbar disc herniation were divided into two groups: target disc decompression group (group T, n = 147) and nucleoplasty group (group N, n = 113). Visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional rating index (FRI) were measured at one, three, six, 12, 24, and 60 months after the surgery...
October 31, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082033/maintenance-efficacy-designs-in-psychiatry-randomized-discontinuation-trials-enriched-but-not-better
#19
REVIEW
S N Ghaemi, Harry P Selker
INTRODUCTION: Although classical randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for proof of drug efficacy, randomized discontinuation trials (RDTs), sometimes called "enriched" trials, are used increasingly, especially in psychiatric maintenance studies. METHODS: A narrative review of two decades of experience with RDTs. RESULTS: RDTs in psychiatric maintenance trials tend to use a dependent variable as a predictor: treatment response...
June 2017: Journal of clinical and translational science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080521/a-convergence-algorithm-for-correlation-of-breech-face-images-based-on-the-congruent-matching-cells-cmc-method
#20
Zhe Chen, John Song, Wei Chu, Johannes A Soons, Xuezeng Zhao
The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for accurate firearm evidence identification and error rate estimation. The CMC method is based on the principle of discretization. The toolmark image of the reference sample is divided into correlation cells. Each cell is registered to the cell-sized area of the compared image that has maximum surface topography similarity. For each resulting cell pair, one parameter quantifies the similarity of the cell surface topography and three parameters quantify the pattern congruency of the registration position and orientation...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
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