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H Jodaa Holm, S Skugor, A K Bjelland, S Radunovic, S Wadsworth, E O Koppang, Ø Evensen
Atlantic salmon skin tissues with and without scales were taken from two preferred sites of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) attachment, behind the dorsal fin (scaled) and from the top of the head (scaleless), respectively. Tissues were profiled by qPCR of 32 genes to study responses to copepodids, 4 days post infection (dpi), and during the moult of copepodids to the chalimus stage, at 8 dpi. Basal/constitutive differences were found for many immune-related genes between the two skin sites; e.g., mannose binding protein C was over 100 fold higher expressed in the scaled skin from the back in comparison to the skin without scales from the head...
October 21, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Carlos E Hernandez-Tamargo, Ransel Barzaga, Hans Mikosch, Javier A Martínez, José A Herrera, M H Farías, Mayra P Hernández
The adsorption of sulphur multilayers on Au(100) has been studied using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The first sulphur layer was adsorbed on the four-fold sites of the unreconstructed Au(100) surface forming a lattice. The experimental parameters of the lattice were reproduced taking into account the surface expansion of the topmost Au(100) layer. This expansion should occur when gold islands are formed after the lifting of hex-reconstruction, which allows the lateral movement of the gold atoms...
October 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Markus Ostarek, Gabriella Vigliocco
Previous research has shown that processing words with an up/down association (e.g., bird, foot) can influence the subsequent identification of visual targets in congruent location (at the top/bottom of the screen). However, as facilitation and interference were found under similar conditions, the nature of the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. We propose that word comprehension relies on the perceptual simulation of a prototypical event involving the entity denoted by a word in order to provide a general account of the different findings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Sanjay Kumar Dey, Pankaj Prabhakar, Manisha Saini, Toyanji Joseph, B K Thelma, Subir K Maulik, Suman Kundu
OBJECTIVE: To identify novel inhibitors of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) and evaluate their antihypertensive properties in L-NAME induced hypertensive rat model. DESIGN AND METHOD: An experimentally validated computational model for hDBH, built in our lab, was used for structure-based, rational drug-design. The three-dimensional model was used for virtual-screening against small molecule databases from NCI, USA and elsewhere. Identified top hits were then tested in vitro against DBH with known inhibitors nepicastat and disulfiram as controls...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kejia Hu, Chao Chen, Qingyao Meng, Ziv Williams, Wendong Xu
BACKGROUND: With the tremendous advances in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), the literature in this field has grown exponentially; examination of highly cited articles is a tool that can help identify outstanding scientific studies and landmark papers. This study examined the characteristics of 100 highly cited BCI papers over the past 10 years. METHODS: The Web of Science was searched for highly cited papers related to BCI research published from 2006 to 2015...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Élizabeth Lalande, Chantal Guimont, Marcel Émond, Marc Charles Parent, Claude Topping, Brice Lionel Batomen Kuimi, Valérie Boucher, Natalie Le Sage
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of emergency department (ED) point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) for rib fracture diagnosis in patients with minor thoracic injury (mTI). Secondary objectives were to 1) evaluate patients' pain during the PoCUS procedure, 2) identify the limitations of the use of PoCUS technique, and 3) compare the diagnosis obtained with PoCUS to radiography results. METHODS: Adult patients who presented with clinical suspicion of rib fractures after mTI were included...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
Stefano C Meliga, Jacob W Coffey, Michael L Crichton, Christopher Flaim, Martin Veidt, Mark A F Kendall
: In-depth understanding of skin elastic and rupture behavior is fundamental to enable next-generation biomedical devices to directly access areas rich in cells and biomolecules. However, the paucity of skin mechanical characterization and lack of established fracture models limits their rational design. We present an experimental and numerical study of skin mechanics during dynamic interaction with individual and arrays of micro-penetrators. Initially, micro-indentation of individual skin strata revealed hyperelastic moduli were dramatically rate-dependent, enabling extrapolation of stiffness properties at high velocity regimes (>1ms(-1))...
October 13, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Alexander J Frey, Qingqing Wang, Christine Busch, Daniel Feldman, Lisa Bottalico, Clementina A Mesaros, Ian A Blair, Anil Vachani, Nathaniel W Snyder
A multiplexed quantitative method for the analysis of three major unconjugated steroids in human serum by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was developed and validated on a Q Exactive Plus hybrid quadrupole/Orbitrap mass spectrometer. This quantification utilized isotope dilution and Girard P derivatization on the keto-groups of testosterone (T), androstenedione (AD) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to improve ionization efficiency using electrospray ionization...
October 13, 2016: Steroids
Jiangbo Lu, Yu Li, Hongsheng Yang, Dongbo Min, Weiyong Eng, Minh Do
Though many tasks in computer vision can be formulated elegantly as pixel-labeling problems, a typical challenge discouraging such a discrete formulation is often due to computational efficiency. Recent studies on fast cost volume filtering based on efficient edge-aware filters provide a fast alternative to solve discrete labeling problems, with the complexity independent of the support window size. However, these methods still have to step through the entire cost volume exhaustively, which makes the solution speed scale linearly with the label space size...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Junming Li, Yun Fu, Xiaodong Shi, Zhenming Xu, Zhian Zhang
Urchin-like ZnS microspheres decorated with nitrogen-doped carbon (ZnS@NC) are designed by a facile two-step method, in which the unrchin-like ZnS microspheres were coated by polydopamine and then calcined at inert gas ambient. When employed as the anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs), the ZnS@NC electrode can exhibit a reversible lithium storage capacity of 690 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and a reversible sodium storage capacity of 460 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles at 200 mA g-1...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Stephanie A Kovalchik, Michael K Bane, Machar Reid
Official rankings are the most common measure of success in professional women's tennis. Despite their importance for earning potential and tournament seeding, little is known about ranking trajectories of female players and their influence on career success. Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive study of the career progression of elite female tennis talent. The study examined the ranking trajectories of the top 250 female professionals between 1990 and 2015. Using regression modelling of yearly peak rankings, we found a strong association between the shape of the ranking trajectory and the highest career ranking earned...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Manish Kumar, Teena Jangid, Vandana Panchal, Praveen Kumar, Abhishek Pathak
Apart from the spherical shape, control over other shapes is a technical challenge in synthesis approaches of nanostructures. Here, we studied the effect of grazing angle cross-irradiation Ag thin films for the nanostructures evolution from a top-down approach. Ag thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on Si (100) and glass substrates by electron beam evaporation system and subsequently irradiated at grazing angle ions by 80 keV Ar(+) in two steps (to induce effectively a cross-ion irradiation)...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Suresh Kondati Natarajan, Jörg Behler
Solid-liquid interfaces have received considerable attention in recent years due to their central role in many technologically relevant fields like electrochemistry, heterogeneous catalysis and corrosion. As the chemical processes in these examples take place primarily at the interface, understanding the structural and dynamical properties of the interfacial water molecules is of vital importance. Here, we use a first-principles quality high-dimensional neural network potential built from dispersion-corrected density functional theory data in molecular dynamics simulations to investigate water-copper interfaces as a prototypical case...
October 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ingrid A C Romme, Marcel A de Reus, Roel A Ophoff, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several common risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ). In parallel, neuroimaging studies have shown consistent findings of widespread white matter disconnectivity in patients with SCZ. METHODS: We examined the role of genes in brain connectivity in patients with SCZ by combining transcriptional profiles of 43 SCZ risk genes identified by the recent genome-wide association study of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with data on macroscale connectivity reductions in patients with SCZ...
July 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Elsemiek M Engbers, Jorik R Timmer, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Mohamed Mouden, Siert Knollema, Pieter L Jager
The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score provides independent prognostic value on top of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We sought to determine whether the prognostic value of the CAC score in patients with normal SPECT MPI is gender specific. We studied 3,705 consecutive symptomatic patients without a history of coronary artery disease with normal SPECT MPI. All patients underwent concomitant CAC scoring, which was categorized as CAC score 0, 1 to 99, 100 to 399, 400 to 999, or ≥1,000...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Kaiyu Fu, Donghoon Han, Chaoxiong Ma, Paul W Bohn
Electrochemical reactions at nanoscale structures possess unique characteristics, e.g. fast mass transport, high signal-to-noise ratio at low concentration, and insignificant ohmic losses even at low electrolyte concentrations. These properties motivate the fabrication of high density, laterally ordered arrays of nanopores, embedding vertically stacked metal-insulator-metal electrode structures and exhibiting precisely controlled pore size and interpore spacing for use in redox cycling. These nanoscale recessed ring-disk electrode (RRDE) arrays exhibit current amplification factors, AFRC, as large as 55-fold with Ru(NH3)6(2/3+), indicative of capture efficiencies at the top and bottom electrodes, Φt,b, exceeding 99%...
September 22, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Julien Baglio, Abdelhak Djouadi, Jérémie Quevillon
We summarize the prospects for Higgs boson physics at future proton-proton colliders with centre of mass (c.m.) energies up to 100 TeV. We first provide the production cross sections for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model from 13 TeV to 100 TeV, in the main production mechanisms and in subleading but important ones such as double Higgs production, triple production and associated production with two gauge bosons or with a single top quark. We then discuss the production of Higgs particles in beyond the Standard Model scenarios, starting with the one in the continuum of a pair of scalar, fermionic and vector dark matter particles in Higgs-portal models in various channels with virtual Higgs exchange...
November 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Junhong Bai, Guangliang Zhang, Qingqing Zhao, Qiongqiong Lu, Jia Jia, Baoshan Cui, Xinhui Liu
This study was carried out in three kinds of salt marshes according to the vegetation covers, including Phragmites australis salt marsh (PSM), Suaeda salus salt marsh (SSM) and Tamarix chinensis-Suaeda salus salt marsh (TSSM). We applied allometric function, exponential function and logistic function to model the depth distribution of the SOCv and SOCc for each salt marsh, respectively. The results showed that the exponential function fits the depth distribution of the SOCv more well than other two functions...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
Peiwen Liu, Yunqiao Dong, Jinbao Gu, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Yang Wu, Xiao-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotic organisms, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) control the activities of mobile genetic elements and ensure genome maintenance. Recent evidence indicates that piRNAs are involved in multiple biological pathways, including transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, sex determination and even interactions between host and pathogens. Aedes albopictus is a major invasive species that transmits a number of viral diseases in humans. Ae. albopictus has the largest genome and the highest abundance of repetitive sequences when compared with members that belong to Culicidae with a published genome...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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