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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037014/deep-into-the-brain-artificial-intelligence-in-stroke-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Eun-Jae Lee, Yong-Hwan Kim, Namkug Kim, Dong-Wha Kang
Artificial intelligence (AI), a computer system aiming to mimic human intelligence, is gaining increasing interest and is being incorporated into many fields, including medicine. Stroke medicine is one such area of application of AI, for improving the accuracy of diagnosis and the quality of patient care. For stroke management, adequate analysis of stroke imaging is crucial. Recently, AI techniques have been applied to decipher the data from stroke imaging and have demonstrated some promising results. In the very near future, such AI techniques may play a pivotal role in determining the therapeutic methods and predicting the prognosis for stroke patients in an individualized manner...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036899/targeting-strategies-for-the-combination-treatment-of-cancer-using-drug-delivery-systems
#2
REVIEW
Janel Kydd, Rahul Jadia, Praveena Velpurisiva, Aniket Gad, Shailee Paliwal, Prakash Rai
Cancer cells have characteristics of acquired and intrinsic resistances to chemotherapy treatment-due to the hostile tumor microenvironment-that create a significant challenge for effective therapeutic regimens. Multidrug resistance, collateral toxicity to normal cells, and detrimental systemic side effects present significant obstacles, necessitating alternative and safer treatment strategies. Traditional administration of chemotherapeutics has demonstrated minimal success due to the non-specificity of action, uptake and rapid clearance by the immune system, and subsequent metabolic alteration and poor tumor penetration...
October 14, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036890/recent-advances-in-selex-technology-and-aptamer-applications-in-biomedicine
#3
REVIEW
Zhenjian Zhuo, Yuanyuan Yu, Maolin Wang, Jie Li, Zongkang Zhang, Jin Liu, Xiaohao Wu, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Baoting Zhang
Aptamers are short DNA/RNA oligonucleotides capable of binding to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. The process of selecting an aptamer is called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Thanks to the inherit merits, aptamers have been used in a wide range of applications, including disease diagnosis, targeted delivery agents and therapeutic uses. To date, great achievements regarding the selection, modifications and application of aptamers have been made. However, few aptamer-based products have already successfully entered into clinical and industrial use...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036883/microrna-34a-a-versatile-regulator-of-myriads-of-targets-in-different-cancers
#4
REVIEW
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Sobia Tabassum, Aamir Ahmad
MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is a tumor suppressor that has attracted considerable attention in recent years. It modulates cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, and has also been evaluated as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker. A number of targets of miR-34a have been identified, including some other non-coding RNAs, and it is believed that the modulation of these myriads of targets underlines the versatile role of miR-34a in cancer progression and pathogenesis. Seemingly appealing results from preclinical studies have advocated the testing of miR-34a in clinical trials...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036837/simvastatin-as-a-potential-disease-modifying-therapy-for-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-rationale-for%C3%A2-clinical-trial-and-current-progress
#5
Camille B Carroll, Richard K H Wyse
Many now believe the holy grail for the next stage of therapeutic advance surrounds the development of disease-modifying approaches aimed at intercepting the year-on-year neurodegenerative decline experienced by most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on recommendations of an international committee of experts who are currently bringing multiple, potentially disease-modifying, PD therapeutics into long-term neuroprotective PD trials, a clinical trial involving 198 patients is underway to determine whether Simvastatin provides protection against chronic neurodegeneration...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036835/therapeutic-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-tcons_00019174-in-depressive-disorders-is-dependent-on-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#6
Xinqiang Ni, Yingzhao Liao, Limin Li, Xiaoli Zhang, Zhengzhi Wu
Chronic stress is one of the major causes that lead to major depressive disorder (MDD), which is a prevalent mood disorder worldwide. Lots of MDD patients could not benefit from available medication due to the complex etiology of MDD. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), molecular switches of downstream genes expression, have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of MDD. LncRNA TCONS_00019174 has been implicated in MDD risk and antidepressant effects, However, the effect of lncRNA TCONS_00019174 on antidepressant responses has not been investigated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036806/pritumumab-the-first-therapeutic-antibody-for-glioma-patients
#7
Ivan Babic, Elmar Nurmemmedov, Venkata M Yenugonda, Tiffany Juarez, Natsuko Nomura, Sandeep C Pingle, Mark C Glassy, Santosh Kesari
Immunotherapy is now at the forefront of cancer therapeutic development. Gliomas are a particularly aggressive form of brain cancer for which immunotherapy may hold promise. Pritumumab (also known in the literature as CLNH11, CLN-IgG, and ACA-11) was the first monoclonal antibody tested in cancer patients. Pritumumab is a natural human monoclonal antibody developed from a B lymphocyte isolated from a regional draining lymph node of a patient with cervical carcinoma. The antibody binds ecto-domain vimentin on the surface of cancer cells...
September 1, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036804/rheopheresis-as-a-causal-therapy-option-for-systemic-scleroderma-ssc
#8
Stine Lutze, G Daeschlein, W Konschake, Michael Jünger
A complex pathomechanism accounts systemic sclerosis as a form of collagenosis. A triad of vasculopathy, autoinflammation, and dysbalance of the fibroblast function can be seen as cause, as well as symptomatic appearance. Comparative with other collagenoses, e.g. Lupus erythematosus, vasculopathy, instead of autoinflammation, appears to be clinically important in systemic scleroderma. The fact that autoinflammation does not represent the major role in the maintenance of the disease is also evident by the lack of therapeutic effects of classical systemic immunosuppressants...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036687/measuring-deaminated-nucleotide-surveillance-enzyme-itpa-activity-with-an-atp-releasing-nucleotide-chimera
#9
Debin Ji, Elena I Stepchenkova, Jian Cui, Miriam R Menezes, Youri I Pavlov, Eric T Kool
Nucleotide quality surveillance enzymes play important roles in human health, by detecting damaged molecules in the nucleotide pool and deactivating them before they are incorporated into chromosomal DNA or adversely affect metabolism. In particular, deamination of adenine moiety in (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphates, resulting in formation of (d)ITP, can be deleterious, leading to DNA damage, mutagenesis and other harmful cellular effects. The 21.5 kDa human enzyme that mitigates this damage by conversion of (d)ITP to monophosphate, ITPA, has been proposed as a possible therapeutic and diagnostic target for multiple diseases...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036629/nanotechnology-a-promising-new-paradigm-for-the-control-of-pain
#10
Krishnan V Chakravarthy, Frank J Boehm, Paul J Christo
Objective: The objective of this article is to critically review both preclinical and clinical studies that focus on the use of nanotechnology for both acute and chronic pain management, surveying both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The article also provides information on nanotechnology for pain practitioners, so that they may better understand how this technology works and how it may be applied to their day-to-day clinical practice. Study Design: Narrative review...
June 27, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036598/global-dna-methylation-analysis-reveals-mir-214-3p-contributes-to-cisplatin-resistance-in-pediatric-intracranial-nongerminomatous-malignant-germ-cell-tumors
#11
Tsung-Han Hsieh, Yun-Ru Liu, Ting-Yu Chang, Muh-Lii Liang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Hsei-Wei Wang, Yun Yen, Tai-Tong Wong
Background: Pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNSGCTs) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms, and they can be divided into germinomas and nongerminomatous GCTs (NGGCTs). NGGCTs are further subdivided into mature teratomas and nongerminomatous malignant GCTs (NGMGCTs). Clinical outcomes suggest that NGMGCTs have poor prognosis and survival, and that they require more extensive radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms underlying this difference are still unclear...
October 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036590/tissgdb-tissue-specific-gene-database-in-cancer
#12
Pora Kim, Aekyung Park, Guangchun Han, Hua Sun, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao
Tissue-specific gene expression is critical in understanding biological processes, physiological conditions, and disease. The identification and appropriate use of tissue-specific genes (TissGenes) will provide important insights into disease mechanisms and organ-specific therapeutic targets. To better understand the tissue-specific features for each cancer type and to advance the discovery of clinically relevant genes or mutations, we built TissGDB (Tissue specific Gene DataBase in cancer) available at http://zhaobioinfo...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036500/glioma-cpg-island-methylator-phenotype-g-cimp-biological-and-clinical-implications
#13
Tathiane M Malta, Camila F de Souza, Thais S Sabedot, Tiago C Silva, Maritza Q S Mosella, Steven N Kalkanis, James Snyder, Ana Valeria B Castro, Houtan Noushmehr
Gliomas are a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with distinct biological and clinical properties. Despite advances in surgical techniques and clinical regimens, treatment of high-grade glioma remains challenging and carries dismal rates of therapeutic success and overall survival. Challenges include the molecular complexity of gliomas, as well as inconsistencies in histopathological grading, resulting in an inaccurate prediction of disease progression and failure in the use of standard therapy. The updated 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects a refinement of tumor diagnostics by integrating the genotypic and phenotypic features, thereby narrowing the defined subgroups...
September 26, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036026/a-comparison-of-functional-outcomes-and-therapeutic-costs-single-digit-replantation-versus-revision-amputation
#14
Hongyi Zhu, Bingbo Bao, Xianyou Zheng
BACKGROUND: The functional outcomes and therapeutic costs between digit replantation and revision amputation has remained controversial. METHODS: Total 1023 patients with single digit traumatic amputation or devascularization who received successful digit replantation (failure excluded) or revision amputation from 1 January 2013 to 1 January 2016 were included in this study. All cases were subgrouped based on Tamai level of amputation and injured fingers. The Clinical outcomes were assessed by Michigan hand outcomes questionnaire (MHQ) one year after the initial surgery...
October 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035987/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-for-early-stage-lumbar-spondylolysis-in-young-athletes
#15
Masahiro Tsukada, Toshiro Takiuchi, Kota Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on early-stage spondylolysis in young athletes. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A single outpatient orthopedic and sports clinic. PATIENTS: A total of 82 young athletes (80 boys and 2 girls; mean age, 14.8 years; range, 10-18 years) with early-stage lumbar spondylolysis were enrolled in this study. All patients were examined by plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035942/phase-ii-randomized-sham-controlled-study-of-renal-denervation-for-individuals-with-uncontrolled-hypertension-wave-iv
#16
Roland E Schmieder, Christian Ott, Stefan W Toennes, Peter Bramlage, Michael Gertner, Omar Dawood, Peter Baumgart, Benjamin O'Brien, Indranil Dasgupta, Georg Nickenig, John Ormiston, Manish Saxena, Andrew S P Sharp, Horst Sievert, Jindrich Spinar, Zdenek Starek, Joachim Weil, Ulrich Wenzel, Adam Witkowski, Melvin D Lobo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study was to verify the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy of externally delivered focused ultrasound for renal denervation (RDN). BACKGROUND: Nonrandomized, first proof-of-concept study and experimental evidence suggested that noninvasive techniques of RDN emerged as an alternative approach of RDN to invasive technologies. METHODS: WAVE IV, an international, randomized (1 : 1) sham-controlled, double-blind prospective clinical study, was prematurely stopped...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035924/rotational-therapy-in-thoracic-injuries-what-is-the-evidence
#17
Philipp Störmann, Ingo Marzi, Sebastian Wutzler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current use of continuous lateral rotational therapy (CLRT) in patients with thoracic injuries and its impact on clinical course, complications and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient positioning is a key factor in the treatment of severe thoracic injuries and CLRT, and intermittent supine and prone position are basic options. There is a lack of randomized controlled studies for trauma patients with chest injury undergoing kinetic therapy as standard of care...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035708/an-assessment-of-the-utilization-of-the-preclinical-rodent-model-literature-in-clinical-trials-of-putative-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#18
Ashley M Barajaz, Christopher L Kliethermes
OBJECTIVE: Rodent models of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) are used extensively by preclinical researchers to develop new therapeutics for the treatment of AUD. Although these models play an important role in the development of novel, targeted therapeutics, their role in bringing therapeutics to clinical trials is unclear, as off-label use of existing medications not approved for the treatment of AUD is commonly seen in the clinic and clinical trials. METHOD: In the current study, we used the Clinicaltrials...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035698/denosumab-as-a-treatment-alternative-for-central-giant-cell-granuloma-a-long-term-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Marius Bredell, Tamara Rordorf, Sabine Kroiss, Martin Rücker, Daniel Fritz Zweifel, Claudio Rostetter
PURPOSE: Giant cell granuloma (GCG) of the jaw is a rare disease with high morbidity. Various treatment options have been discussed in the past. Since 2010, a pharmaceutical therapy with denosumab seems to have been successful for giant cell tumors of the femur. The authors hypothesized the equally successful use of denosumab for GCGs of the jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present retrospective cohort study, 5 patients with large GCGs of the jaws were treated with denosumab with a follow-up of 25 to 49 months...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035648/treatment-of-mandibular-osteomyelitis-in-two-red-necked-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus-by-means-of-intensive-long-term-parenteral-drug-administration-and-serial-computed-tomographic-monitoring
#20
Lauren P Kane, Jennifer N Langan, Michael J Adkesson, Sathya K Chinnadurai, Benjamin N Nevitt, Randi Drees
CASE DESCRIPTION 2 female red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) were evaluated because of sudden-onset mandibular swelling, ptyalism, and hyporexia. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a mandibular swelling with a fluctuant center in both wallabies. Hematologic analysis revealed leukocytosis with a mature neutrophilia and monocytosis in one wallaby (case 1) and a slight neutrophilia, hyperglobulinemia, and high serum alanine aminotransferase activity in the other (case 2). Cytologic examination of the swelling revealed a uniform population of gram-negative rods in case 1 and neutrophilic inflammation in case 2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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